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Science Matters - a personal TiddlyWiki science notebook
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ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
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ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
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ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
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code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

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#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
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#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
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.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
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.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
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* html #backstage {width:99%;}
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#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
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.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
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/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
***/
/*{{{*/
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
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/*{{{*/
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox 1.5.0.2 where print preview displays the noscript content */
}
/*}}}*/
<!--{{{-->
<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
</div>
<div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
</div>
<div id='displayArea'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
</div>
<!--}}}-->
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<!--}}}-->
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
<!--}}}-->
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<<importTiddlers>>
<<tiddler SliderFrame with: label http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ 600 400 $2>>
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The Sydney Morning Herald
Tech Daily Newsletter

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Virgin exposes customers' details
Security flaw on Virgin Mobile's website exposes customers'personal details including name, address, birth date and phonenumber. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKT0Eu

Latest killer app has us all a-Twitter
Microblogging is the latest online fad - or perhaps a sign ofthings to come. Dan Skeen enters the fray. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKU0Ev

Computer security has 'massively failed'
The computing industry relies on "utterly obsolete concepts andassumptions" and has "massively failed when it comes to desktopsecurity". 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKV0Ew

And the broadband plays on
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKW0Ex

EU seeks police-private sector cybercrime pact
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No super-sized PS3 for Australia
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKY0Ez

Full Tech Coverage - Full Story: /technology/Oregon man sentenced for posing as dying teen to get young girls tosend him porn
A 31-year-old man was sentenced Monday to more than 24 years infederal prison for posing online as a teenage boy dying of leukemiain an effort to coerce young girls into sending him sexuallyexplicit images. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKZ0E1

Oregon man sentenced for posing as dying teen to get young girls tosend him porn
A 31-year-old man was sentenced to more than 24 years in federalprison for posing online as a teenage boy dying of leukemia in aneffort to coerce young girls into sending him sexually explicitimages. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKa0E8

New BlackBerry challenger from T-Mobile runs Windows Mobile 6operating system
T-Mobile USA on Tuesday launched the first mobile phone in the U.S.to come with Microsoft's latest version of Windows Mobile, withimproved handling of e-mail and tougher security. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKb0EA

Wi-Fi better designed for shorter ranges, not citywide deployments
Adam DuVander likes to surf the Internet from his laptop wherever he happens to be _ at home, a coffee shop or a neighborhood park. He has been able to do so in recent years thanks to wireless hotspots set up by networking activists in Portland, Ore. 
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Cities Struggle With Wireless Internet
A $3 million plan to blanket Lompoc, Calif., with a wireless Internet system promised a quantum leap for economic development: The remote community hit hard by cutbacks at nearby Vandenberg Air Force Base would join the 21st century with cheap and plentiful high-speed access. Instead, nearly a year after its launch, Lompoc Net is limping along. The central California city of 42,000, surrounded by rolling hills, wineries and flower fields more than 17 miles from the nearest major highway, has only a few hundred subscribers. 
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MySpace to Share Sex Offender Data
Faced with legal demands from several state attorneys general, MySpace.com said Monday it will immediately begin sharing data on the registered sex offenders it has identified and removed from the popular social networking website. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKe0ED

Google, Salesforce.com Discuss Alliance
Salesforce.com Inc.&#39;s stock price climbed by more than 4 percent Monday in response to a report that the online software pioneer is poised to team up with Internet search leader Google Inc. in a double-barreled attack on Microsoft Corp. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKf0EE

Sometime student who claimed to be doctor, astronaut or spy goes ontrial, accused of rapes
A nursing student told women he met on an online dating site thathe was a doctor, an astronaut or spy in a ruse to lure them out sohe could drug and rape them, a prosecutor said Monday. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKg0EF

Court Rules in Favor of Phone Companies
The nation's largest local phone companies won a Supreme Courtvictory Monday in a lawsuit by consumers alleging anticompetitivebusiness practices. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKh0EG

NYC to Be Testbed for Power Project
New York City is the testing ground for a $39.3 million Departmentof Homeland Security project that will use new superconductorcables designed to prevent blackouts caused by power surges. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKi0EH

Internet pioneer to oversee its redesign under government contract
A government contractor that played a key role in the Internet&#39;s birth will oversee efforts to redesign the network from scratch. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKj0EI

Internet pioneer to oversee its redesign under government contract
A government contractor that played a key role in the Internet'sbirth will oversee efforts to redesign the network from scratch. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBMew0LvxsN0JhK0OhKk0EJ


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A nice thought, but my ex disputes the first and most of my books are 
remainders.

John W

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Nisaba Merrieweather" <nisaba.merrieweather@HOTMAIL.COM>
To: <SCIENCE-MATTERS@ABCNEWSLETTERS.NET.AU>
Sent: Tuesday, June 26, 2007 2:13 PM
Subject: Re: books


> G'dday.
>
>>From: John Winckle <winckle@BROAD.NET.AU>
>>Reply-To: ABC Science Matters <SCIENCE-MATTERS@ABCNEWSLETTERS.NET.AU>
>>To: SCIENCE-MATTERS@ABCNEWSLETTERS.NET.AU
>>Subject: Re: books
>>Date: Mon, 25 Jun 2007 12:36:29 +1000
>>
>>Thanks for that, I get a lot of flack for having a housefull of books and 
>>not using the library.
>
> You're obviously a Good Man who's kind to Defenceless Little Authors.
>
> Nisaba
>
> _________________________________________________________________
> Advertisement: ninemsn Travel - Hot deals, travel ideas & Lonely Planet 
> guides. 
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>
> Science-Matters is an un-moderated email list hosted by the ABC as a
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> -- 
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''In this issue (28 June 2007)''
{{imgfloatcenter{[img[http://img390.imageshack.us/img390/1060/covernaturexg6.jpg]]}}} 
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<<tiddler [[Science Magazines]]>>
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<<<
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>&nbsp;New Scientist>>
[[New Scientist|http://newscientist.com/]]
[[Tech|http://www.newscientisttech.com/]]
[[Space|http://www.newscientistspace.com/]]
[[Health|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health]]
[[Fundamentals|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/fundamentals]]
[[Being Human|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human]]
[[Life|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life]]
[[Opinion|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion]]
[[Sex|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex]]
[[Specials|http://www.newscientist.com/specials.ns]]>>
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[[Regenerative and Reflex Receivers|http://tinyurl.com/2b22ds]]
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Paper-thin battery may revolutionise electronics
Researchers have invented a lightweight paper battery that could bepowering the next generation of consumer electronic devices. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POiy0E6

Police cars get high-tech boost
Fighting crime could soon be as easy as tapping on a touch screenwhen the world's most high-tech police cars roll into cop stationsnationwide. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POiz0E7

Microsoft closes buyout of aQuantive
Microsoft is taking a first step in its quest to leapfrog Yahoo andchallenge Google in the online advertising business. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi10Et

Developing a better world
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi20Eu

IceTV heats up program plans
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi30Ev

OK, smarty pants, chill me a beer then jump in the washing machine
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi40Ew

Full Tech Coverage - Full Story: /technology/Microsoft closes $6 billion buyout of aQuantive, wants to challenge Google for top ad spot
In closing a $6 billion buyout of digital marketing company aQuantive on Monday, Microsoft is taking a first step in its quest to leapfrog Yahoo and challenge Google in the online advertising business. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi50Ex

Microsoft closes $6 billion buyout of aQuantive, wants to challenge Google for top ad spot
In closing a $6 billion (euro4.4 billion) buyout of digital marketing company aQuantive on Monday, Microsoft is taking a first step in its quest to leapfrog Yahoo and challenge Google in the online advertising business. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi60Ey

U.N. Web site hacked with anti-war message
Hackers broke into the official U.N. website and put up an anti-warmessage targeted at the United States and Israel, the UnitedNations said Monday. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi70Ez

Holiday shoppers could deliver knockout blow in high-def DVD fight
People who own an HD DVD player can forget about watching"Spider-Man 3" in high definition when it goes on sale during theholiday season. The movie from Sony Pictures will only be availablein the Blu-ray DVD format. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POi80E1

Hackers post anti-war message on several official U.N. Web sites
Computer hackers posted an anti-war message on the U.N.'s officialwebsite, claiming that U.S. and Israeli policies in the Middle Eastwere taking innocent lives, the United Nations said. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjA0EC

Researchers use high-tech machines to detect mysterious dark matter
In deep underground laboratories around the globe, a high-tech raceis on to spot dark matter, the invisible cosmic glue that'sbelieved to keep galaxies from spinning apart. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjB0ED

More similarities than differences in comparison of high-def DVDformats
The two competing formats for high-definition DVDs are more alikethan they are different. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjC0EE

FCC Tested Defective Prototype Device
Microsoft Corp. on Monday gave a simple reason why its prototype for beaming high-speed Internet service over unused television airways failed a government test: the device was broken. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjD0EF

`Madden&#39; Video Game Frenzy Begins Anew
Say Madden this time of year and most everyone knows the reference is not about the Hall of Fame coach and sportscaster himself. It&#39;s about his video game. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjE0EG

Researchers Seek Mysterious Dark Matter


In deep underground laboratories around the globe, a high-tech race is on to spot dark matter, the invisible cosmic glue that&#39;s believed to keep galaxies from spinning apart. Whoever discovers the nature of dark matter would solve one of modern science&#39;s greatest mysteries and be a shoo-in for the Nobel Prize. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjF0EH

Qualcomm Lawyer Resigns Amid Setbacks
Qualcomm Inc. said Monday its head lawyer resigned after a stringof legal setbacks at the world's second-largest chipmaker formobile phones. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjG0EI

Putting power on paper: researchers create thin battery
US researchers said Monday they have invented a lightweight paper battery that could serve as an enhanced power storage device for the next generation of consumer electronic devices. 
Full Story: http://newsletters.fairfax.com.au/cgi-bin16/DM/y/eBQCu0LvxsN0JhK0POjH0EJ


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[[510 Mathematics]]
[[520 Astronomy]]
[[530 Physics]]
[[540 Chemistry]]
[[550 Earth Sciences]]
[[560 Paleontology]]
[[570 Life Sciences]]
&nbsp;&nbsp;-[[573 Anthropology]]
&nbsp;&nbsp;-[[574 Biology]]
[[580 Botany]]
[[590 Zoology]]
[[Edit Math Links|Math Links]]
----
*<<slider chkMath [[Math Links]] "Click here to open and close Math Links">>
----
[[Trachtenberg_System|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trachtenberg_system]]
[[Abacus Applet|JavaAbacus]]
[[Abacus/Soroban Manual|http://webhome.idirect.com/~totton/soroban/THE%20ABACUS%20HANDBOOK.pdf]]
*@@color:#F00;''NEW!''@@&nbsp;  ''[[History of Words of Mathematics|HistoryOfMathWords]]''
*@@color:#F00;''NEW!''@@&nbsp;  ''[[Biographies of Mathematicians|Mathematicians]]''
*@@color:#F00;''NEW!''@@&nbsp;  ''[[History of Mathematics|MathHistoryTopics]]''
*@@color:#F00;''NEW!''@@&nbsp;  ''[[FamousCurves|FamousCurves]]''
----
!!!![[Mathematics|510 Mathematics]]
{{textjustify twocolumns{
''The deductive study of'' numbers, geometry, and various abstract constructs, or structures; the latter often “abstract” the features common to several models derived from the empirical, or applied, sciences, although  many emerge from purely mathematical or logical considerations. Mathematics is very broadly divided into foundations, algebra, analysis, geometry, and applied mathematics, which includes theoretical computer science.
}}}
!!!Foundations
{{textjustify twocolumns{
''The term foundationsis used to refer to'' the formulation and analysis of the language, axioms, and logical methods on which all of mathematics rests (see logic; symbolic logic). The scope and complexity of modern mathematics requires a very fine analysis of the formal language in which meaningful mathematical statements may be formulated and perhaps be proved true or false. Most apparent mathematical contradictions have been shown to derive from an imprecise and inconsistent use of language. A basic task is to furnish a set of axioms effectively free of contradictions and at the same time rich enough to constitute a deductive source for all of modern mathematics. The modern axiom schemes proposed for this purpose are all couched within the theory of sets, originated by Georg Cantor, which now constitutes a universal mathematical language.
}}}
!!!Algebra
{{twocolumns{
''Historically, algebra is the study of'' solutions of one or several algebraic equations, involving the polynomial functions of one or several variables. The case where all the polynomials have degree one (systems of linear equations) leads to linear algebra.The case of a single equation, in which one studies the roots of one polynomial, leads to field theory and to the so-called Galois theory.

 The general case of several equations of high degree leads to algebraic geometry, so named because the sets of solutions of such systems are often studied by geometric methods. Modern algebraists have increasingly abstracted and axiomatized the structures and patterns of argument encountered not only in the theory of equations, but in mathematics generally. Examples of these structures include groups (first witnessed in relation to symmetry properties of the roots of a polynomial and now ubiquitous throughout mathematics), rings (of which the integers, or whole numbers, constitute a basic example), and fields (of which the rational, real, and complex numbers are examples). Some of the concepts of modern algebra have found their way into elementary mathematics education in the so-called new mathematics.

''Some important abstractions recently introduced in'' algebra are the notions of category and functor, which grew out of so-called homological algebra. Arithmetic and number theory, which are concerned with special properties of the integers—e.g., unique factorization, primes, equations with integer coefficients (Diophantine equations), and congruences—are also a part of algebra. Analytic number theory, however, also applies the nonalgebraic methods of analysis to such problems.
}}}
!!!Analysis
{{textjustify twocolumns{
''The essential ingredient of analysis is'' the use of infinite processes, involving passage to a limit. For example, the area of a circle may be computed as the limiting value of the areas of inscribed regular polygons as the number of sides of the polygons increases indefinitely. The basic branch of analysis is the calculus. The general problem of measuring lengths, areas, volumes, and other quantities as limits by means of approximating polygonal figures leads to the integral calculus. The differential calculus arises similarly from the problem of finding the tangent line to a curve at a point. Other branches of analysis result from the application of the concepts and methods of the calculus to various mathematical entities. For example, vector analysis is the calculus of functions whose variables are vectors. Here various types of derivatives and integrals may be introduced. They lead, among other things, to the theory of differential and integral equations, in which the unknowns are functions rather than numbers, as in algebraic equations. Differential equations are often the most natural way in which to express the laws governing the behavior of various physical systems. Calculus is one of the most powerful and supple tools of mathematics. Its applications, both in pure mathematics and in virtually every scientific domain, are manifold.
}}}
!!!Geometry
{{twocolumns textjustify{
''The shape, size, and other properties of'' figures and the nature of space are in the province of geometry. Euclidean geometry is concerned with the axiomatic study of polygons, conic sections, spheres, polyhedra, and related geometric objects in two and three dimensions—in particular, with the relations of congruence and of similarity between such objects. The unsuccessful attempt to prove the “parallel postulate” from the other axioms of Euclid led in the 19th century to the discovery of two different types of non-Euclidean geometry.
''The 20th century has seen'' an enormous development of topology, which is the study of very general geometric objects, called topological spaces, with respect to relations that are much weaker than congruence and similarity. Other branches of geometry include algebraic geometry and differential geometry, in which the methods of analysis are brought to bear on geometric problems. These fields are now in a vigorous state of development.
}}}

!!!Applied Mathematics
{{textjustify twocolumns{
''The term applied mathematics loosely designates'' a wide range of studies with significant current use in the empirical sciences. It includes numerical methods and computer science, which seeks concrete solutions, sometimes approximate, to explicit mathematical problems (e.g., differential equations, large systems of linear equations). It has a major use in technology for modeling and simulation. For example, the huge wind tunnels, formerly used to test expensive prototypes of airplanes, have all but disappeared. The entire design and testing process is now largely carried out by computer simulation, using mathematically tailored software. It also includes mathematical physics, which now strongly interacts with all of the central areas of mathematics. In addition, probability theory and mathematical statistics are often considered parts of applied mathematics. The distinction between pure and applied mathematics is now becoming less significant.

!!!Development of Mathematics

''The earliest records of mathematics'' show it arising in response to practical needs in agriculture, business, and industry. In Egypt and Mesopotamia, where evidence dates from the 2d and 3d millennia B.C., it was used for surveying and mensuration; estimates of the value of ? (pi) are found in both locations. There is some evidence of similar developments in India and China during this same period, but few records have survived. This early mathematics is generally empirical, arrived at by trial and error as the best available means for obtaining results, with no proofs given. However, it is now known that the Babylonians were aware of the necessity of proofs prior to the Greeks, who had been presumed the originators of this important step.

!!!Greek Contributions

''A profound change occurred in the nature and'' approach to mathematics with the contributions of the Greeks. The earlier (Hellenic) period is represented by Thales (6th century B.C.), Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle, and by the schools associated with them. The Pythagorean theorem, known earlier in Mesopotamia, was discovered by the Greeks during this period.

''During the Golden Age (5th century B.C.)'', Hippocrates of Chios made the beginnings of an axiomatic approach to geometry and Zeno of Elea proposed his famous paradoxes concerning the infinite and the infinitesimal, raising questions about the nature of and relationships among points, lines, and numbers. The discovery through geometry of irrational numbers, such as ?2, also dates from this period. Eudoxus of Cnidus (4th century B.C.) resolved certain of the problems by proposing alternative methods to those involving infinitesimals; he is known for his work on geometric proportions and for his exhaustion theory for determining areas and volumes.

''The later (Hellenistic) period of Greek science'' is associated with the school of Alexandria. The greatest work of Greek mathematics, Euclid's Elements (c.300 B.C.), appeared at the beginning of this period. Elementary geometry as taught in high school is still largely based on Euclid's presentation, which has served as a model for deductive systems in other parts of mathematics and in other sciences. In this method primitive terms, such as point and line, are first defined, then certain axioms and postulates relating to them and seeming to follow directly from them are stated without proof; a number of statements are then derived by deduction from the definitions, axioms, and postulates. Euclid also contributed to the development of arithmetic and presented a geometric theory of quadratic equations.

''In the 3d century B.C., Archimedes,'' in addition to his work in mechanics, made an estimate of ? and used the exhaustion theory of Eudoxus to obtain results that foreshadowed those much later of the integral calculus, and Apollonius of Perga named the conic sections and gave the first theory for them. A second Alexandrian school of the Roman period included contributions by Menelaus (c.A.D. 100, spherical triangles), Heron of Alexandria (geometry), Ptolemy (A.D. 150, astronomy, geometry, cartography), Pappus (3d century, geometry), and Diophantus (3d century, arithmetic).

!!!Chinese and Middle Eastern Advances

''Following the decline of learning in the West after'' the 3d century, the development of mathematics continued in the East. In China, Tsu Ch'ung-Chih estimated ? by inscribed and circumscribed polygons, as Archimedes had done, and in India the numerals now used throughout the civilized world were invented and contributions to geometry were made by Aryabhata and Brahmagupta (5th and 6th century A.D.). The Arabs were responsible for preserving the work of the Greeks, which they translated, commented upon, and augmented. In Baghdad, Al-Khowarizmi (9th century) wrote an important work on algebra and introduced the Hindu numerals for the first time to the West, and Al-Battani worked on trigonometry. In Egypt, Ibn al-Haytham was concerned with the solids of revolution and geometrical optics. The Persian poet Omar Khayyam wrote on algebra.

!!!Western Developments from the Twelfth to Eighteenth Centuries

''Word of the Chinese and Middle Eastern works began'' to reach the West in the 12th and 13th century One of the first important European mathematicians was Leonardo da Pisa ([[Leonardo Fibonacci|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_Fibonacci]]), who wrote on arithmetic and algebra (Liber abaci, 1202) and on geometry (Practica geometriae, 1220). With the Renaissance came a great revival of interest in learning, and the invention of printing made many of the earlier books widely available. By the end of the 16th century advances had been made in algebra by Niccolò Tartaglia and Geronimo Cardano, in trigonometry by François Viète, and in such areas of applied mathematics as mapmaking by Mercator and others.

''The 17th century, however, saw the greatest revolution in'' mathematics, as the scientific revolution spread to all fields. Decimal fractions were invented by Simon Stevin and logarithms by John Napier and Henry Briggs; the beginnings of projective geometry were made by Gérard Desargues and Blaise Pascal; number theory was greatly extended by Pierre de Fermat; and the theory of probability was founded by Pascal, Fermat, and others. In the application of mathematics to mechanics and astronomy, Galileo and Johannes Kepler made fundamental contributions.

''The greatest mathematical advances of'' the 17th century, however, were the invention of analytic geometry by René Descartes and that of the calculus by Isaac Newton and, independently, by G. W. Leibniz. Descartes's invention (anticipated by Fermat, whose work was not published until later) made possible the expression of geometric problems in algebraic form and vice versa. It was indispensable in creating the calculus, which built upon and superseded earlier special methods for finding areas, volumes, and tangents to curves, developed by F. B. Cavalieri, Fermat, and others. The calculus is probably the greatest tool ever invented for the mathematical formulation and solution of physical problems.

''The history of mathematics in the'' 18th century is dominated by the development of the methods of the calculus and their application to such problems, both terrestrial and celestial, with leading roles being played by the Bernoulli family (especially Jakob, Johann, and Daniel), Leonhard Euler, Guillaume de L'Hôpital, and J. L. Lagrange. Important advances in geometry began toward the end of the century with the work of Gaspard Monge in descriptive geometry and in differential geometry and continued through his influence on others, e.g., his pupil J. V. Poncelet, who founded projective geometry (1822).

!!!In the Nineteenth Century

''The modern period of mathematics dates from'' the beginning of the 19th century, and its dominant figure is C. F. Gauss. In the area of geometry Gauss made fundamental contributions to differential geometry, did much to found what was first called analysis situs but is now called topology, and anticipated (although he did not publish his results) the great breakthrough of non-Euclidean geometry. This breakthrough was made by N. I. Lobachevsky (1826) and independently by János Bolyai (1832), the son of a close friend of Gauss, whom each proceeded by establishing the independence of Euclid's fifth (parallel) postulate and showing that a different, self-consistent geometry could be derived by substituting another postulate in its place. Still another non-Euclidean geometry was invented by Bernhard Riemann (1854), whose work also laid the foundations for the modern tensor calculus description of space, so important in the general theory of relativity.

''In the area of arithmetic, number theory, and algebra'', Gauss again led the way. He established the modern theory of numbers, gave the first clear exposition of complex numbers, and investigated the functions of complex variables. The concept of number was further extended by W. R. Hamilton, whose theory of quaternions (1843) provided the first example of a noncommutative algebra (i.e., one in which ab ? ba). This work was generalized the following year by H. G. Grassmann, who showed that several different consistent algebras may be derived by choosing different sets of axioms governing the operations on the elements of the algebra.

''These developments continued with the group theory of'' M. S. Lie in the late 19th century and reached full expression in the wide scope of modern abstract algebra. Number theory received significant contributions in the latter half of the 19th century through the work of Georg Cantor, J. W. R. Dedekind, and K. W. Weierstrass. Still another influence of Gauss was his insistence on rigorous proof in all areas of mathematics. In analysis this close examination of the foundations of the calculus resulted in A. L. Cauchy's theory of limits (1821), which in turn yielded new and clearer definitions of continuity, the derivative, and the definite integral. A further important step toward rigor was taken by Weierstrass, who raised new questions about these concepts and showed that ultimately the foundations of analysis rest on the properties of the real number system.

!!!In the Twentieth Century

''In the 20th century the trend has been toward'' increasing generalization and abstraction, with the elements and operations of systems being defined so broadly that their interpretations connect such areas as algebra, geometry, and topology. The key to this approach has been the use of formal axiomatics, in which the notion of axioms as “self-evident truths” has been discarded. Instead the emphasis is on such logical concepts as consistency and completeness. The roots of formal axiomatics lie in the discoveries of alternative systems of geometry and algebra in the 19th century; the approach was first systematically undertaken by David Hilbert in his work on the foundations of geometry (1899).

''The emphasis on deductive logic inherent in this view ''of mathematics and the discovery of the interconnections between the various branches of mathematics and their ultimate basis in number theory led to intense activity in the field of mathematical logic after the turn of the century. Rival schools of thought grew up under the leadership of Hilbert, Bertrand Russell and A. N. Whitehead, and L. E. J. Brouwer. Important contributions in the investigation of the logical foundations of mathematics were made by Kurt Gödel and A. Church.
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''The study of the universe'' and the objects in it through scientific investigation. Since much of contemporary astronomy uses the laws and methods of physics, the terms “astronomy” and “astrophysics” are usually used interchangeably. However, modern astronomy also uses techniques from many other scientific disciplines, including chemistry, geology, and biology, for which the terms astrochemistry, planetary science, and astrobiology are increasingly used.

''The use of geological knowledge'' and methods in analyzing close-up observations from spacecraft of planets and their satellites and of comets and{{imgfloatright{{{textcenter{
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}}} asteroids closely links the disciplines of astronomy and planetary science. Indeed, the discovery of planets around distant stars holds for even closer relations in the future. Methods of studying molecules in interstellar clouds involve chemical knowledge. Planetary science and astrochemistry come together with astronomy in the search for life outside the solar system, part of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States space agency, has placed a priority on astrobiology, including the investigation of Mars and the bringing of samples back to Earth from Mars. See also Asteroid; Comet; Cosmochemistry; Extraterrestrial intelligence; Interstellar matter; Planet; Planetary physics; Solar system.

''Astronomers often lead in employing new technologies'', pushing them to the limit in exploring extremely faint signals in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Nearly all astronomical research is now heavily dependent on computers. Astronomical imagery is now dominated by light-sensitive silicon chips known as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), which are approximately 100 times more sensitive than film. Fiber optics are used for a variety of astronomical purposes, including the taking of hundreds of galaxy images simultaneously from the field of view of a telescope and bringing the light to a spectrograph that can produce simultaneous spectra of all the objects. The technology of active optics, in which the shape of a mirror is changed slightly at a high rate (often faster than 1 Hz) to compensate for the blurring of astronomical images caused by the Earth's atmosphere, is being increasingly pursued to eliminate the twinkling of stars. See also Adaptive optics; Fiber-optics imaging.

''The opening of the 5-m (200-in.) Hale telescope'' at the Palomar Observatory on Palomar Mountain, California, in 1948 marked the beginning of a great period of development in optical astronomy.{{imgfloatright{{{textcenter{
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''The 1990s saw the thorough use of the vantage points'' of space for astronomical observation, exemplified by NASA's series of Great Observatories. In 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory was launched, and in the following years mapped about one gamma-ray burst per day in addition to many other objects and events. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 to study the ultraviolet and visible parts of the spectrum. Its repair in 1993, with secondary mirrors compensating for a focusing problem with the main mirror, brought it to full working order, and a 1996 upgrade included an improved two-dimensional spectrograph and infrared capability. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, launched in 1999, provides high-resolution x-ray images, and is the same size and scope as Hubble. It studies various types of celestial objects and processes, such as black holes of stellar and galactic sizes. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the fourth of this series of Great Observatories, was launched in 2004 and renamed the Spitzer Space Telescope. Smaller spacecraft have also made valuable contributions. See also Black hole; Infrared astronomy; X-ray astronomy; X-ray telescope.

''The atmosphere blocks most of the electromagnetic spectrum'' from reaching the Earth's surface, leaving windows of transparency mostly in the optical and radio parts of the spectrum. {{imgfloatright{{{textcenter{
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''Arecibo dish-Puerto Rico''}}}}}} Radio astronomers have made the most of their window of transparency with such telescopes as the 100-m (328-ft) fully steerable telescope outside Bonn, Germany; ''the 330-m (1083-ft) Arecibo dish in Puerto Rico'', which has some limited tracking ability, the Very Large Array of radio telescopes in New Mexico, and the Very Long Baseline Array. The ozone layer and other constituents of the atmosphere block the shortest wavelengths from penetrating to the Earth's surface, so observations of gamma rays, x-rays, and most of the ultraviolet region require telescopes in space. See also Ozone; Radio astronomy; Radio telescope.

''Much of astronomy involves breaking down'' the incoming celestial radiation into its component wavelengths, a process known as spectroscopy. Spectroscopic studies can reveal the temperature of an object, the identity and proportions of its chemical elements, and the velocities of its constituents toward and away from the Earth. Light from the Sun and other objects is sometimes polarized, and studies of such polarization can tell about the magnetic fields present or about scattering processes. See also Astronomical spectroscopy; Polarimetry.

''The expansive definition of a telescope includes'' anything used in astronomy to observe the sky. Several neutrino telescopes have been used to detect neutrinos from the Sun and, in one instance, from a supernova. The pace of observation of secondary cosmic rays as well as the few primary cosmic rays that reach the Earth is increasing. A pair of interferometers are being built on Earth to attempt direct detection of such gravitational waves, which should result from such distant events as the merger of two neutron stars. See also Cosmic rays; Neutrino; Solar neutrinos.

''Theoretical calculations of the nature of'' astronomical objects or processes are known as theoretical astrophysics. The availability of supercomputers, powerful and fast computers capable of handling large amounts of data, has led to three-dimensional simulations of, for example, the formation of large-scale structure in the early universe. Models of the oscillations detectable on the Sun's surface through long-time-series observations are used to improve understanding of the solar interior, a process known as helioseismology. See also Helioseismology; Simulation; Supercomputer; Universe.

''Laboratory astrophysics involves'' the measurement of basic parameters that are used in calculations of physical or chemical processes relevant to astronomy, such as cross sections of atomic and molecular collisional excitation and ionization. See also Molecular structure and spectra.
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''Wilson Hall at Fermilab''}}}''Formerly called natural philosophy'', physics is concerned with those aspects of nature which can be understood in a fundamental way in terms of elementary principles and laws.  In the course of time, various specialized sciences broke away from physics to form autonomous fields of investigation. In this process physics retained its original aim of understanding the structure of the natural world and explaining natural phenomena.

The most basic parts of physics are mechanics and field theory. Mechanics is concerned with the motion of particles or bodies under the action of given forces. The physics of fields is concerned with the origin, nature, and properties of gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear, and other force fields. Taken together, mechanics and field theory constitute the most fundamental approach to an understanding of natural phenomena which science offers. The ultimate aim is to understand all natural phenomena in these terms. See also Classical field theory; Mechanics; Quantum field theory.

The older, or classical, divisions of physics were based on certain general classes of natural phenomena to which the methods of physics had been found particularly applicable. The divisions are all still current, but many of them tend more and more to designate branches of applied physics or technology, and less and less inherent divisions in physics itself. The divisions or branches, of modern physics are made in accordance with particular types of structures in nature with which each branch is concerned.

In every area physics is characterized not so much by its subject-matter content as by the precision and depth of understanding which it seeks. The aim of physics is the construction of a unified theoretical scheme in mathematical terms whose structure and behavior duplicates that of the whole natural world in the most comprehensive manner possible. Where other sciences are content to describe and relate phenomena in terms of restricted concepts peculiar to their own disciplines, physics always seeks to understand the same phenomena as a special manifestation of the underlying uniform structure of nature as a whole. In line with this objective, physics is characterized by accurate instrumentation, precision of measurement, and the expression of its results in mathematical terms.

For the major areas of physics and for additional listings of articles in physics ''See also:'' @@color:#00f;Acoustics; Atomic physics; Biophysics; Classical mechanics; Electricity; Electromagnetism; Elementary particle; Fluid mechanics; Heat; Low-temperature physics; Molecular physics; Nuclear physics; Optics; Solid-state physics; Statistical mechanics.@@
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''The branch of science concerned with the properties'', composition, and structure of substances and the changes they undergo when they combine or react under specified conditions.

!!!''Branches of Chemistry''

''Chemistry can be divided into'' branches according to either the substances studied or the types of study conducted. The primary division of the first type is between inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. Divisions of the second type are physical chemistry and analytical chemistry.
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''The original distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry'' arose as chemists gradually realized that compounds of biological origin were quite different in their general properties from those of mineral origin; organic chemistry was defined as the study of substances produced by living organisms. However, when it was discovered in the 19th cent. that organic molecules can be produced artificially in the laboratory, this definition had to be abandoned. Organic chemistry is most simply defined as the study of the compounds of carbon. Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemical elements and their compounds (with the exception of carbon compounds).

''Physical chemistry is concerned with'' the physical properties of materials, such as their electrical and magnetic behavior and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Subcategories within physical chemistry are thermochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical kinetics. Thermochemistry is the investigation of the changes in energy and entropy that occur during chemical reactions and phase transformations (see states of matter). Electrochemistry concerns the effects of electricity on chemical changes and interconversions of electric and chemical energy such as that in a voltaic cell. Chemical kinetics is concerned with the details of chemical reactions and of how equilibrium is reached between the products and reactants.

''Analytical chemistry is'' a collection of techniques that allows exact laboratory determination of the composition of a given sample of material. In qualitative analysis all the atoms and molecules present are identified, with particular attention to trace elements. In quantitative analysis the exact weight of each constituent is obtained as well. Stoichiometry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the weights of the chemicals participating in chemical reactions. See also chemical analysis.

!!!History of Chemistry

''The earliest practical knowledge of ''chemistry was concerned with metallurgy, pottery, and dyes; these crafts were developed with considerable skill, but with no understanding of the principles involved, as early as 3500 B.C. in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The basic ideas of element and compound were first formulated by the Greek philosophers during the period from 500 to 300 B.C. Opinion varied, but it was generally believed that four elements (fire, air, water, and earth) combined to form all things. Aristotle's definition of a simple body as “one into which other bodies can be decomposed and which itself is not capable of being divided” is close to the modern definition of element.

''About the beginning of the Christian era'' in Alexandria, the ancient Egyptian industrial arts and Greek philosophical speculations were fused into a new science. The beginnings of chemistry, or alchemy, as it was first known, are mingled with occultism and magic. Interests of the period were the transmutation of base metals into gold, the imitation of precious gems, and the search for the elixir of life, thought to grant immortality. Muslim conquests in the 7th cent. A.D. diffused the remains of Hellenistic civilization to the Arab world. The first chemical treatises to become well known in Europe were Latin translations of Arabic works, made in Spain c.A.D. 1100; hence it is often erroneously supposed that chemistry originated among the Arabs. Alchemy developed extensively during the Middle Ages, cultivated largely by itinerant scholars who wandered over Europe looking for patrons.

!!!Evolution of Modern Chemistry

''In the hands of'' the “Oxford Chemists” (Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, and John Mayow) chemistry began to emerge as distinct from the pseudoscience of alchemy. Boyle (1627–91) is often called the founder of modern chemistry (an honor sometimes also given Antoine Lavoisier, 1743–94). He performed experiments under reduced pressure, using an air pump, and discovered that volume and pressure are inversely related in gases (see gas laws). Hooke gave the first rational explanation of combustion—as combination with air—while Mayow studied animal respiration. Even as the English chemists were moving toward the correct theory of combustion, two Germans, J. J. Becher and G. E. Stahl, introduced the false phlogiston theory of combustion, which held that the substance phlogiston is contained in all combustible bodies and escapes when the bodies burn.

''The discovery of various gases and'' the analysis of air as a mixture of gases occurred during the phlogiston period. Carbon dioxide, first described by J. B. van Helmont and rediscovered by Joseph Black in 1754, was originally called fixed air. Hydrogen, discovered by Boyle and carefully studied by Henry Cavendish, was called inflammable air and was sometimes identified with phlogiston itself. Cavendish also showed that the explosion of hydrogen and oxygen produces water. C. W. Scheele found that air is composed of two fluids, only one of which supports combustion. He was the first to obtain pure oxygen (1771–73), although he did not recognize it as an element. Joseph Priestley independently discovered oxygen by heating the red oxide of mercury with a burning glass; he was the last great defender of the phlogiston theory.

''The work of Priestley, Black, and Cavendish was radically'' reinterpreted by Lavoisier, who did for chemistry what Newton had done for physics a century before. He made no important new discoveries of his own; rather, he was a theoretician. He recognized the true nature of combustion, introduced a new chemical nomenclature, and wrote the first modern chemistry textbook. He erroneously believed that all acids contain oxygen.

!!!Impact of the Atomic Theory

''The assumption that compounds were'' of definite composition was implicit in 18th-century chemistry. J. L. Proust formally stated the law of constant proportions in 1797. C. L. Berthollet opposed this law, holding that composition depended on the method of preparation. The issue was resolved in favor of Proust by John Dalton's atomic theory (1808). The atomic theory goes back to the Greeks, but it did not prove fruitful in chemistry until Dalton ascribed relative weights to the atoms of chemical elements. Electrochemical theories of chemical combinations were developed by Humphry Davy and J. J. Berzelius. Davy discovered the alkali metals by passing an electric current through their molten oxides. Michael Faraday discovered that a definite quantity of charge must flow in order to deposit a given weight of material in solution. Amedeo Avogadro introduced the hypothesis that equal volumes of gases at the same pressure and temperature contain the same number of molecules.

''William Prout suggested that as'' all elements seemed to have atomic weights that were multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen, they could all be in some way different combinations of hydrogen atoms. This contributed to the concept of the periodic table of the elements, the culmination of a long effort to find regular, systematic properties among the elements. Periodic laws were put forward almost simultaneously and independently by J. L. Meyer in Germany and D. I. Mendeleev in Russia (1869). An early triumph of the new theory was the discovery of new elements that fit the empty spaces in the table. William Ramsay's discovery, in collaboration with Lord Rayleigh, of argon and other inert gases in the atmosphere extended the periodic table

!!!Organic Chemistry and the Modern Era

''Organic chemistry developed extensively'' in the 19th cent., prompted in part by Friedrich Wohler's synthesis of urea (1828), which disproved the belief that only living organisms could produce organic molecules. Other important organic chemists include Justus von Liebig, C. A. Wurtz, and J. B. Dumas. In 1852 Edward Frankland introduced the idea of valency (see valence), and in 1858 F. A. Kekule showed that carbon atoms are tetravalent and are linked together in chains. Kekule's ring structure for benzene opened the way to modern theories of organic chemistry. Henri Louis Le Châtelier, J. H. van't Hoff, and Wilhelm Ostwald pioneered the application of thermodynamics to chemistry. Further contributions were the phase rule of J. W. Gibbs, the ionization equilibrium theory of S. A. Arrhenius, and the heat theorem of Walther Nernst. Ernst Fischer's work on the amino acids marks the beginning of molecular biology.

''At the end of the 19th century'' the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson and of radioactivity by A. E. Becquerel revealed the close connection between chemistry and physics. The work of Ernest Rutherford, H. G. J. Moseley, and Niels Bohr on atomic structure (see atom) was applied to molecular structures. G. N. Lewis, Irving Langmuir, and Linus Pauling developed the electronic theory of chemical bonds, directed valency, and molecular orbitals (see molecular orbital theory). Transmutation of the elements, first achieved by Rutherford, has led to the creation of elements not found in nature; in work pioneered by Glenn Seaborg elements heavier than uranium have been produced. With the rapid development of polymer chemistry after World War II a host of new synthetic fibers and materials have been added to the market. A fuller understanding of the relation between the structure of molecules and their properties has allowed chemists to tailor predictively new materials to meet specific needs.
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[[Climate Change Data|http://woodfortrees.org/]]
[[Coal|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal_seam]]
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}}}''Sciences that involve attempts to understand'' the nature, origin, evolution, and behavior of the Earth or of its parts and to comprehend its place in the universe, especially in the solar system. Understanding has advanced primarily through improved appreciation of the complex, usually cyclical interactions that take place among distinct parts of the Earth such as the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Geophysics is the study of the physics of the Earth, emphasizing its physical structure and dynamics. Geochemistry is the study of the chemistry of the Earth, dealing with its composition and chemical change. Geology is the study of the solid Earth and of the processes that have formed and modified it throughout its 4.5-billion-year history. See also Geochemistry; Geodesy; Geology; Geophysics; Solar system.

''Many branches of geology are considered'' separate sciences. Mineralogy is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of minerals. Petrology involves understanding how rocks originate and evolve, as well as rock description and classification. Specialties related to petrology include sedimentology and volcanology. Stratigraphy is the study of the origin, age, and development of layered, generally sedimentary rocks. Paleontology is the study of ancient (fossil) life. Historical geology is the study of the evolution of the Earth and its life. Geomorphology is the study of landscapes and their evolution. Seismology is the study of earthquakes and their effects. Structural geology is the study of deformed rocks. Engineering geology relates to the support of human constructions by underlying rock. See also Engineering geology; Geology; Geomorphology; Hydrology; Mineralogy; Paleontology; Petrography; Petrology; Seismology; Stratigraphy; Structural geology; Volcanology.

''Oceanography is the study of'' the oceans; limnology, the study of lakes; hydrology, the study of underground and surface water; and glaciology, the study of glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets. These disciplines address the study of water in and on the Earth. The gaseous outer parts of the planet are the province of the atmospheric sciences, including meteorology, which is concerned with the weather and weather forecasting; climatology, which deals with longer-term and regional variations; and aeronomy which, because it deals with the outermost ionized region of the atmosphere, is much concerned with solar terrestrial interactions, including the aurora borealis and aurora australis. The biosphere embodies all life on Earth, and its study includes molecular biology, zoology, botany, and ecology. Geography, the study of all that happens at the Earth's surface, has been distinct insofar as it has encompassed not only physical and biological sciences but also the social sciences, including aspects of political science and economics. This distinction is fading rapidly as other earth sciences become more involved with social considerations.
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''The study of animal history as recorded'' by fossil remains. The fossil record includes a very diverse class of objects ranging from molds of microscopic bacteria in rocks more than 3 × 109 years old to unaltered bones of fossil humans in ice-age gravel beds formed only a few thousand years ago. {{textjustify{
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Quality of preservation ranges from the occasional occurrence of soft parts (skin and feathers, for example) to barely decipherable impressions made by shells in soft mud that later hardened to rock. See also Fossil; Micropaleontology.

''The most common fossils are'' hard parts of various animal groups. Thus the fossil record is not an accurate account of the complete spectrum of ancient life but is biased in overrepresenting those forms with shells or skeletons. Fossilized worms are extremely rare, but it is not valid to make the supposition that worms were any less common in the geologic past than they are now. See also Ediacaran biota.

''The data of paleontology consist'' not only of the parts of organisms but also of records of their activities: tracks, trails, and burrows. Even chemical compounds formed only by organisms can, if extracted from ancient rocks, be considered as part of the fossil record. Artifacts made by people, however, are not termed fossils, for these constitute the data of the related science of archeology, the study of human civilizations. See also Archeology; Paleobiochemistry.

''Paleontology lies on the boundary between'' two disciplines, biology and geology. See also Biology; Geology.
----

!!!Geological aspects

''A major task of any historical science'', such as geology, is to arrange events in a time sequence and to describe them as fully as possible.

''Fossils only tell'' that a rock is older or younger than another; they do not give absolute age. The decay of radioactive minerals may provide an age in years, but this method is expensive and time-consuming, and cannot always be applied since most rocks lack suitable radioactive minerals. Correlation by fossils remains the standard method for comparing ages of events in different areas. See also Index fossil; Stratigraphy.

''The physical appearance and'' climate of the Earth during a given period of the geologic past can be described from compilation and analysis of the data which is obtained through studies of the habitats of extant fauna, the geographic distribution of fossils, and the climatic preferences of ancient forms of life. See also Paleoclimatology; Paleoecology; Paleogeography.

!!!Biological aspects

''The most fundamental fact of'' paleontology is that organisms have changed throughout earth history and that each geological period has had its characteristic forms of life. An evolutionist has two major interests: first, to know how the process of evolution works; this is accomplished by studying the genetics and population structure of modern organisms; second, to reconstruct the events produced by this process, that is, to trace the history of life. Any modern animal group is merely a stage, frozen at one moment in time, of a dynamic, evolving lineage. Fossils give the only direct evidence of previous stages in these lineages. Horses and rhinoceroses, for example, are very different animals today, but the fossil history of both groups is traced to a single ancestral species that lived early in the Cenozoic Era. From such evidence, a tree of life can be constructed whereby the relationships among organisms can be understood. See also Animal evolution.
}}}
Source: http://www.answers.com/

+++^25em^[précis]<<tiddler LifeSciencesPrécis>>===
<<tabs tabsClass [[Anthropology]] "" [[573 Anthropology]] [[Biology]] "" [[574 Biology]]>>
[[Edit Anthropology Links|Anthropology Links]]
----
<<slider chkAnthropology [[Anthropology Links]] "Click here to open and close Anthropology Links">>
----
!!!![[Anthropology|573 Anthropology]]
{{textjustify{
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[img[http://img442.imageshack.us/img442/9661/maningarden300pxez5.jpg]]  
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}}}''The observation, measurement, and explanation of'' human variability in time and space. This includes both biological variability and the study of cultural, or learned, behavior among contemporary human societies. These studies are closely allied with the fields of archeology and linguistics. Studies range from rigorously scientific approaches, such as research into the physiology, demography, and ecology of hunter-gatherers, to more humanistic research on topics such as symbolism and ritual behavior. See also Archeology; Physical anthropology.

''Anthropology lacks a unified theory'' comparable to neo-Darwinian evolution in the biological sciences and is characterized, instead, by a wide variety of subfields that analyze and integrate studies of human behavior in different ways. Social-cultural anthropology examines the various ways in which learned techniques, values, and beliefs are transmitted from one generation to the next and acted upon in different situations. Most studies stress the historical development and internal structure and workings of particular cultural traditions, and anthropologists have amassed detailed bodies of documentation on different human societies. Significant, too, within social-cultural anthropology are cross-cultural studies that seek to identify essential structural or behavioral properties of human society. Modern scholars have sought to identify universal patterns of symbolic behavior and belief, and there are other social-cultural anthropologists actively testing these kinds of propositions in particular cases.
{{textjustify{
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''Increasingly, social-cultural anthropologists have applied'' their training and skills to issues of contemporary importance such as economic development in third world countries, public policies affecting ethnic minorities, and changes arising from contact between different societies (especially Western and non-Western ones). Sometimes referred to as applied anthropology, such studies are often made in situations where conflicting social values or expectations may arise.

''Cultural linguistics is closely allied with'' both the goals and methods of social-cultural anthropology, especially with respect to the way in which linguists strive for a reliable understanding of how each different language works according to its own sound system (phonology) and grammatical structure. See also Psycholinguistics.

''There has been a developing tendency in anthropology toward'' integration of different subfields. For example, ethnoscience is a subject in which anthropologists apply approaches derived from linguistics to understand the grammatical structure and manipulation of cognitive perceptions by people in different societies of such things as color, weather, and biotic environment. Another growing subfield is ethnoarcheology, in which observations of material behavior (especially discard) in contemporary societies are used to interpret the archeological remains of prehistoric cultures. Modern anthropology is characterized by its breadth and diversity of approaches to the study of variability in human behavior.

Source: http://www.answers.com/



[[Edit Biology Links|Biology Links]]
----
*<<slider chkBiology [[Biology Links]] "Click here to open and close Biology Links">>
----
!!!![[Biology|574 Biology]]
{{textjustify{
{{imgfloatright{
[img[http://img122.imageshack.us/img122/9849/envscihk7.gif]]  
}}}''A natural science concerned with the'' study of all living organisms. Although living organisms share some unifying themes, such as their origin from the same basic cellular structure and their molecular basis of inheritance, they are diverse in many other aspects. The diversity of life leads to many divisions in biological science involved with studying all aspects of living organisms. The primary divisions of study in biology consist of zoology (animals), botany (plants), and protistology (one-celled organisms), and are aimed at examining such topics as origins, structure, function, reproduction, growth and development, behavior, and evolution of the different organisms. In addition, biologists consider how living organisms interact with each other and the environment on an individual as well as group basis. Therefore, within these divisions are many subdivisions such as molecular and cellular biology, microbiology (the study of microbes such as bacteria and viruses), taxonomy (the classification of organisms into special groups), physiology (the study of function of the organism at any level), immunology (the investigation of the immune system), genetics (the study of inheritance), and ecology and evolution (the study of the interaction of an organism with its environment and how that interaction changes over time).

''The study of living organisms is'' an ongoing process that allows observation of the natural world and the acquisition of new knowledge. Biologists accomplish their studies through a process of inquiry known as the scientific method, which approaches a problem or question in a well-defined orderly sequence of steps so as to reach conclusions. The first step involves making systematic observations, either directly through the sense of sight, smell, taste, sound, or touch, or indirectly through the use of special equipment such as the microscope. Next, questions are asked regarding the observations. Then a hypothesis—a tentative explanation or educated guess—is formulated, and predictions about what will occur are made. At the core of any scientific study is testing of the hypothesis. Tests or experiments are designed so as to help substantiate or refute the basic assumptions set forth in the hypothesis. Therefore, experiments are repeated many times. Once they have been completed, data are collected and organized in the form of graphs or tables and the results are analyzed. Also, statistical tests may be performed to help determine whether the data are significant enough to support or disprove the hypothesis. Finally, conclusions are drawn that provide explanations or insights about the original problem. By employing the scientific method, biologists aim to be objective rather than subjective when interpreting the results of their experiments. Biology is not absolute: it is a science that deals with theories or relative truths. Thus, biological conclusions are always subject to change when new evidence is presented. As living organisms continue to evolve and change, the science of biology also will evolve. See also Animal; Botany; Cell biology; Ecology; Genetics; Immunology; Microbiology; Plant; Zoology.
}}}
Source: http://www.answers.com/

[[Edit Botany Links|Botany Links]]
----
*<<slider chkBotany [[Botany Links]] "Click here to open and close Botany Links">>
----
!!!![[Botany|580 Botany]]
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{{imgfloatright{{{textcenter{
[img[http://img45.imageshack.us/img45/3553/stripecg9.jpg]]  
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}}}''That branch of biological science which'' embraces the study of plants and plant life. Botanical studies may range from microscopic observations of the smallest and obscurest plants to the study of the trees of the forest. One botanist may be interested mainly in the relationships among plants and in their geographic distribution, whereas another may be primarily concerned with structure or with the study of the life processes taking place in plants.

''Botany may be divided by subject matter into'' several specialties, such as plant anatomy, plant chemistry, plant cytology, plant ecology (including autecology and synecology), plant embryology, plant genetics, plant morphology, plant physiology, plant taxonomy, ethnobotany, and paleobotany. It may also be divided according to the group of plants being studied; for example, agostology, the study of grasses; algology (phycology), the study of algae; bryology, the study of mosses; mycology, the study of fungi; and pteridology, the study of ferns. Bacteriology and virology are also parts of botany in a broad sense. Furthermore, a number of agricultural subjects have botany as their foundation. Among these are agronomy, floriculture, forestry, horticulture, landscape architecture, and plant breeding. See also Agriculture; Agronomy; Bacteriology; Cell biology; Ecology; Floriculture; Genetics; Landscape architecture; Paleobotany; Plant anatomy; Plant growth; Plant morphogenesis; Plant pathology; Plant physiology; Plant taxonomy.
}}}
Source: http://www.answers.com/


[[Edit Zoology Links|Zoology Links]]
----
*<<slider chkZoology [[Zoology Links]] "Click here to open and close Zoology Links">>
----
!!!![[Zoology|590 Zoology]]
{{textjustify{
{{imgfloatleft{{{textcenter{
[img[http://img443.imageshack.us/img443/5043/zoologygo4.gif]]  
}}}
}}}''The science that deals with knowledge of'' animal life. With the great growth of information about animals, zoology has been much subdivided. 


Some major fields are anatomy, which deals with gross and microscopic structure; physiology, with living processes in animals; embryology, with development of new individuals; genetics, with heredity and variation; parasitology, with animals living in or on others; natural history, with life and behavior in nature; ecology, with the relation of animals to their environments; evolution, with the origin and differentiation of animal life; and taxonomy, with the classification of animals. 


See also Anatomy, regional; Developmental biology; Genetics; Parasitology; Phylogeny; Plant evolution.
}}}
Source: http://www.answers.com/






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<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>&nbsp;[[ABC 92.9FM|ABC 92.9FM]]>>
{{borderless{
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<part 92.9FM hidden>
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[img[www.abc.net.au_FM.jpg]]
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@@color:#c06;''&bull;''&nbsp; @@ [[RealPlayer|http://www.abc.net.au/streaming/classic/classicfm.ram]]
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@@color:#c06;''&bull;''@@&nbsp; @@color:#00f;Streaming ABC Classic 92.9FM@@[img[http://img218.imageshack.us/img218/7518/speakersmqz8.gif]]
<html><embed type="video/x-ms-asf" id="player_FF" name="player_FF" displaysize="4" autosize="0"
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!!!!!<<gradient horiz #ccc; #fff>>&nbsp;[[ABC-TV|ABC-TV]]&nbsp;[img[http://img264.imageshack.us/img264/2087/radiotvzt7.gif]]&nbsp;^^<<tiddler CloseThisOpen with: TVSchedules  '« back'>>|<<toolbar editTiddler>>» ^^>>
{{borderless{
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<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.abc.net.au/tv/guide/" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;></iframe></div></html>}}}
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/%
|Name|MiniBrowser|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#MiniBrowser|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin, MiniBrowserList|
|Overrides||
|Description|use an 'inline frame' to display another site inside a tiddler with navigation buttons and a dropdown list of favorite URLs.|

Usage:
<<tiddler MiniBrowser with: id>>

where:
	id - (optional) specifies an ID to assign to the DOM element for the embedded IFRAME.  If you want to have **more than one** MiniBrowser displayed at a time, you MUST provide an ID, so that each MiniBrowser can be uniquely identified within the DOM structure.

Note: MiniBrowserList can be *empty*, but must already exist for you to ADD a favorite to the list.  If you don't copy the sample list from TiddlyTools, be sure to create this tiddler in your own document if you intend to use the MiniBrowser's "favorites" droplist.

%/<html><form target="browser_$1" style="margin:0;padding:0;"
	onsubmit="this.action=this.url.value; this.form.done.disabled=false" style="margin:0;padding:0"><nobr><!--
--><input type="button" value="<" title="back" style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
	onclick="try{window.frames['browser_$1'].history.go(-1)}catch(e){window.history.go(-1)}" ><!--
--><input type="button" value=">" title="forward" style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
	onclick="try{window.frames['browser_$1'].history.go(+1)}catch(e){window.history.go(+1)}"><!--
--><input type="button" value="+" title="refresh"style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
	onclick="window.frames['browser_$1'].location.reload()"><!--
--><input type="button" value="x" title="stop"style="font-size:8pt;width:3%"
	onclick="window.stop()"><!--
--><select name="bookmarks" id="browser_bookmarks_$1" size="1" style="font-size:8pt;width:21%"
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<option value="">ABC Browser.. choose</option>
</select><!--
--><input type="button" value="add" title="add this URL to the MiniBrowser bookmarks" style="font-size:8pt;width:5%"
	onclick="window.miniBrowserAddBookmark(this.form.url);"><!--
--><input type="button" value="del" title="remove this URL from the MiniBrowser bookmarks" style="font-size:8pt;width:5%"
	onclick="window.miniBrowserDeleteBookmark(this.form.bookmarks);"><!--
--><input type="button" value="edit" title="edit the MiniBrowser bookmarks list definition" style="font-size:8pt;width:5%"
	onclick="story.displayTiddler(null,'MiniBrowserList',2)"><!--
--><input type="text" name="url" size="60" value="" style="font-size:8pt;width:35%"
	onfocus="this.select();" onkeyup="var k=event.keyCode; if (k==13|k==10) this.form.go.click();"><!--
--><input type="button" name="go" value="go" title="view this URL" style="font-size:8pt;width:4%"
	onclick="if(!this.form.url.value.length) return; window.miniBrowserSetSize(this.form); this.form.action=this.form.url.value; this.form.submit(); this.form.done.disabled=false"><!--
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--><input type="button" value="done" name="done" title="stop viewing this URL" disabled style="font-size:8pt;width:6%"
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<iframe name="browser_$1" id="browser_$1" style="width:100%;height:1em;display:none;background:#fff;border:1px solid"></iframe><div id="browser_resize_$1" style="text-align:center;marginTop:2px;display:none;font-size:8pt"><!--
--> size: <input type="text" name="w" size="3" value="100%" style="font-size:8pt;"
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--> <input type="button" value="set" style="font-size:8pt;"
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--><input type="button" value="reset" style="font-size:8pt;"
	onclick="var w='100%'; var h='400'; var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1'); f.style.width=w; f.style.height=h+'px'; this.form.w.value=w; this.form.h.value=h;"><!--
--><input type="button" value="fit" title="resize to fit containing window" style="font-size:8pt;"
	onclick="window.miniBrowserFitSize(this)"><!--
--></div></nobr></form></html><script>

	// load bookmarks droplist from HR-separated "MiniBrowserList" tiddler contents
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	here.options[here.length]=new Option("ABC Browser...","",true,true);
	var list=store.getTiddlerText("MiniBrowserList");
	if (list && list.trim().length) {
		var parts=list.split("\n----\n");
		for (var p=0; p<parts.length; p++) {
			var lines=parts[p].split("\n");
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			here.options[here.length]=new Option(indent+label,value,false,false);
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window.miniBrowserSetSize = function(form) {
	var f=document.getElementById('browser_$1');
	var w=form.w.value.trim(); if (!w||!w.length) w='100%'; if (!w.replace(/[0-9]*/,'').length) w+='px'; 
	var h=form.h.value.trim(); if (!h||!h.length) h='400'; if (!h.replace(/[0-9]*/,'').length) h+='px';
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}

window.miniBrowserResetSize = function() {
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}
window.miniBrowserFitSize = function(place) {
	var trim=88; 	// fudge factor for controls + padding + borders.  ADJUST TO FIT LAYOUT
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	if (!t) { t=place; while (t && t.className!='floatingPanel') t=t.parentNode; } if (!t) return;
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}

window.miniBrowserAddBookmark = function(place) {
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}

window.miniBrowserDeleteBookmark = function(place) {
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	story.refreshTiddler("MiniBrowser",1,true);
	store.setDirty(true);
}
</script><<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>>

+++[+ Mailing Lists]
{{membersmove{
[[Subscribe|Subscribe to Science-Matters]]
[[Unsubscribe|Unsubscribe to Science-Matters]]
}}}
===
{{scrollauto{
{{textcenter{ 
{{headline{
''==
== ABC SCIENCE UPDATES, 12 September 2012 ====''
}}}
----
==== NEW ON ABC SCIENCE ONLINE ====
====  http://www.abc.net.au/science ====
}}}
There's been a lot of discussion about super trawlers and their impact on fishing areas in the media this week, and scientists have now found that the practice is even more harmful to ocean habitats than previously thought.

Also this week we delve into the concept of emotional intelligence. After years of research, is there any evidence this executive buzzword is more than a useless fad?

And finally, meet geochronologist Zenobia Jacobs and discover why she spends a lot of time in the dark trying to shed light on life in the Neanderthal cave.



== TOP NEWS STORIES OF THE WEEK ==

Early warning - Temperament gives 'red flags' for autism
Lack of cuddliness and a fixation with textures, sounds and smells in children under two years of age could be signs of autism, say researchers.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37385/0/

Habitat damage - Trawling 'ploughs' the deep sea floor
Bottom trawling by fishermen may be even more damaging than previously thought, affecting the seabed as seriously as intensive ploughing of farmland erodes the soil, say Spanish scientists.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37386/0/

Tiny detectors - Nano-fibres to help mercury cleanup
Scientists say they had created a 'nano-velcro' textile that offers a swift, sensitive and low-cost way of detecting mercury in waterways.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37387/0/

Dust busting - Missing supernova mystery solved
A large number of dying stars called core-collapse supernovae are not detected because they are obscured by galactic dust, say astronomers.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37388/0/

Slow start - Post-dino mammals were fat and slow
A near complete fossil of an ancient mammal proves it wasn't much of a runner.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37389/0/


== WHAT'S NEW ==

Opinion - Emotional intelligence: fact or fad?
Emotional intelligence is not the cure-all elixir for spotting who will succeed in work and life, but it is more than a useless fad, says Carolyn MacCann.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37390/0/

Meet a scientist - Sands of time date layers of human life
Geochronologist Zenobia Jacobs explains how ancient grains of sand may unlock the secrets of where we came from and what makes us human.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37391/0/

Great Moments in Science - Fatigue and hunger sway judges' decisions
What's worse than being hauled before a judge? Well, according to Dr Karl, being hauled before a tired and hungry one.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37392/0/

New mission to Mars planned
NASA announces future robotic mission to study the red planet's interior. Also; study suggests ancient Mars wasn't as wet as previously thought, and the Dawn spacecraft heads to Ceres - the next stop on its asteroid tour.
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37393/0/


== CATCH UP WITH ABC RADIO AND TV ==

Science Show - Understanding the proteins behind mitochondria disease
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37394/0/

RN Future Tense - Many Internets, many lives
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37395/0/

Health Report - Artificial pancreas
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37396/0/

Health Report - Cancer surgery
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37397/0/

RN Off Track - Dr Hollis Taylor
http://abcmail.net.au/t/1794070/683109/37398/0/

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===

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[[Television|TVSchedules]] @@bgcolor:#fff;[img[http://img264.imageshack.us/img264/2087/radiotvzt7.gif]]@@
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[[Ockham's Razor |ockhamsrazor]]
[[The New Inventors|TheNewInventors]]
[[The Science Show |scienceshow]]
[[The Lab |thelab]]
[[Health Matters |health]]
[[Catalyst |catalyst]]
[[Quantum |quantum]]
[[Science News |science/news]]
[[Catapult |catapult]]
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----
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[[ABC Radio |Radio]] [img[http://img258.imageshack.us/img258/3713/800listen8iz.gif]]
[[Ockham's Razor |http://www.abc.net.au/rn/ockhamsrazor/default.htm]]
[[The Science Show |http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/]]
[[The Lab |http://abc.net.au/science/]]
[[Health Matters |http://www.abc.net.au/health/]]
[[Catalyst |http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/]]
[[Quantum |http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/]]
[[Science News |http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/]]
[[Catapult |http://www.abc.net.au/catapult/]]
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{{textcenter{
AS TIME GOES BY
Words and Music by Herman Hupfeld
}}}
| !Verse<br><script label="(memorize)">return Mem.start(place)</script> | !Words<br><script label="(memorize)">return Mem.start(place)</script> |
|You must remember this |a kiss is still a kiss, A sigh is just a sigh, the fundamental things apply, As time goes by.....|
|An' when two lovers woo |they still say "I love you," On that you can rely, no matter what the future brings, As time goes by......|
|Moonlight an' love songs |never out of date, Hearts full of passion, jealousy an' hate, Woman needs man and man must have his mate, That no one can deny.....|
|It's still the same old story |a fight for love an' glory, A case of do or die, the world will always welcome lovers, As time goes by.....|
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----
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>[[AboutVooDoo|AboutVooDoo]]^^<<tiddler CloseThisOpen with: VooDooScience  '« back'>>|<<toolbar editTiddler>>» ^^>>
@@color:#C06;About Pseudoscience@@
<<<
[[An Index to Creationist Claims|http://www.talkorigins.org/origins/search.html]]
[[The Crackpot Index|http://www.math.ucr.edu/home/baez/crackpot.html]]
[[Alternative Science|http://www.alternativescience.com/skeptics.htm]]
[[The Skeptics Guide|http://www.theskepticsguide.org]]
[[ Skeptic's Dictionary|http://skepdic.com/]]
[[Australian Skeptics|http://www.skeptics.com.au/]]
[[Other Skepticism Sites|http://www.sdari.org/skeptic-sites.html]]
[[QuackWatch|http://www.quackwatch.com/]] A guide to health fraud by Dr. Stephen Barrett
[[EARMARKS OF PSEUDOSCIENCE|http://www.skeptically.org/skeptics/id6.html]]
[[Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience|https://webspace.utexas.edu/cokerwr/www/index.html/distinguish.htm]]
[[How to Argue|http://www.theness.com/articles.asp?id=38]]
{{locLink{Deductive-Inductive-Logic}}}
<<<
@@color:#C06;Sites Promoting Pseudoscience@@
<<<
[[Magniwork|http://www.magniwork.com/default.php?hop=gray26]]
[[Lutec Australia|http://www.lutec.com.au/index.htm]]
[[NASA - Space Colonies|SpaceSettlement]]
[[Infinite Energy|http://www.infinite-energy.com/]]
[[Resonant Field Imaging|http://www.item-bioenergy.com/rfi/science.html]]
Many scientists and doctors have found it particularly intriguing that a technology can analyze psychological and emotional states.  During ten years of research in this field, ITEM has found that emotion itself is essentially an energy reaction to a perception. 

[[Reasons to Believe|http://www.reasons.org/index.shtml]]
Founded in 1986, Reasons To Believe is an international, interdenominational ministry established to communicate the uniquely factual basis for belief in the Bible as the error-free Word of God and for personal faith in Jesus Christ as Creator and Savior.

[[IDEA|http://www.ideacenter.org/]] (Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness)
Intelligent Design is based upon the Scientific Method, Not Blind Faith

[[The Velikovsky Encyclopedia|http://www.velikovsky.info/Main_Page]]
[[VELIKOVSKY's COSMOS WITHOUT GRAVITATION|http://www.varchive.org/ce/cosmos.htm]]
[[Conservapedia|http://www.conservapedia.com]] +++[more...]
<<<
Conservapedia is a much-needed alternative to Wikipedia, which is increasingly anti-Christian and anti-American. On Wikipedia, many of the dates are provided in the anti-Christian "C.E." instead of "A.D.", which Conservapedia uses. Christianity receives no credit for the great advances and discoveries it inspired, such as those of the Renaissance. Read a list of many Examples of Bias in Wikipedia.
<<<
===

[[The Museum of Unworkable Devices|http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/home.htm]]
[[The other science|http://oddbooks.co.uk/oddbooks/#pscience]] &laquo; Odd Books &raquo;
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>&nbsp;Sites mentioning or linked to Science Matters>>
{{textcenter{
http://www.wholinks2me.com/}}}
----
http://www.kuehleborn.org/tw/
~Science-Matters
Wow! Een zeer mooie TW, en ook nog informatief!
(Wow! Very beautiful TW, and also still informative!)
----

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{{headline{Advice for Creationists}}}

''By “The Curmudgeon”''

{{twocolumns{
Are you a creationist? Or an advocate of Intelligent Design? If so, you know perfectly well how your views are received by scientists, and surely you’re tired of it. If you would like your positions to be taken seriously by those with whom you disagree, please consider the following:

''How to argue against a scientific theory:''

Method One: If you want to present a rational argument against a theory — instead of something that will be dismissed as a meaningless rant — probably the best method is to point out a verifiable fact that clearly contradicts the theory. But … to do this, you must understand the theory, so that you understand what might contradict it.

You will accomplish nothing if you argue against an incorrect comic-book version of the theory, one which no scientist accepts or teaches. Building up and tearing down straw-men is a useless exercise. To put it bluntly, you need to know what you’re talking about.

The evidence you present can be something newly discovered, or the discrediting of something discovered earlier, which turns out to have been wrongly understood — or even bogus. However, even if you’ve really got something, you must be careful, because this is the stage where kooks and cranks and Einstein wannabes so often go astray.

For your discovery to completely overturn a theory, the new evidence (or newly-discredited old evidence) must be essential to the theory, so that without it, the theory collapses. Merely pointing out that some unneeded datapoint is wrong — even a famous one like Piltdown Man — doesn’t bring a well-established theory crashing down in ruins — especially if (as with Piltdown Man) the theory never depended on such evidence in the first place. At most, such discredited evidence might require a footnote, or perhaps a minor correction in the next edition of a textbook. Corrections occur all the time as our observations improve. Such matters are rarely of any genuine importance; but people outside the profession often lack the perspective that comes from knowing the full range of evidence that supports a theory, and therefore assign a disproportionate significance to relatively trivial matters.

Method Two: Another method of arguing against a theory is to present a testable theory of your own, one which explains all of the available evidence better than the existing theory. It’s a difficult task, but not impossible. Contrary to the frequent complaint of cranks, scientists are not closed-minded to new theories. In the last century, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the big bang, and plate tectonics prevailed over initial skepticism. But to devise a new theory, you need to know two things.

First, you must know what a scientific theory is, and what it isn’t[1].  Asserting as a competing “theory” something that isn’t testable is a waste of everyone’s time in a scientific discussion.

Second, you must be aware, at least generally, of the evidence which supports the existing theory. That is what your competing theory must explain. The more evidence an existing theory explains, the more difficult it becomes to devise a credible alternative. Your new theory has to thread a lot of needles.

A competing theory which offers an explanation of only one thing (an ad hoc explanation) isn’t of much use. Science is not a collection of numerous mini-explanations, each of which operates by its own unique rules, in grand isolation from all the others. One thing, considered as if it were unrelated to anything else, may have many possible explanations, and your explanation may seem as plausible as any other. But but does your theory explain all the evidence that the existing theory explains? Can it survive the same tests that the existing theory has survived? Is it consistent with other branches of science? If the answer to any of these questions is “no,” then you’re unlikely to be successful.

''How not to argue against a theory:''

1. Neither ignorance of, astonishment at, dislike of, nor refusal to accept an existing theory will serve as scientific objections. All such arguments are really about you, not the theory.

2. No scientist claims that he knows everything, or that he has solved all problems; and no theory has been subjected to all possible tests. Therefore, pointing out that that there are things not yet known, tests not yet made, or problems not yet solved, isn’t much of an argument. Such items routinely become the research projects of scientists and PhD candidates; the scientific journals are filled with the results of their research. That’s how science progresses. Unsolved problems are the daily work of science, and no unresolved question, by its mere existence, is a magic bullet that will bring a theory crashing down. A newly-discovered fact may indeed upset an existing theory; but a list of unknowns is inevitable. The unknown does not refute a theory. Theories explain that which is known.

3. It should be obvious that denial of verifiable facts doesn’t score any points; it just costs you credibility. And blindly copying material found at frequently discredited websites — especially their often bogus quotes from alleged experts — is intellectually vacuous and makes you appear ridiculous.

4. A theory is not disproven by pointing out occasional acts of academic misconduct, or even outright fraud. There are tens of thousands of scientists, and a few have disgraced themselves. (Similarly, a religion is not discredited because of the personal flaws of a few clergymen.) A demonstration of fraud could be a successful attack on a theory, but only if the theory can’t survive without the fraudulent material. This would amount to a contradiction of the theory, which is Method One described above. But be careful here; well-supported theories usually don’t collapse because of one faulty data point.

5. Other worthless arguments are attempts to discredit the character of individual scientists, or to quote them on unrelated topics, because such matters are irrelevant to the scientific merits of a theory. Isaac Newton was said to be an unpleasant man, and Einstein was a socialist; but the value of their scientific work is not affected by such irrelevancies.

6. Likewise, quoting opinions of people who aren’t practicing in the field is of little value, because a scientific theory isn’t about opinion — it’s about testable explanations of verifiable data.

7. Claiming that the theory somehow causes undesirable consequences — even if such claims were true — is irrelevant to the validity of the theory. Atomic theory, for example, is not discredited because of the bomb, nor is gravity discredited because someone gets tossed out of a window.

8. Claims that a scientist (like Darwin) renounced his theory are meaningless, even if true — but as with Darwin’s deathbed recantation, such tales are almost always fictitious. Galileo, however, really did renounce the solar system (when threatened with torture), yet the heliocentric solar system theory survives quite handily. A scientific theory can survive even a sincere renunciation by its originator (although no such event is known to have happened), while a religion would probably collapse under similar circumstances. This is because a scientific theory is based on objectively verifiable evidence, not the support of its founder or anyone else.

9. Claiming that your opponent’s religious views aren’t the same as yours is irrelevant in a debate about a scientific theory. Also irrelevant is claiming that you can’t harmonize your religious views with the theory. The subject under discussion is the theory, not your religion, and not your opponent’s religion. Science isn’t opposed to religion; it’s just not about religion.
}}}
A version of this article appeared in The Curmudgeon.  All rights remain with the author.

[1] A lot of things make up a scientific theory but a good working definition (from wikipedia) is: “A testable model of the manner of interaction of a set of natural phenomena, capable of predicting future occurrences or observations of the same kind, and capable of being tested through experiment or otherwise verified through empirical observation.”

 
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mi·crop·si·a (mī-krŏp'sē-ə)
n.

A visual disorder in which objects appear much smaller than they actually are, possibly caused by a retinal disorder but often associated with hallucination or an unconscious attempt to shrink the world to a less threatening size.

Source: [[Alice in Wonderland syndrome: Definition and Much More from Answers.com|http://www.answers.com/topic/micropsia?cat=health]]
INGREDIENTS
2 cups		whole wheat flour
1 cup		All-Bran® Original
1 tablespoon		sugar
1 tablespoon		baking powder
1/2 teaspoon		salt
1/4 cup		margarine or butter
1 		egg
1/2 cup		skim milk

DIRECTIONS
1. In large mixing bowl, stir together whole wheat flour, KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN
cereal, sugar, baking powder and salt. Using pastry blender, cut in margarine
until mixture resembles coarse meal.

2. Beat together egg and milk. Add to flour mixture. Stir until well combined. Knead
on lightly floured surface 2 to 3 minutes or until smooth. Roll out dough until1/2 inch
thick. Cut with 2 inch biscuit cutter.

3. Place scones in heated, lightly greased or teflon-lined fry pan. Cook over low heat
10 minutes, turn and cook 10 minutes longer. Serve warm or cold.

Yield: 14 scones
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<<tiddler VooDooScience>>
}}}





----
''~ToBeFiled''
<<<
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/prox-list/message/23065
<<<
<<tabs "" [[Mathematics ]] "" [[510 Mathematics]] [[Astronomy ]] "" [[520 Astronomy]] [[Physics ]] ""  [[530 Physics]] [[Chemistry ]] "" [[540 Chemistry]]  [[EarthSciences ]] "" [[550 Earth Sciences]] [[Paleontology ]] "" [[560 Paleontology]] [[Anthropology ]] "" [[573 Anthropology]] [[Biology ]] "" [[574 Biology]] [[Botany ]] "" [[580 Botany]] [[Zoology ]] "" [[590 Zoology]]>>
[img[http://img266.imageshack.us/img266/5889/arrowsmallmm7.gif]] @@color:#00A;''Science is an attitude.'' @@@@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@@@position:relative;+++^30em^[Read The Scientific Method]<<tiddler TheScientificMethodPrécis>> <br>[[ Go there »» |TheScientificMethod]]===@@

{{textjustify{
{{firstletter{
@@color:#c06;M@@
}}}@@color:#008;an observes the universe as a stranger, making imaginative guesses about its structure and workings. He cannot approach the world without such bold conjectures in the background, for every observed fact presupposes an interpretive focus.{{imgfloatright{{{textcenter{
[img[http://img237.imageshack.us/img237/1408/spiralgalaxyngc4414ng0.jpg]]
{{locLink{[[Spiral Galaxy NGC 4414|Spiral Galaxy NGC 4414]]}}}
}}}
}}}

''In science'', these conjectures must be continually and systematically tested;  yet however many tests are successfully passed, any theory can never be viewed as more than an imperfectly corroborated conjecture.  At any time, a new test could __[[falsify|TheScientificMethod]]__ it.  No scientific truth is immune to such a possibility.  Even the basic facts are relatives, always potentially subject to a radical reinterpretation in a new framework.

''Man can  never claim'' to know the real essences of  things. Before the virtual infinitude of the world's phenomena, human ignorance itself is infinite.  The wisest strategy is to learn from one's mistakes and try to remain objective and humble.@@}}}

<html><div align="center"><br><a href="http://www.maploco.com/view.php?id=1058201"><img src="http://www.maploco.com/vmap/1058201.png" border=0 alt="Profile Visitor Map - Click to view visits"></a><br><a href="http://www.maploco.com/">Create your own visitor map</a><br></div></html>
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<<<

#+++[+Chinese]
**[[Cantonese|http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cantonese.htm]]
***[[Hear the Cantonese tones|http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter2/cantonese/recording2.2.html]]
**[[Mandarin|http://www.omniglot.com/writing/mandarin.htm]]
#[[Chinese Dictionary|http://zhongwen.com/]]
##[[Learn Chinese|http://www.csulb.edu/~txie/online.htm]]
###[[Speak Phrases|http://www.wku.edu/~yuanh/AudioChinese/]]
###[[Tones|http://www.wku.edu/%7Eshizhen.gao/Chinese101/pinyin/tones.htm]]
###[[MandarinTones]]
##[[China Map|http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/china_pol01.jpg]]
#[[Number Conversion|http://www.mandarintools.com/numbers.html]]
#[[PinYin|http://www.pinyin.info/]]
===

#[[Anthropology Resources|http://vlib.anthrotech.com/]]
##[[Search Calif. Academy of Sciences|http://www.calacademy.org/RESEARCH/anthropology/collection/index.asp]]
#<<popup [[+Words]] [[<<forEachTiddler where 'tiddler.tags.containsAny(["words"])'$))]]>>
#[[Music Theory|http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory1.htm]]
#[[Grammar Punctuation and Spelling|http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/index.html]]
#+++[+LogicLinks]
##[[Fallacies: alphabetic list (full list)|http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/fallacies/fallacies_alpha.htm]]
##http://onegoodmove.org/fallacy/welcome.htm
##http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html
===

#[[Translate English to Latin|http://www.translation-guide.com/free_online_translators.php?from=English&to=Latin]]
#[[List of Latin Phrases|http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-latin-phrases-1]]
#[[Anger Management|psyche-care]]
#+++[+Cyber Social Networking]
##[[FaceBook|http://www.facebook.com/]]
##[[Friendster|http://www.friendster.com/]]
##[[MySpace|http://www.myspace.com/]]
##[[YouTube|http://www.youtube.com/ ]]
##[[SecondLife|http://secondlife.com/]]
##[[Second Life Science|http://www.sloz.info/?p=105]]
===

#[[Digital Ethnography |http://cwnm.tiddlyspot.com/]]
{{textjustify{
''Do you know what Aspartame is?'' I knew it was bad for you, but never knew how bad until Amme showed me a documentary called “Sweet Misery”.Sucralose is just as bad as aspartame, and was discovered to be a sweetner when a chemist making pesticide (yes, pesticide!) spilled some on his hand and discovered it tasted sweet. Antifreeze also has this property, and is fatally poisonous.

{{imgfloatleft{[IMG[http://img526.imageshack.us/img526/1822/nutrasweetlogo2crrf3.jpg]]}}}''Though I am no scientist'', this video claims Aspartame was pushed into FDA approval through shady deals and payoffs, and can cause dozens of illnesses, among them brain tumors and Multiple Sclerosis. At the VERY LEAST, it is important to at least consider how safe this chemical is, and whether you should let your loved ones intake it, even if its a a precaution.
}}}
+++[See Sweet Misery Re: Nutrasweet]
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</OBJECT></html>
===


+++[See Donald Rumsfeld’s connection to Nutrasweet]
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</OBJECT></html>
===


+++[See more Nutrasweet]
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===



!!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #fff>>[[Astronomy|Astronomy]]>>
<<<
[[Celestia: Home|http://www.shatters.net/celestia/]] @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ The free space simulation that lets you explore our universe in three dimensions.
+++[+Astronomy Links]
<<tiddler [[Astronomy Links]]>>
===

[[More Astronomy Links]]
http://shareyoursky.com/
<<<
<<<
+++[+Science Podcasts]
[[Science in the City |http://www.nyas.org/snc/podcasts.asp]] @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@New York Academy of Sciences
[[Astronomy Podcasts|http://www.jodcast.net/amp/index.html]] @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@Jodrel Bank Astronomy Podcasts
[[The Science Show|http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/default.htm]]
[[Star Stuff|http://www.abc.net.au/newsradio/podcast/STARSTUFF.xml]] @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@Australian ABC Astronomy and Cosmology
===

[[Astronomy Online (shopping)|http://www.astronomyonline.com.au/]]
[[Astronomy Picture of the Day|http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/]]
[[Australian Amateur Astronomers|http://www.iceinspace.com.au/index.php?home]]
[[Free monthly star chart on paper for old-fashioned trilobites|http://www.skymaps.com/downloads.html]]
[[Interactive star chart|http://skytonight.com/]]
[[Jet Propulsion Laboratories|http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/]]
[[Mini-AstroViewer-Applet|http://www.astroviewer.com/applet.html]]
[[MrEclipse.com|http://www.mreclipse.com/]]
[[NASA|http://www.nasa.gov/]]
[[Space Flight Now (Space News)|http://spaceflightnow.com/]]
[[SpaceWeather.com|http://www.spaceweather.com/]]
[[The Astronomical Society of NSW|http://www.asnsw.com/]]
[[The Hubble Hertiage Site|http://heritage.stsci.edu/]]
[[The Hubble Site|http://hubblesite.org/]]
[[The Solar System|http://www.solarviews.com//eng/homepage.htm]] @@color(#C06):^^Superb Site^^@@
[[The WayOut Game|http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/way_out/]]
[[Watching out for ISS|http://heavens-above.com/]]
<<<
|^^@@color(#C06):Astronomy Links thanks to Moon Goddess and Hello Kitty@@^^ |background-color:#FCC5FE;<html><a href="http://www.sanrio.com/" target="_blank"><img src="http://img83.imageshack.us/img83/2594/kitty35yb6.jpg"  alt="Hello Kitty Web Site" /></a></html>|
*[[Celestia|http://www.shatters.net/celestia/]] &raquo; The free space simulation that lets you explore our universe in three dimensions
----
!!![[More Astronomy Links]]
----
<html><hide linebreaks>
<b>Entry Index</b></font></font></td></tr>

<tr><br><td align="center"><font color="#9c9c63"><font size="+1"><b>A to C</b></font></font></td></tr>
<tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr>

<!-- END CHAPTERTITLE --> 

</tbody></table>

<table align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" width="601">

<!-- BEGIN CHAPTER -->


<tbody><tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/189.html" target="_blank">Abode</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/756.html" target="_blank">Abrogation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/187.html" target="_blank">Absence</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/609a.html" target="_blank">Absence of Choice</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/175a.html" target="_blank">Absence of Influence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/615a.html" target="_blank">Absence of Motive</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/450a.html" target="_blank">Absence or want of Intellect</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/497.html" target="_blank">Absurdity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/88.html" target="_blank">Accompaniment</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/811.html" target="_blank">Accounts</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/938.html" target="_blank">Accusation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/429.html" target="_blank">Achromatism</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/775.html" target="_blank">Acquisition</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/970.html" target="_blank">Acquittal</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/680.html" target="_blank">Action</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/682.html" target="_blank">Activity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/37.html" target="_blank">Addition</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/39.html" target="_blank">Adjunct</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/131.html" target="_blank">Adolescence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/735.html" target="_blank">Adversity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/695.html" target="_blank">Advice</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/269a.html" target="_blank">Aëronaut</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/855.html" target="_blank">Affectation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/820.html" target="_blank">Affections</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/535.html" target="_blank">Affirmation</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/128.html" target="_blank">Age</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/170.html" target="_blank">Agency</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/690.html" target="_blank">Agent</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/835.html" target="_blank">Aggravation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/315.html" target="_blank">Agitation</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/23.html" target="_blank">Agreement</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/371.html" target="_blank">Agriculture</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/707.html" target="_blank">Aid</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/338.html" target="_blank">Air</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/351.html" target="_blank">Air Pipe</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/669.html" target="_blank">Alarm</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/586.html" target="_blank">Allocution</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/530.html" target="_blank">Ambush</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/241.html" target="_blank">Amorphism</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/840.html" target="_blank">Amusement</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/115.html" target="_blank">Anachronism</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/977.html" target="_blank">Angel</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/244.html" target="_blank">Angularity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/366.html" target="_blank">Animal</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/364.html" target="_blank">Animality</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/462.html" target="_blank">Answer</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/581.html" target="_blank">Aphonia</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/448.html" target="_blank">Appearance</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/786.html" target="_blank">Apportionment</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/286.html" target="_blank">Approach</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/931.html" target="_blank">Approbation</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/728.html" target="_blank">Arena</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/727.html" target="_blank">Arms</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/60.html" target="_blank">Arrangement</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/292.html" target="_blank">Arrival</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/559.html" target="_blank">Artist</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/703.html" target="_blank">Artlessness</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/305.html" target="_blank">Ascent</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/955.html" target="_blank">Asceticism</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/72.html" target="_blank">Assemblage</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/488.html" target="_blank">Assent</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/952.html" target="_blank">Atonement</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/716.html" target="_blank">Attack</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/457.html" target="_blank">Attention</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/288.html" target="_blank">Attraction</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/155.html" target="_blank">Attribution</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/737.html" target="_blank">Authority</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/711.html" target="_blank">Auxiliary</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/623.html" target="_blank">Avoidance</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/949.html" target="_blank">Bad Man</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/649.html" target="_blank">Badness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/663.html" target="_blank">Bane</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/794.html" target="_blank">Barter</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/211.html" target="_blank">Base</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/845.html" target="_blank">Beauty</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/66.html" target="_blank">Beginning</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/484.html" target="_blank">Belief</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/912.html" target="_blank">Benefactor</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/906.html" target="_blank">Benevolence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/91.html" target="_blank">Bisection</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/431.html" target="_blank">Blackness</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/848.html" target="_blank">Blemish</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/442.html" target="_blank">Blindness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/438.html" target="_blank">Blueness</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/254.html" target="_blank">Bluntness</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/887.html" target="_blank">Blusterer</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/884.html" target="_blank">Boasting</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/593.html" target="_blank">Book</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/793.html" target="_blank">Booty</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/788.html" target="_blank">Borrowing</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/369.html" target="_blank">Botany</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/202.html" target="_blank">Breadth, Thickness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/328.html" target="_blank">Brittleness</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/433.html" target="_blank">Brown</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/353.html" target="_blank">Bubble, Cloud</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/701.html" target="_blank">Bungler</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/625.html" target="_blank">Business</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/384.html" target="_blank">Calefaction</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/999.html" target="_blank">Canonicals</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/608.html" target="_blank">Caprice</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/459.html" target="_blank">Care</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/271.html" target="_blank">Carrier</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/153.html" target="_blank">Cause</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/864.html" target="_blank">Caution</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/883.html" target="_blank">Celebration</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/904.html" target="_blank">Celibacy</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/222.html" target="_blank">Centrality</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/474.html" target="_blank">Certainty</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/142.html" target="_blank">Cessation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/156.html" target="_blank">Chance<font size="-1"><sup>1</sup></font></a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/621.html" target="_blank">Chance<font size="-1"><sup>2</sup></font></a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/140.html" target="_blank">Change</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/149.html" target="_blank">Changeableness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/815.html" target="_blank">Cheapness</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/836.html" target="_blank">Cheerfulness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/609.html" target="_blank">Choice</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/114.html" target="_blank">Chronometry</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/995.html" target="_blank">Churchdom</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/370.html" target="_blank">Cicuration</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/629.html" target="_blank">Circuit</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/311.html" target="_blank">Circuition</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/247.html" target="_blank">Circularity</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/227.html" target="_blank">Circumjacence</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/229.html" target="_blank">Circumscription</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/8.html" target="_blank">Circumstance</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/75.html" target="_blank">Class</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/652.html" target="_blank">Cleanness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/996.html" target="_blank">Clergy</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/261.html" target="_blank">Closure</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/46.html" target="_blank">Coherence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/383.html" target="_blank">Cold</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/428.html" target="_blank">Color</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/726.html" target="_blank">Combatant</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/48.html" target="_blank">Combination</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/741.html" target="_blank">Command</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/755.html" target="_blank">Commission</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/876.html" target="_blank">Commonalty</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/769.html" target="_blank">Compact</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/464.html" target="_blank">Comparison</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/596.html" target="_blank">Compendium</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/30.html" target="_blank">Compensation</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/52.html" target="_blank">Completeness</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/729.html" target="_blank">Completion</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/56.html" target="_blank">Component</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/54.html" target="_blank">Composition</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/774.html" target="_blank">Compromise</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/744.html" target="_blank">Compulsion</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/252.html" target="_blank">Concavity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/528.html" target="_blank">Concealment</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/572.html" target="_blank">Conciseness</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/714.html" target="_blank">Concord</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/178.html" target="_blank">Concurrence</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/971.html" target="_blank">Condemnation</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/393.html" target="_blank">Condiment</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/770.html" target="_blank">Conditions</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/915.html" target="_blank">Condolence</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/692.html" target="_blank">Conduct</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/350.html" target="_blank">Conduit</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/82.html" target="_blank">Conformity</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/479.html" target="_blank">Confutation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/896.html" target="_blank">Congratulation</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/11.html" target="_blank">Consanguinity</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/762.html" target="_blank">Consent</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/758.html" target="_blank">Consignee</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/930.html" target="_blank">Contempt</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/831.html" target="_blank">Content</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/720.html" target="_blank">Contention</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/190.html" target="_blank">Contents</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/199.html" target="_blank">Contiguity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/108a.html" target="_blank">Contingent Duration</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/143.html" target="_blank">Continuance in action</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/69.html" target="_blank">Continuity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/195.html" target="_blank">Contraction</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/237.html" target="_blank">Contraposition</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/14.html" target="_blank">Contrariety</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/290.html" target="_blank">Convergence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/144.html" target="_blank">Conversion</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/250.html" target="_blank">Convexity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/248.html" target="_blank">Convolution</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/709.html" target="_blank">Coöperation</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/21.html" target="_blank">Copy</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/362.html" target="_blank">Corpse</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/12.html" target="_blank">Correlation</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/592.html" target="_blank">Correspondence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/696.html" target="_blank">Council</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/179.html" target="_blank">Counteraction</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/468.html" target="_blank">Counterevidence</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/861.html" target="_blank">Courage</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/109.html" target="_blank">Course</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/894.html" target="_blank">Courtesy</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/223.html" target="_blank">Covering</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/862.html" target="_blank">Cowardice</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/805.html" target="_blank">Credit</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/486.html" target="_blank">Credulity</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/219.html" target="_blank">Crossing</a></td></tr>

<tr valign="top"><td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/411.html" target="_blank">Cry</a></td>
<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/702.html" target="_blank">Cunning</a></td>

<td height="15" width="33%"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/455.html" target="_blank">Curiosity</a></td></tr>


</tbody></table>

<!-- END CHAPTER -->

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<tbody><tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr>
<tr><td align="center" height="25" valign="bottom"><font size="-1"><a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/">CONTENTS</a>&nbsp;·&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bartleby.com/br/110.html" target="_blank">BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD</a>&nbsp;·&nbsp;<a href="http://www.bartleby.com/110/s0.html" target="_blank">INDEX GUIDE</a>
</html>
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BIGPOND(R) PONDERINGS(TM) - MARCH 2007
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==================================
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===========================
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=================
FIVE OF THE BEST. 
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To rock out with the Big Day Out or to detox? 
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2. Big Day Out
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#[[National Culture Collection of Marine Phytoplankton for the USA|http://ccmp.bigelow.org/]]
#[[Scripps Institute of Oceanography|http://explorations.ucsd.edu/biolum/index.html]]
#[[Evolutionary Biology|http://evolution.berkeley.edu/]]
#[[Evolution Resources|http://ncseweb.org/]]
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|!Creator|Morris Gray|
|!Subject matter|Tutorial|
|!Description/notes|A beginners to intermedate level help file|
|!Screenshot|[img[http://www.giffmex.org/twinactionimgs/twhelp.png]]|
}}}
<<tabs tabsCookie [[Intro ]] "tooltip 1" [[MakeTabsIntro]]  [[TabTwoName]] "" [[tiddler two]]  [[TabThreeName]] "" [[Tiddler three]] [[TabFourName]] "" [[Tiddler four]] >>
----
&darr;+++[Create a tiddler like this:]
----
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===

----
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<script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.blinklist.com/tiddlywiki/badge.js&amount=10&title=80&description=0&thumbnail=undefined&rating=checked&sortorder=recent"></script>
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<<slider chkSlider BoldTry "How to create bold lettering">>
<<getTiddlerPassword wa9crd>>
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Link 1
Link 2
Link 3
Link 4
Link 5
Link 6
Link 7
Link 8
Link 9
Link 10
@@color(#0000aa):Philosophy   |        Mathematics    |  Science |     Humanities@@


+++!!!![I. Logic]
<<<
[[Logic-Introduction]]
[[Inductive Deductive Logic]]
[[Logical Fallacies|LogicalFallacies]]
[[Emotion and Decision]]
[[Links To Reason|LinksToReason]]
<<<
===
+++!!!![II. Mathematics]
<<<
http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/sci40.00.00.html

http://www.alcyone.com/max/reference/maths/

http://euclid.math.fsu.edu/Science/math.html

http://www.hoxie.org/math/title.htm   

http://crh.choate.edu/Math/Math%20Reference/Math%20Reference%20Page.htm

http://www.stg.brown.edu/~rog/GS96/GS96ref.html
<<<
===
+++!!!![III. Science]
<<<
http://www.eurekalert.org/resources/definitions.html

http://www.asu.edu/lib/noble/scirefrm/

http://www.physlink.com/reference.cfm

http://www.ncstrl.org/

http://mel.lib.mi.us/science/sciref.html

http://www-hpcc.astro.washington.edu/scied/sciref.htm 

http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/crerar/db/ref/home.html
<<<
===
+++!!!![IIII. Humanities]
<<<
http://www.lib.virginia.edu/reference/humanities/humindex.html 

http://www.nyu.edu/library/bobst/research/hum/

http://www.sil.org/humanities/index.html

http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/hum00.00.00.html

http://bubl.ac.uk/link/hum.html 
<<<
===
+++!!!![V. Philosophy]
<<<
http://www.philosophypages.com/dy/

http://www.refdesk.com/philos.html

http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/hum70.00.00.html

http://plato.stanford.edu/contents.html

http://www.ditext.com/encyc/frame.html

http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/
<<<
===
<html><div id="modernbricksmenu"><ul><li style="margin-left: 1px"><a href="http://www.dynamicdrive.com" title="Home">Home</a></li><li><a href="http://www.dynamicdrive.com/new.htm" title="New">New</a></li><li id="current"><a href="http://www.dynamicdrive.com/revised.htm" title="Revised">Revised</a></li><li><a href="http://tools.dynamicdrive.com" title="Tools">Tools</a></li><li><a href="http://www.dynamicdrive.com/forums/" title="DHTML Forums">Forums</a></li></ul><form id="myform"><input type="text" class="textinput" /> <input class="submit" type="submit" value="Find" /></form></div><div id="modernbricksmenuline">&nbsp;</div></html>
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<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="file:///I:/TiddlySpot/Tiddlywiki2.1/BrowseDrives.htm" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>}}}
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<<forEachTiddler 
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 sortBy
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 ascending
 write
   '"# [["+tiddler.title+"]] \n"'
>>
----
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''[[List of all tiddlers sorted by Tag by First Line.|ByTagFirstLine]]''
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----
<<forEachTiddler
 where
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 script
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 var m = s.match(/\s*(.*)/);
 return m != null && m.length >= 1 ? m[1] : "";
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 '
 write
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>>
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{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.writersblock.ca/tips/monthtip/tipmar98.htm]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
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<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.writersblock.ca/tips/monthtip/tipmar98.htm" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{tablecenter{<html><table><tr class="tableheader"><td align="center">Chord with <br>no Capo</td><td colspan="7">Actual Chord with Capo on:</td></tr><tr class="tablerow3"><td align="center"> </td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">1st fret</td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">2nd fret</td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">3rd fret</td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">4th fret</td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">5th fret</td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">6th fret</td><td class="tablerow3" align="center">7th fret</td></tr><tr class="tablerow2"><td align="center">C</td><td align="center">C#</td><td align="center">D</td><td align="center">Eb</td><td align="center">E</td><td align="center">F</td><td align="center">F#</td><td align="center">G</td></tr><tr class="tablerow1"><td align="center">G</td><td align="center">Ab</td><td align="center">A</td><td align="center">Bb</td><td align="center">B</td><td align="center">C</td><td align="center">C#</td><td align="center">D</td></tr><tr class="tablerow2"><td align="center">D</td><td align="center">Eb</td><td align="center">E</td><td align="center">F</td><td align="center">F#</td><td align="center">G</td><td align="center">Ab</td><td align="center">A</td></tr><tr class="tablerow1"><td align="center">A</td><td align="center">Bb</td><td align="center">B</td><td align="center">C</td><td align="center">C#</td><td align="center">D</td><td align="center">Eb</td><td align="center">E</td></tr><tr class="tablerow2"><td align="center">Am</td><td align="center">Bbm</td><td align="center">Bm</td><td align="center">Cm</td><td align="center">C#m</td><td align="center">Dm</td><td align="center">Ebm</td><td align="center">Em</td></tr><tr class="tablerow1"><td align="center">E</td><td align="center">F</td><td align="center">F#</td><td align="center">G</td><td align="center">Ab</td><td align="center">A</td><td align="center">Bb</td><td align="center">B</td></tr><tr class="tablerow2"><td align="center">Em</td><td align="center">Fm</td><td align="center">F#m</td><td align="center">Gm</td><td align="center">Abm</td><td align="center">Am</td><td align="center">Bbm</td><td align="center">Bm</td></tr></tbody></table></html>
}}}
[img[http://img108.imageshack.us/img108/7079/chordsbykeychartcapocns4.gif]]
Source:http://www.i-love-guitar.com/guitar-capo.html

<html><div id="myCatsEye" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/7676/catseye2hsttd6.jpg"><br><div align="center">Cats Eye Nebula<br>http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap070513.html</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myCatsEye')">Cats Eye Nebula</a></html>
<html><ul>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnosticism" target="_blank" title="Agnosticism">Agnosticism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belief" target="_blank"  title="Belief">Belief</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certainty" target="_blank"  title="Certainty">Certainty</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determinism" target="_blank"  title="Determinism">Determinism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approximation" target="_blank"  title="Approximation">Estimation</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemology#Justified_true_belief" target="_blank"  title="Epistemology">Justified true belief</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nihilism" target="_blank"  title="Nihilism">Nihilism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability" target="_blank"  title="Probability">Probability</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skepticism" target="_blank"  title="Skepticism">Skepticism</a></li>
<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty" target="_blank"  title="Uncertainty">Uncertainty</a></li>
</ul>

</html>
!!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>[[Chemistry|Chemistry]]>>
<<<
[[General Chemistry Online|http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/index.shtml]]
<<<
[[Elements]]
[[Elements Melting Boiling Points|ElementsMeltingBoilingPoint]]
[[PeriodicTable]]
[[Naming Of Elements|Naming]]
[[Elements in Latin|ElementsLatin]]
Link 6
Link 7
Link 8
Link 9
Link 10
!!!!!Chile Pepper Heat Scoville Scale
<html>Wondering how to rate the heat level of various types of chile peppers? Peppers are rated based on Scoville Units, a method developed by Wilbur Scoville in 1912. The original method used human tasters to evaluate how many parts of sugar water it takes to neutralize the heat. Nowadays human tasters are spared and a new process called HPLC, or High Performance Liquid Chromotography measures the amount of capsaicinoids (capsaicin) in parts per million. Capsaicin is the compound that gives chiles their heat. The chart below rates chile peppers, with 0 being mildest and 10 highest heat.
<table border="0"><tr><td colspan="3" bgcolor="#000000"><font color="#ed181e" face="arial,helvetica,times new roman,geneva,new york" size="4"><b><center>Scoville Chile Heat Chart</center></b></font></td></tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#33d13b" valign="middle"><td bgcolor="#000000"><font color="#ed181e" face="arial,helvetica,times new roman,geneva,new york" size="3"><b><center>Variety</center></b></font></td><td bgcolor="#000000"><font color="#ed181e" face="arial,helvetica,times new roman,geneva,new york" size="3"><b><center>Rating</center></b></font></td><td bgcolor="#000000"><font color="#ed181e" face="arial,helvetica,times new roman,geneva,new york" size="3"><b><center>Heat Level</center></b></font></td></tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#33d13b" valign="middle"><td>Sweet Bells; Sweet Banana; and Pimento</td><td><center>0</center></td><td>Negligible Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#b8eb51" valign="middle"><td>Mexi-Bells; Cherry; New Mexica; New Mexico; Anaheim; Big Jim</td><td><center>1</center></td><td>100-1,000 Scoville Units</td></tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#ecf548" valign="middle"><td>Ancho; Pasilla; Espanola; Anaheim</td><td><center>2</center></td><td>1,000 - 1,500 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#fdf6a6" valign="middle"><td>Sandia; Cascabel</td><td><center>3</center></td><td>1,500 - 2,500 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#ffc967" valign="middle"><td>Jalapeno; Mirasol; Chipotle; Poblano</td><td><center>4</center></td><td>2,500 - 5,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#feab10" valign="middle"><td>Yellow Wax; Serrano</td><td><center>5</center></td><td>5,000 - 15,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#ef8420" valign="middle"><td>Chile De Arbol</td><td><center>6</center></td><td>15,000 - 30,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#f95915" valign="middle"><td>Aji; Cayenne; Tabasco; Piquin</td><td><center>7</center></td><td>30,000 - 50,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#ff4c43" valign="middle"><td>Santaka; Chiltecpin; Thai</td><td><center>8</center></td><td>50,000 - 100,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#fe312a" valign="middle"><td>Habanero; Scotch Bonnet</td><td><center>9</center></td><td>100,000 - 350,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr><tr align="left" bgcolor="#d0010b" valign="middle"><td>Red Savina Habanero; Indian Tezpur</td><td><center>10</center></td><td>350-855,000 Scoville Units</td>
</tr></tbody></table></p> </html>
[[Chinese Birth Signs|http://www.paranormality.com/birth_sign.shtml]]

[[Boy friend|http://www.wku.edu/~yuanh/AudioChinese/AuChSnd/new/boyfriend.mp3]]
[[I love you|http://www.wku.edu/~yuanh/AudioChinese/AuChSnd/parent/iluvu.mp3]]
[[Practice makes perfect|http://www.wku.edu/~yuanh/AudioChinese/AuChSnd/new/shuqiao.mp3]]
[[You are beautiful|http://www.wku.edu/~yuanh/AudioChinese/AuChSnd/nizhenpiaoliang.mp3]]
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
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|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.5min.com/Chineselearn]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
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@@color(#C06):''Chopsticks rest made from their wrapper.''@@
<html><!-- URL's used in the movie-->
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</OBJECT></html>
<<tiddler [[Douglas Adams - Wikiquote]]>>
 @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ [[Stormchaser]]
#''NEW!'' [[Climate Change Data|http://woodfortrees.org/]]
#http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2009/01/australians-war-on-science-keeps-on.html
#http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2009/01/whats-up-with-polynomial-fits-yes-it.html
#http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2008/07/global-warming-resources.html
#Don't forget Australia's own http://bravenewclimate.com/ as well 
#The international http://www.realclimate.org/
[[24HourHistory]]
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text:"close all",
tooltip:"close all"};

config.commands.closeAll.handler = function(event,src,title)
{story.closeAllTiddlers();return false;}
<script label="$2">
	var tiddler=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	story.displayTiddler(tiddler,"$1");
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<html><div id="myClosedSinkFold" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img90.imageshack.us/img90/4559/closedsinkqa9.jpg"><br><div align="center">Closed Sink Fold</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myClosedSinkFold')">Closed Sink Fold</a></html>
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_distortion]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_distortion","plagiarism")'>URL to target at iframe</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_distortion" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
Colloidal Silver: Risk Without Benefit
Stephen Barrett, M.D.

Colloidal silver is a suspension of submicroscopic metallic silver particles in a colloidal base. Long-term use of silver preparations can lead to argyria, a condition in which silver salts deposit in the skin, eyes, and internal organs, and the skin turns ashen-gray. Many cases of argyria occurred during the pre-antibiotic era when silver was a common ingredient in nosedrops. When the cause became apparent, doctors stopped recommending their use, and reputable manufacturers stopped producing them. The official drug guidebooks (United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary) have not listed colloidal silver products since 1975.
Dubious Ads

In recent years, silver-containing products have been marketed with unsubstantiated claims that they are effective against AIDS, cancer, infectious diseases, parasites, chronic fatigue, acne, warts, hemorrhoids, enlarged prostate, and many other diseases and conditions. Some marketers claim that colloidal silver is effective against hundreds of diseases.

Source: [[Colloidal Silver: Risk Without Benefit|http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/PhonyAds/silverad.html]]
/%RGB hexadecimal 216-color "Web safe" palette %/
Source: Paul Petterson, revised by Eric Shulman
{{menubox{
|bgcolor(#FFF):FFF |bgcolor(#CCC):CCC |bgcolor(#999):999 |bgcolor(#666):@@color(white):666@@ |bgcolor(#333):@@color(white):333@@ |bgcolor(#000):@@color(white):000@@ |bgcolor(#FC0):~FC0 |bgcolor(#F90):F90 |bgcolor(#F60):@@color(white):F60@@ |bgcolor(#F30):@@color(white):F30@@ |>|>|>|>|>| |
|bgcolor(#9C0):9C0 |>|>|>| |bgcolor(#C90):C90 |bgcolor(#FC3):~FC3 |bgcolor(#FC6):~FC6 |bgcolor(#F96):F96 |bgcolor(#F63):@@color(white):F63@@ |bgcolor(#C30):@@color(white):C30@@ |>|>|>| |bgcolor(#C03):@@color(white):C03@@ |
|bgcolor(#CF0):~CF0 |bgcolor(#CF3):~CF3 |bgcolor(#330):@@color(white):330@@ |bgcolor(#660):@@color(white):660@@ |bgcolor(#990):990 |bgcolor(#CC0):~CC0 |bgcolor(#FF0):~FF0 |bgcolor(#C93):C93 |bgcolor(#C63):@@color(white):C63@@ |bgcolor(#300):@@color(white):300@@ |bgcolor(#600):@@color(white):600@@ |bgcolor(#900):@@color(white):900@@ |bgcolor(#C00):@@color(white):C00@@ |bgcolor(#F00):@@color(white):F00@@ |bgcolor(#F36):@@color(white):F36@@ |bgcolor(#F03):@@color(white):F03@@ |
|bgcolor(#9F0):9F0 |bgcolor(#CF6):~CF6 |bgcolor(#9C3):9C3 |bgcolor(#663):@@color(white):663@@ |bgcolor(#993):993 |bgcolor(#CC3):~CC3 |bgcolor(#FF3):~FF3 |bgcolor(#960):@@color(white):960@@ |bgcolor(#930):@@color(white):930@@ |bgcolor(#633):@@color(white):633@@ |bgcolor(#933):@@color(white):933@@ |bgcolor(#C33):@@color(white):C33@@ |bgcolor(#F33):@@color(white):F33@@ |bgcolor(#C36):@@color(white):C36@@ |bgcolor(#F69):@@color(white):F69@@ |bgcolor(#F06):@@color(white):F06@@ |
|bgcolor(#6F0):6F0 |bgcolor(#9F6):9F6 |bgcolor(#6C3):6C3 |bgcolor(#690):690 |bgcolor(#996):996 |bgcolor(#CC6):~CC6 |bgcolor(#FF6):~FF6 |bgcolor(#963):@@color(white):963@@ |bgcolor(#630):@@color(white):630@@ |bgcolor(#966):@@color(white):966@@ |bgcolor(#C66):@@color(white):C66@@ |bgcolor(#F66):@@color(white):F66@@ |bgcolor(#903):@@color(white):903@@ |bgcolor(#C39):@@color(white):C39@@ |bgcolor(#F6C):@@color(white):~F6C@@ |bgcolor(#F09):@@color(white):F09@@ |
|bgcolor(#3F0):3F0 |bgcolor(#6F3):6F3 |bgcolor(#390):390 |bgcolor(#6C0):6C0 |bgcolor(#9F3):9F3 |bgcolor(#CC9):~CC9 |bgcolor(#FF9):~FF9 |bgcolor(#C96):C96 |bgcolor(#C60):@@color(white):C60@@ |bgcolor(#C99):C99 |bgcolor(#F99):F99 |bgcolor(#F39):@@color(white):F39@@ |bgcolor(#C06):@@color(white):C06@@ |bgcolor(#906):@@color(white):906@@ |bgcolor(#F3C):@@color(white):~F3C@@ |bgcolor(#F0C):@@color(white):~F0C@@ |
|bgcolor(#0C0):0C0 |bgcolor(#3C0):3C0 |bgcolor(#360):@@color(white):360@@ |bgcolor(#693):693 |bgcolor(#9C6):9C6 |bgcolor(#CF9):~CF9 |bgcolor(#FFC):FFC |bgcolor(#FC9):~FC9 |bgcolor(#F93):F93 |bgcolor(#FCC):FCC |bgcolor(#F9C):~F9C |bgcolor(#C69):@@color(white):C69@@ |bgcolor(#936):@@color(white):936@@ |bgcolor(#603):@@color(white):603@@ |bgcolor(#C09):@@color(white):C09@@ |bgcolor(#303):@@color(white):303@@ |
|bgcolor(#3C3):3C3 |bgcolor(#6C6):6C6 |bgcolor(#0F0):0F0 |bgcolor(#3F3):3F3 |bgcolor(#6F6):6F6 |bgcolor(#9F9):9F9 |bgcolor(#CFC):CFC |>|>| |bgcolor(#C9C):~C9C |bgcolor(#969):@@color(white):969@@ |bgcolor(#939):@@color(white):939@@ |bgcolor(#909):@@color(white):909@@ |bgcolor(#636):@@color(white):636@@ |bgcolor(#606):@@color(white):606@@ |
|bgcolor(#060):@@color(white):060@@ |bgcolor(#363):@@color(white):363@@ |bgcolor(#090):090 |bgcolor(#393):393 |bgcolor(#696):696 |bgcolor(#9C9):9C9 |>|>| |bgcolor(#FCF):FCF |bgcolor(#F9F):~F9F |bgcolor(#F6F):@@color(white):~F6F@@ |bgcolor(#F3F):@@color(white):~F3F@@ |bgcolor(#F0F):@@color(white):~F0F@@ |bgcolor(#C6C):@@color(white):~C6C@@ |bgcolor(#C3C):@@color(white):~C3C@@ |
|bgcolor(#030):@@color(white):030@@ |bgcolor(#0C3):0C3 |bgcolor(#063):@@color(white):063@@ |bgcolor(#396):396 |bgcolor(#6C9):6C9 |bgcolor(#9FC):9FC |bgcolor(#CFF):CFF |bgcolor(#39F):39F |bgcolor(#9CF):9CF |bgcolor(#CCF):CCF |bgcolor(#C9F):~C9F |bgcolor(#96C):@@color(white):96C@@ |bgcolor(#639):@@color(white):639@@ |bgcolor(#306):@@color(white):306@@ |bgcolor(#90C):@@color(white):90C@@ |bgcolor(#C0C):@@color(white):~C0C@@ |
|bgcolor(#0F3):0F3 |bgcolor(#3F6):3F6 |bgcolor(#093):093 |bgcolor(#0C6):0C6 |bgcolor(#3F9):3F9 |bgcolor(#9FF):9FF |bgcolor(#9CC):9CC |bgcolor(#06C):@@color(white):06C@@ |bgcolor(#69C):69C |bgcolor(#99F):99F |bgcolor(#99C):99C |bgcolor(#93F):@@color(white):93F@@ |bgcolor(#60C):@@color(white):60C@@ |bgcolor(#609):@@color(white):609@@ |bgcolor(#C3F):@@color(white):~C3F@@ |bgcolor(#C0F):@@color(white):~C0F@@ |
|bgcolor(#0F6):0F6 |bgcolor(#6F9):6F9 |bgcolor(#3C6):3C6 |bgcolor(#096):096 |bgcolor(#6FF):6FF |bgcolor(#6CC):6CC |bgcolor(#699):699 |bgcolor(#036):@@color(white):036@@ |bgcolor(#369):@@color(white):369@@ |bgcolor(#66F):@@color(white):66F@@ |bgcolor(#66C):@@color(white):66C@@ |bgcolor(#669):@@color(white):669@@ |bgcolor(#309):@@color(white):309@@ |bgcolor(#93C):@@color(white):93C@@ |bgcolor(#C6F):@@color(white):~C6F@@ |bgcolor(#90F):@@color(white):90F@@ |
|bgcolor(#0F9):0F9 |bgcolor(#6FC):6FC |bgcolor(#3C9):3C9 |bgcolor(#3FF):3FF |bgcolor(#3CC):3CC |bgcolor(#399):399 |bgcolor(#366):@@color(white):366@@ |bgcolor(#069):@@color(white):069@@ |bgcolor(#039):@@color(white):039@@ |bgcolor(#33F):@@color(white):33F@@ |bgcolor(#33C):@@color(white):33C@@ |bgcolor(#339):@@color(white):339@@ |bgcolor(#336):@@color(white):336@@ |bgcolor(#63C):@@color(white):63C@@ |bgcolor(#96F):@@color(white):96F@@ |bgcolor(#60F):@@color(white):60F@@ |
|bgcolor(#0FC):0FC |bgcolor(#3FC):3FC |bgcolor(#0FF):0FF |bgcolor(#0CC):0CC |bgcolor(#099):099 |bgcolor(#066):@@color(white):066@@ |bgcolor(#033):@@color(white):033@@ |bgcolor(#39C):39C |bgcolor(#36C):@@color(white):36C@@ |bgcolor(#00F):@@color(white):00F@@ |bgcolor(#00C):@@color(white):00C@@ |bgcolor(#009):@@color(white):009@@ |bgcolor(#006):@@color(white):006@@ |bgcolor(#003):@@color(white):003@@ |bgcolor(#63F):@@color(white):63F@@ |bgcolor(#30F):@@color(white):30F@@ |
|bgcolor(#0C9):0C9 |>|>|>| |bgcolor(#09C):09C |bgcolor(#3CF):3CF |bgcolor(#6CF):6CF |bgcolor(#69F):69F |bgcolor(#36F):@@color(white):36F@@ |bgcolor(#03C):@@color(white):03C@@ |>|>|>| |bgcolor(#30C):@@color(white):30C@@ |
|>|>|>|>|>| |bgcolor(#0CF):0CF |bgcolor(#09F):09F |bgcolor(#06F):@@color(white):06F@@ |bgcolor(#03F):@@color(white):03F@@ |>|>|>|>|>| |
<script>place.lastChild.style.width="95%"</script>}}}
/* multi-column tiddler content (not supported in Internet Explorer) */
.twocolumns { display:block;
	-moz-column-count:2; -moz-column-gap:1em; -moz-column-width:50%; /* FireFox */
	-webkit-column-count:2; -webkit-column-gap:1em; -webkit-column-width:50%; /* Safari */
	column-count:2; column-gap:1em; column-width:50%; /* Opera */
}
.threecolumns { display:block;
	-moz-column-count:3; -moz-column-gap:1em; -moz-column-width:33%; /* FireFox */
	-webkit-column-count:3; -webkit-column-gap:1em; -webkit-column-width:33%; /* Safari */
	column-count:3; column-gap:1em; column-width:33%; /* Opera */
}
.fourcolumns { display:block;
	-moz-column-count:4; -moz-column-gap:1em; -moz-column-width:25%; /* FireFox */
	-webkit-column-count:4; -webkit-column-gap:1em; -webkit-column-width:25%; /* Safari */
	column-count:4; column-gap:1em; column-width:25%; /* Opera */
}
[img[http://img263.imageshack.us/img263/3124/mcnaught3kemppainenpx1.jpg]]
''When you want to use commas and semicolons in sentences'' and when you are concerned about whether a sentence is or is not a fragment, a good way to start is to be able to recognize dependent and independent clauses. The definitions offered here will help you with this.
!!!''This handout will:''
* define independent and dependent clauses
* explain proper ways to punctuate sentences that use them
* note some common errors to avoid
!!!''Definitions''
''Independent Clause (IC)''
<<<
An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.

    ''Example'': Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz. (IC)
<<<
''Dependent Clause (DC)''
<<<
A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.

    ''Example'': When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (DC)
<<<
''Dependent Marker Word (DM)''
<<<
A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.

    ''Example'': When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy. (DM)

Some common dependent markers are: @@color:#A00;''after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether'',@@ and@@color:#A00; ''while''.@@
<<<
''Connecting dependent and independent clauses''
<<<
There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: ''coordinating conjunctions'' and ''independent marker words''.
<<<
''1. Coordinating Conjunction (CC)''
<<<
    The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are; @@color:#A00; ''and, but, for, or, nor, so'',@@ and @@color:#A00;''yet''@@. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction:

    ''Example'': Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. (CC)
<<<
''2. Independent Marker Word (IM)''
<<<
    An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.

    ''Example'': Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. (IM)

    Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore.
<<<
''Proper Punctuation Methods''
<<<
This table gives some examples of ways to combine independent and dependent clauses and shows how to punctuate them properly.
|IC. IC.|I went to the store. I didn't buy any bread.|
|IC; IC.|I went to the store; I didn't buy any bread.|
|IC, CC IC.|I went to the store, but I didn't buy any bread.|
|IC; IM, IC.|I went to the store; however, I didn't buy any bread.|
|DC, IC.|When I went to the store, I didn't buy any bread.|
|IC DC.|I didn't buy any bread when I went to the store.|
<<<
''Some Common Errors to Avoid''
<<<
''Comma Splices''

A comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences, by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.

   ''Incorrect'': --I like this class, it is very interesting.--

    ''Correct'': I like this class. It is very interesting.

        (or) I like this class; it is very interesting.

        (or) I like this class, and it is very interesting.

        (or) I like this class because it is very interesting.

        (or) Because it is very interesting, I like this class.
<<<
''Fused Sentences''
<<<
Fused sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any form of punctuation. This error is also known as a run-on sentence. The error can sometimes be corrected by adding a period, semicolon, or colon to separate the two sentences.

    ''Incorrect'': --My professor is intelligent I've learned a lot from her.--

    ''Correct'': My professor is intelligent. I've learned a lot from her.

        (or) My professor is intelligent; I've learned a lot from her.

        (or) My professor is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.

        (or) My professor is intelligent; moreover, I've learned a lot from her.
<<<
''Sentence Fragments''
<<<
Sentence fragments happen by treating a dependent clause or other incomplete thought as a complete sentence. You can usually fix this error by combining it with another sentence to make a complete thought or by removing the dependent marker.

    ''Incorrect'': --Because I forgot the exam was today.--

    ''Correct'': Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn't study.

        (or) I forgot the exam was today.
<<<
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/grammar/g_commacomp.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/grammar/g_commacomp.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>}}}
/%
|Name|CommentScript|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#CommentScript|
|Version|1.2.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin, NestedSlidersPlugin, MoveablePanelPlugin, ExpandSlidersScript (optional)|
|Overrides||
|Description|form to enter feedback/comments that are automatically added to tiddler content|

Usage:
<<tiddler CommentScript with: reverse>>

To indicate the location within the containing tiddler where new comments are to be saved, embed the keyword "comment", enclosed in TW begin/end comment syntax in the containing tiddler source.  If you omit the comment marker from your tiddler source, new comments are automatically appended to the end of the tiddler.  'reverse' is an optional keyword that causes all new comments to be inserted AFTER the comment marker instead of before the marker (producing reverse chronological order).  If there is no comment marker in your tiddlers source, the 'reverse' option is ignored and new comments are automatically appended to the end of the tiddler.

You can customize the format of the comment by redefining:
	config.options.txtCommentFormat="format string"
The default format string is:
	+++!!!!![%0 (%1): %2]>\n%3===\n
where: %0=date/timestamp, %1=username, %2=subject, and %3 is the body of the comment

You can further customize the date/timestamp format by defining:
	config.options.txtCommentDateFormat
When no custom format is defined, it defaults to current system-specific "locale" format.

Revisions:
2008.10.24 [1.2.0] added config.options.txtCommentDateFormat
2007.07.05 [1.1.0] added 'view all/close all' toolbar item plus code cleanup
2007.06.28 [1.0.2] added tiddler.fields to saveTiddler() call (preserves custom fields)
2007.05.26 [1.0.1] added support for optional 'reverse' keyword.
2006.04.20 [1.0.0] initial release

%/@@position:relative;+++^40em^{{small{[add a note|add a new note to this tiddler]}}}...
	<<moveablePanel>>add a note
----
	{{smallform small center{<html><form><!--
		--><input type="text" id="subject" name="subject" title="enter a short 'headline'" style="width:100%">
		<textarea id="body" name="body" rows="7" title="enter the text of your note" style="width:100%;font-family:helvetica,sans"></textarea>
		<i>Please enter your information and then press</i> <!--
		--><input type="button" value="post" onclick="addTiddlerComment(this.form.subject,this.form.body);"><!--
	--></form></html>}}}===
@@ |{{small{<<tiddler ExpandSlidersScript with: here "view all" "close all">>}}}<script>

window.addTiddlerComment = function(subject,body) { 
	// get the tiddler source and locate insertion marker (if present)
	var here=story.findContainingTiddler(subject); if (!here) return;
	var t=store.getTiddler(here.getAttribute("tiddler"));
	var marker="/%"+"comment"+"%/"; var pos=t.text.indexOf(marker); if (pos==-1) pos=t.text.length;
	if ("$1".toLowerCase()=="reverse") pos+=marker.length; // reverse order by inserting AFTER comment marker
	// update source and refresh tiddler display
	if (config.options.txtCommentDateFormat)
		var when=new Date().formatString(config.options.txtCommentDateFormat);
	else
		var when=new Date().toLocaleString();
	var who=config.options.txtUserName;
	if (config.options.txtCommentFormat==undefined)
		config.options.txtCommentFormat="+++[*%0 : %1 %2]>\n%3===\n\n";
	var out=config.options.txtCommentFormat.format([when,subject.value,body.value]);
	var newtxt=t.text.substr(0,pos)+out+t.text.substr(pos);
	store.saveTiddler(t.title,t.title,newtxt,t.modifier,t.modified,t.tags,t.fields);
	story.refreshTiddler(t.title,1,true);
}
</script>


+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:18:52 (MorrisGray): scripts]>
http://tinyurl.com/yqbsjz » »  Rotating Images
http://tinyurl.com/2jqxm2 » » Customizing Print Styles===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:23:20 (new note): ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:24:32 (test): ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:27:19 (test): ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:29:53 : ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:30:29 : ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:31:40 : ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:33:01 : (a note) ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:34:43 : (ABC Science Web Sites) ABC Science Web Sites

    * ABCBrowser
      Television
      Ockham's Razor
      The Science Show
      The Lab
      Health Matters
      Catalyst
      Quantum
      Science News
      Catapult
      + SM List Members
      Southern Sky Watch
      Ian Musgrave
      Margaret L Ruwoldt
      Science-Matters List
      Science-Matters List Topics
      All Knowledge
      Meredith(soundwarp)
      Peter Macinnis, Science Fun
      The Funneled Web

      + Mailing Lists
      Subscribe
      Unsubscribe

          Detach this »» ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:36:25 : (test) ABC Science Web Sites

    * ABCBrowser
      Television
      Ockham's Razor
      The Science Show
      The Lab
      Health Matters
      Catalyst
      Quantum
      Science News
      Catapult
      + SM List Members
      Southern Sky Watch
      Ian Musgrave
      Margaret L Ruwoldt
      Science-Matters List
      Science-Matters List Topics
      All Knowledge
      Meredith(soundwarp)
      Peter Macinnis, Science Fun
      The Funneled Web

      + Mailing Lists
      Subscribe
      Unsubscribe

          Detach this »» ]>
===

+++[*Tuesday, 26 February, 2008 01:36:53 : (yes) my note]>
===

/%comment%/
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_misconceptions]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_misconceptions" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
<<configOptions
chkOpenInNewWindow=true
chkIncrementalSearch=
chkAutoSave=false
txtUserName=MsgRay
chkSaveBackups=true
chkRegExpSearch=true
chkCaseSensitiveSearch=
chkAnimate=false
chkGenerateAnRssFeed=
chkCaseSensitiveSearch=
chkHttpReadOnly=
chkSearchTitles=true
chkSearchText=true
chkSearchTags=true
chkSearchTitlesFirst=false
chkSearchList=true
chkHoldSearches=false
chkSaveEmptyTemplate=false
chkSinglePageMode=false
chkToggleLinks=false
txtMaxEditRows=30
txtBackupFolder=ScienceBackups
>>
/***
|''Name:''|ConfigOptionsMacro|
|''Version:''|0.1 (31 May 2007)|
|''Source''|http://jackparke.googlepages.com/jtw.html#ConfigOptionsMacro ([[del.icio.us|http://del.icio.us/post?url=http://jackparke.googlepages.com/jtw.html%23ConfigOptionsMacro]])|
|''Author:''|Jack|
!Description
This plugin allows you to store TiddlyWiki options in a tiddler. This means the options are part of the store and are not shared among TiddlyWiki files. The options are also more robust and persist when cookies are loaded.
!Usage
*After installation, enter the options you want persisted into the [[ConfigOptions]] tiddler
*In view mode of this tiddler you can see and modify the options
*Changes are effective and written immediately to the ConfigOptions tiddler as you modify them
*The options are loaded from ConfigOptions on startup of TiddlyWiki overriding any cookie settings
!Revision History
* Original by Jack 31 May 2007

!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.configOptions = {major: 0, minor: 0, revision: 1, date: new Date('May 31, 2007')};

config.shadowTiddlers.ConfigOptions = '<<configOptions\nchkAutoSave=false\ntxtUserName=Your Name\n>>'

config.macros.configOptions = {};
config.macros.configOptions.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
 var resultText = this.parseOptions(paramString);
 if (resultText) {
  resultText = '|!Option|!Value|\n' + resultText;
  wikify(resultText, place)
  //createTiddlyButton(place,'Update','Saves your current options to the ConfigOptions tiddler.',this.update);
  applyHtmlMacros(place,tiddler)
 }
}

config.macros.configOptions.init = function() {
 var txtConfigOptions = store.getValue('ConfigOptions', 'text') || config.shadowTiddlers.ConfigOptions; 
 txtConfigOptions = txtConfigOptions.substr(txtConfigOptions.indexOf('\n')).substr(0, txtConfigOptions.length-2);
 this.parseOptions(txtConfigOptions);
}
config.macros.configOptions.parseOptions = function (paramString) {
 var resultText = ''
 var options = paramString.split(/\n/);
 for(var i=0; i < options.length; i++) {
  var opt = options[i].split('=');
  if(opt.length > 1) {
   if (opt[1] != 'true' && opt[1] != 'false' && !opt[1].match(/^\d+$/))
    opt[1] = '\'' + opt[1].replace(/'/, '\\\'') + '\'';
    resultText += '|' + opt[0].replace(/^[a-z]{2,3}/,'') + '|<<option ' + opt[0] + '>>|\n'
   try {
    eval('config.options.' + opt[0] + ' = ' + opt[1] + ';');
    //alert('config.options.' + opt[0] + ' = ' + opt[1] + ';')
   } catch (e) {
    debugger
   }
  }
 }
 return resultText;
}
config.macros.option.propagateOption = function(opt,valueField,value,elementType)
{
	config.options[opt] = value;
//	saveOptionCookie(opt);
	//if (opt=='txtUserName') debugger;
	if ((new RegExp('\n' + opt + '=','g')).test(store.getValue('ConfigOptions','text'))) {
	 config.macros.configOptions.updateOption(opt, decodeCookie(config.optionHandlers[opt.substr(0,3)].get(opt)))
	}
	
	var nodes = document.getElementsByTagName(elementType);
	for(var t=0; t<nodes.length; t++) {
		var optNode = nodes[t].getAttribute("option");
		if(opt == optNode)
			nodes[t][valueField] = value;
		}

}
config.macros.configOptions.updateOption = function(name, value) {
 var txtConfigOptions = store.getValue('ConfigOptions', 'text'); 
 var t1 = txtConfigOptions.indexOf('\n' + name + '=');
 var t2 = txtConfigOptions.indexOf('\n', t1+1);
 txtConfigOptions = txtConfigOptions.substr(0,t1) + '\n' + name + '=' + value + txtConfigOptions.substr(t2)
 store.setValue('ConfigOptions', 'text', txtConfigOptions)
}
//}}}
config.options.chkHttpReadOnly = false;
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===


----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
(function() {
for (var i = 0; i < config.formatters.length; i++)
    if (config.formatters[i].name == "strikeByChar")
        break;
if (i < config.formatters.length)
    config.formatters.splice(i,1);
})(); 
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.convertunits.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www.convertunits.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>

The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. Bohr and Heisenberg extended the probabilistic interpretation of the wave function, proposed by Max Born. Their interpretation attempts to answer some perplexing questions which arise as a result of the quantum mechanics, such as wave-particle duality and the measurement problem.

Source: [[Copenhagen interpretation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_Interpretation]]
/***
|Name|CoreTweaks|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#CoreTweaks|
|Version|none|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|replaceSelection, restart, config.macros.edit.handler, Story.prototype.closeTiddler, Story.prototype.refreshTiddler, Slider.prototype.tick |
|Description|a small collection of overrides to TW core functions|

This tiddler contains some quick tweaks and modifications to TW core functions to provide minor changes in standard features or behavior.  It is hoped that some of these tweaks may be incorporated into later versions of the TW core, so that these adjustements will be available without needing these add-on definitions.
----
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
// // calculate version number for conditional inclusion of tweaks below...
//{{{
var ver=version.major+version.minor/10;
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is included in the TW2.2 core - ''use with TW2.1.3 or earlier''
// // BUG: when {{{<<newTiddler>>}}} is invoked with a {{{title:xxxx}}} param, the title is being passed through the Date.formatString() method, converting all occurrences of date/time formatting sequences (such as "ss" for seconds) with their corresponding values, as if {{{<<newJournal}}}>> had been invoked instead.
// // FIX: in onClickNewTiddler(), explicitly check "isJournal" attribute for "true", instead of just a non-zero value.
//{{{
if (ver<2.2) {
config.macros.newTiddler.onClickNewTiddler = function()
{
	var title = this.getAttribute("newTitle");
	if(this.getAttribute("isJournal")=="true") // ELS: added explicit check for =="true" instead of just non-zero value
		{
		var now = new Date();
		title = now.formatString(title.trim());
		}
	var params = this.getAttribute("params").split("|");
	var focus = this.getAttribute("newFocus");
	var template = this.getAttribute("newTemplate");
	story.displayTiddler(null,title,template);
	var text = this.getAttribute("newText");
	if(typeof text == "string")
		story.getTiddlerField(title,"text").value = text.format([title]);
	for(var t=0;t<params.length;t++)
		story.setTiddlerTag(title,params[t],+1);
	story.focusTiddler(title,focus);
	return false;
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is included in the TW2.2 core - ''use with TW2.1.3 or earlier''
// // BUG: when a tiddler contains an explicitly bracketed link (e.g., [[foo]]), it will still be reported in the 'missing tiddlers' tab (assuming that 'foo' doesn't exist), even when the tiddler is tagged with 'excludeMissing' or 'systemConfig'.
// // FIX: when generating the missing links list, suppress the spurious missing links by skipping over any suitably tagged tiddlers, regardless of the contents of the links[] array.
//{{{
if (ver<2.2) {
TiddlyWiki.prototype.getMissingLinks = function(sortField)
{
	if(!this.tiddlersUpdated)
		this.updateTiddlers();
	var results = [];
	this.forEachTiddler(function (title,tiddler) {
		if (tiddler.isTagged("excludeMissing")||tiddler.isTagged("systemConfig")) return; // ELS: skip tagged tiddlers
		for(var n=0; n<tiddler.links.length;n++)
			{
			var link = tiddler.links[n];
			if(this.fetchTiddler(link) == null && !this.isShadowTiddler(link))
				results.pushUnique(link);
			}
		});
	results.sort();
	return results;
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is included in the TW2.2.0 core - ''use with TW2.2.0 //beta 5// only''
// // fix for loadMissingTiddler(), which needs to have a non-null 'fields' value
// // passed to it, or it will get a fatal error
//{{{
if (ver==2.2 && version.beta==5) {
Story.prototype.coreTweaks_loadMissingTiddler = Story.prototype.loadMissingTiddler
Story.prototype.loadMissingTiddler = function(title,fields,tiddlerElem)
{
	if (!fields) return null; // ELS - check for valid custom fields
	return this.coreTweaks_loadMissingTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is included in the TW2.2 core - ''use with TW2.2.0 beta5 or TW2.1.3 or earlier''
// // fix for bug#301, in which FireFox doesn't properly re-display textarea contents when other elements are removed from the DOM, causing the textarea to shift position but leave the textarea contents behind (overlapping other content)
// // this tweak uses a CSS trick to force the page contents to "reflow" after invoking closeTiddler() or refreshTiddler()
//{{{

if ((ver<2.2)||(ver==2.2 && version.beta==5)) {
config.browser.isGecko = (config.userAgent.indexOf("gecko")!=-1);
// Force the browser to do a document reflow when needed to workaround browser bugs
function forceReflow()
{
	if(config.browser.isGecko) {
		setStylesheet("body {top:-1em;margin-top:1em;}");
		setStylesheet("");
	}
}
Story.prototype.coreTweaks_closeTiddler = Story.prototype.closeTiddler;
Story.prototype.closeTiddler = function(title,animate,unused)
{
	this.coreTweaks_closeTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	forceReflow();
}
Story.prototype.coreTweaks_refreshTiddler = Story.prototype.refreshTiddler;
Story.prototype.refreshTiddler = function(title,template,force)
{
	var elem=this.coreTweaks_refreshTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	forceReflow();
	return elem;
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is included in the TW2.2 core - ''use with TW2.1.3 or earlier''
// // corrects FireFox handling for replaceSelection() so that selected content is actually replaced instead of simply inserting next text.
//{{{
if (ver<2.2) {
function replaceSelection(e,text)
{
	if (e.setSelectionRange) {
		var oldpos = e.selectionStart;
		var isRange=e.selectionEnd-e.selectionStart;
		e.value = e.value.substr(0,e.selectionStart) + text + e.value.substr(e.selectionEnd);
		e.setSelectionRange( isRange?oldpos:oldpos+text.length, oldpos+text.length);
		var linecount = e.value.split('\n').length;
		var thisline = e.value.substr(0,e.selectionStart).split('\n').length-1;
		e.scrollTop = Math.floor((thisline-e.rows/2)*e.scrollHeight/linecount);
	}
	else if (document.selection) {
		var range = document.selection.createRange();
		if (range.parentElement() == e)	{
			var isCollapsed = range.text == "";
			range.text = text;
			 if (!isCollapsed) {
				range.moveStart('character', -text.length);
				range.select();
			}
		}
	}
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is obsolete in TW2.2, which uses a different animation 'engine' - ''use with TW2.1.3 or earlier''
// // When a slider is opened/closed with animation enabled, the opacity/alphafilter styles are incrementally adjusted to create a "fade-in/fade-out" effect.  However, this effect seems to render incredibly slowly on FireFox, and even slower when the background image is a complex JPG photo image, making animation impractical to use.  This tweak provides an option to disable the opacity/alphafilter handling, while leaving the 'incremental height' animation intact.  The resulting increase in performance makes it possible to leave the animation enabled so that you can benefit from the visual cues it provides.
//{{{
if (ver<2.2) {
if (!config.options.chkEnableFade) config.options.chkEnableFade=false; // ELS: added conditional option for fade-in/fade-out
Slider.prototype.tick = function()
{
	this.progress += this.step;
	if(this.progress < 0 || this.progress > 1)
		{
		this.stop();
		return false;
		}
	else
		{
		var f = Animator.slowInSlowOut(this.progress);
		var h = this.realHeight * f;
		this.element.style.height = h + "px";
		if (config.options.chkEnableFade) // ELS: added conditional option for fade-in/fade-out
			{
			this.element.style.opacity = f;
			this.element.style.filter = "alpha(opacity:" + f * 100 +")";
			}
		return true;
		}
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // NOTE: This tweak is included in the TW2.2 core - ''use with TW2.1.3 or earlier''
// // This tweak adds an optional 'rows' parameters to the 'edit' macro (used in EditTemplate).  When 'rows' is specified, the field in the tiddler editor is rendered as a multi-line textarea element instead of a single-line input element
//{{{
if (ver<2.2) {
config.macros.edit.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)
{
	var field = params[0];
	var rows = params[1]; // ELS: optional row count (forces creation of textarea element)
	if((tiddler instanceof Tiddler) && field) {
		story.setDirty(tiddler.title,true);
		if(field != "text" && !rows) { // create single-line input element
			var e = createTiddlyElement(null,"input");
			if(tiddler.isReadOnly())
				e.setAttribute("readOnly","readOnly");
			e.setAttribute("edit",field);
			e.setAttribute("type","text");
			var v = store.getValue(tiddler,field);
			if(!v) 
				v = "";
			e.value = v;
			e.setAttribute("size","40");
			e.setAttribute("autocomplete","off");
			place.appendChild(e);
		} else { // create multi-line textarea element
			var wrapper1 = createTiddlyElement(null,"fieldset",null,"fieldsetFix");
			var wrapper2 = createTiddlyElement(wrapper1,"div");
			var e = createTiddlyElement(wrapper2,"textarea");
			if(tiddler.isReadOnly())
				e.setAttribute("readOnly","readOnly");
			var v = store.getValue(tiddler,field);
			if(!v) 
				v = "";
			e.value = v;
			var rows = rows?rows:10; // ELS: use specified # of rows if provided, otherwise, default as usual
			var lines = v.match(/\n/mg);
			var maxLines = Math.max(parseInt(config.options.txtMaxEditRows),5);
			if(lines != null && lines.length > rows)
				rows = lines.length + 5;
			rows = Math.min(rows,maxLines);
			e.setAttribute("rows",rows);
			e.setAttribute("edit",field);
			place.appendChild(wrapper1);
		}
	}
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
/***
This tweak adds a {{{<<wikify>>}}} macro that allows you to easily render small bits of wiki-syntax content that you can embed directly into a template.  For example: {{{<span class='...' macro='wikify "//Today is:// <<today>>"'></span>}}}, which will display the current date with a suitably formatted heading.
***/
//{{{
config.macros.wikify={ handler: function(place,macroName,params) { wikify(params.join(" "),place); } }
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // This tweak adds URL paramifier handlers for "hide:elementID" and "show:elementID".  This is useful for forcing the display state of specific TW page elements, without requiring StyleSheet changes.  For example, if your customized StyleSheet hides the sidebar (useful for 'read only' published documents), you can force it to display when you need to edit the document by adding {{{#show:sidebar}}} to the document URL.  Alternatively, you might want to supress non-tiddler content when printing by hiding the sidebars and header (e.g., {{{#hide:mainMenu hide:sidebar hide:header}}})
//{{{
if (config.paramifiers) { // check for backward-compatibility
	config.paramifiers.hide = { onstart: function(id) { var e=document.getElementById(id); if (e) e.style.display="none"; } };
	config.paramifiers.show = { onstart: function(id) { var e=document.getElementById(id); if (e) e.style.display="block"; } };
}
//}}}
// // }}}

// // {{groupbox small{
// // This HIJACK tweak pre-processes source content to convert "double-backslash-newline" into {{{<br>}}} before wikify(), so that literal newlines can be embedded in line-mode wiki syntax (e.g., tables, bullets, etc.).  Based on a suggestion from Sitaram Chamarty.
//{{{
window.coreWikify = wikify;
window.wikify = function(source,output,highlightRegExp,tiddler)
{
	if (source) arguments[0]=source.replace(/\\\\\n/mg,"<br>");
	coreWikify.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
/***
|Name|CoreTweaks|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#CoreTweaks|
|Version|n/a|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.2.4|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|various|
|Description|a small collection of overrides to TW core functions|
This tiddler contains some quick tweaks and modifications to TW core functions to provide minor changes in standard features or behavior.  It is hoped that some of these tweaks may be incorporated into later versions of the TW core, so that these adjustments will be available without needing these add-on definitions. ''Note: the changes contained in this tiddler are generally applicable for the current version of TiddlyWiki (<<version>>)./% Please view [[CoreTweaksArchive]] for tweaks and modifications that may be used with earlier versions of TiddlyWiki.%/''

To install //all// of these tweaks, import (or copy/paste) this tiddler into your document.  To include only //some// of the tweaks, you can edit the imported tiddler to remove the tweaks that you don't want.  Alternatively, you could copy/paste a few selected tweaks from this tiddler into a tiddler that you create in your own document.  Be certain to tag that tiddler with<<tag systemConfig>> (i.e., a plugin tiddler) and then save-and-reload for the tweaks to take effect.
***/
/***
!!! Ticketed Tweaks
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/675 - OPEN
// // This tweak adds a URL paramifier, "#recent:N", to automatically display the N most recently changed tiddlers.  N is, of course, an integer number.  If N=0 (or is not a numeric value), the regular [[DefaultTiddlers]] will be displayed.
//{{{
config.paramifiers.recent= {
	onstart: function(v) {
		var titles=[];
		var tids=store.getTiddlers("modified","excludeLists").reverse();
		for (var t=0; t<v && t<tids.length; t++) titles.push(tids[t].title);
		story.displayTiddlers(null,titles); 
	}
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/664 - OPEN
This tweak provides "loose" matching of tiddler titles so that text using variations of mixed-case and/or added/omitted spaces can still be used to create links enclosed in {{{[[...]]}}}.  This permits normal prose-style text to be easily linked to tiddler titles, without requiring use of the "pretty link" syntax.  For example:
{{{
[[CoreTweaks]], [[coreTweaks]], [[core tweaks]],
[[CORE TWEAKS]], [[CoRe TwEaKs]], [[coreTWEAKS]]
}}}
>[[CoreTweaks]], [[coreTweaks]], [[core tweaks]],
>[[CORE TWEAKS]], [[CoRe TwEaKs]], [[coreTWEAKS]]
Configuration:
><<option chkLooseLinks>> Allow case-folded and/or space-folded text to link to existing tiddler titles
>{{{usage: <<option chkLooseLinks>>}}}
***/
//{{{
if (!config.options.chkLooseLinks)
	config.options.chkLooseLinks=false; // default to standard behavior
window.caseFold_createTiddlyLink = window.createTiddlyLink;
window.createTiddlyLink = function(place,title,includeText,className) {
	var btn=window.caseFold_createTiddlyLink.apply(this,arguments); // create core link
	if (!config.options.chkLooseLinks) return btn;
	if (store.getTiddlerText(title)) return btn; // matching tiddler (or shadow) exists
	var target=title.toLowerCase().replace(/\s/g,"");
	var tids=store.getTiddlers("title");
	for (var t=0; t<tids.length; t++) {
		if (tids[t].title.toLowerCase().replace(/\s/g,"")==target) {
			var i=getTiddlyLinkInfo(tids[t].title,className);
			btn.setAttribute("tiddlyLink",tids[t].title);
			btn.title=i.subTitle;
			btn.className=i.classes;
			break;
		}
	}
	return btn;
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/657 - OPEN
// // This tweak inserts an extra space element following each tab, allowing them to wrap onto multiple lines if needed.
//{{{
config.macros.tabs.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	var cookie = params[0];
	var numTabs = (params.length-1)/3;
	var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(null,"div",null,"tabsetWrapper " + cookie);
	var tabset = createTiddlyElement(wrapper,"div",null,"tabset");
	tabset.setAttribute("cookie",cookie);
	var validTab = false;
	for(var t=0; t<numTabs; t++) {
		var label = params[t*3+1];
		var prompt = params[t*3+2];
		var content = params[t*3+3];
		var tab = createTiddlyButton(tabset,label,prompt,this.onClickTab,"tab tabUnselected");
		createTiddlyElement(tab,"span",null,null," ",{style:"font-size:0pt;line-height:0px"}); // ELS
		tab.setAttribute("tab",label);
		tab.setAttribute("content",content);
		tab.title = prompt;
		if(config.options[cookie] == label)
			validTab = true;
	}
	if(!validTab)
		config.options[cookie] = params[1];
	place.appendChild(wrapper);
	this.switchTab(tabset,config.options[cookie]);
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/635 - FIXED (not yet released) http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/changeset/5116
// // When using backstage>import "browse" button, resulting URL is improperly formed with "file://" prefix instead of "file:///" prefix.  This causes errors when using Firefox 3 (beta) or when running under Windows Vista OS.
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/638 - FIXED (not yet released) http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/changeset/5080
// // When entering text directly into path/file field, each keystroke is displayed and then discarded, preventing manual entry of path/file.
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/639 - FIXED (not yet released) http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/changeset/5113
// // Pressing "enter" from URL or Browse input field immediately reloads the current document.  Instead, it should trigger the "open" button for the import wizard (if a URL has been entered)
//{{{
// #635 and #638
config.macros.importTiddlers.onBrowseChange = function(e)
{
	var wizard = new Wizard(this);
	var fileInput = wizard.getElement("txtPath");
	fileInput.value = config.macros.importTiddlers.getURLFromLocalPath(this.value); // #635
	var serverType = wizard.getElement("selTypes");
	serverType.value = "file";
	return true; // #638
};
// #635 - fixup local path/file to form absolute URL reference
config.macros.importTiddlers.getURLFromLocalPath = function(v)
{
	if (!v||!v.length) return v;
	v=v.replace(/\\/g,"/"); // use "/" for cross-platform consistency
	var t=v.split(":"); p=t[1]||t[0]; // remove drive letter (if any)
	if (t[1] && (t[0]=="http"||t[0]=="https"||t[0]=="file")) { // input is already a URL
		var u=v;
	} else if (p.substr(0,1)=="/") { // path is absolute, add protocol+domain+extra slash (if drive letter)
		var u=document.location.protocol+"//"+document.location.hostname+(t[1]?"/":"")+v;
	} else { // path is relative, add current document protocol+domain+path
		var c=document.location.href.replace(/\\/g,"/");
		var pos=c.lastIndexOf("/"); if (pos!=-1) c=c.substr(0,pos); // remove filename
		var u=c+"/"+p;
	}
	return u;
}
// #639 - prevent form action and click "open" button if ENTER is pressed
config.macros.importTiddlers.coreTweaks_restart = config.macros.importTiddlers.restart;
config.macros.importTiddlers.restart = function(wizard)
{
	config.macros.importTiddlers.coreTweaks_restart.apply(this,arguments);
	wizard.formElem.action="javascript:;"
	wizard.formElem.onsubmit=function() {
		if (this.txtPath.value.length)
			this.lastChild.firstChild.onclick();  // press "open" button
	}
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/637 - OPEN
// // This tweak modifies the tooltip format that appears when you mouseover a link to a tiddler.  It adds an option to control the date format, as well as displaying the size of the tiddler (in bytes)
// //
// // Tiddler link tooltip format:
// // {{stretch{<<option txtTiddlerLinkTootip>>}}}
// // ^^where: %0=title, %1=username, %2=modification date, %3=size in bytes^^
// // Tiddler link tooltip date format:
// // {{stretch{<<option txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate>>}}}
//{{{
config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltip="%0 - %1, %2 (%3 bytes)";
config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltipDate="DDD, MMM DDth YYYY 0hh12:0mm AM";

config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTootip=
	config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTootip||config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltip;
config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate=
	config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate||config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltipDate;

Tiddler.prototype.getSubtitle = function() {
	var modifier = this.modifier;
	if(!modifier) modifier = config.messages.subtitleUnknown;
	var modified = this.modified;
	if(modified) modified = modified.formatString(config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate);
	else modified = config.messages.subtitleUnknown;
	return config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTootip.format([this.title,modifier,modified,this.text.length]);
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/628 - OPEN
// // When invoking a macro that is not defined, this tweak prevents the display of the "error in macro... no such macro" message.  This is useful when rendering tiddler content or templates that reference macros that are defined by //optional// plugins that have not been installed in the current document.
// //
// // <<option chkHideMissingMacros>> hide "no such macro" error messages
//{{{
if (config.options.chkHideMissingMacros===undefined)
	config.options.chkHideMissingMacros=false;

window.coreTweaks_missingMacro_invokeMacro = window.invokeMacro;
window.invokeMacro = function(place,macro,params,wikifier,tiddler) {
	if (!config.macros[macro] || !config.macros[macro].handler)
		if (config.options.chkHideMissingMacros) return;
	window.coreTweaks_missingMacro_invokeMacro.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/623 - FIXED (not yet released) http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/changeset/5143
/***
This tweak allows date format strings to contain backslash-quoted characters that bypass date format replacement.  This allows sequences such as "s\s", "m\m" or "a\m" to be used so that "ss", "mm" or "am" can appears as literal text within journal titles or other date-formatted values.

For example:
>{{{<<today "withhold less hummingbirds - YYYY.0MM.0DD 0hh:0mm:0ss">>}}}
>results in: <<today "withhold less hummingbirds - YYYY.0MM.0DD 0hh:0mm:0ss">>
while:
>{{{<<today "with\hold les\s hum\mingbirds - YYYY.0MM.0DD 0hh:0mm:0ss">>}}}
>results in: <<today "with\hold les\s hum\mingbirds - YYYY.0MM.0DD 0hh:0mm:0ss">>
***/
//{{{
Date.prototype.coreTweaks_formatString = Date.prototype.formatString;
Date.prototype.formatString = function(template) {
	var t = Date.prototype.coreTweaks_formatString.apply(this,arguments);
	t = t.replace(/\\/g,""); // strip backslashes used to quote formats
	return t;
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/609 - OPEN (separators)
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/610 - OPEN (wikify tiddler/slice/section content)
// // These tweaks extend the {{{<<toolbar>>}}} macro to permit use of "|" as separators, as well as recognizing references to tiddlernames, slices, or sections and rendering their content inline within the toolbar
// // ''see [[ToolbarCommands]] for examples of how these features can be used''
//{{{
merge(config.macros.toolbar,{
	separator: "|"
	});
config.macros.toolbar.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)
{
	for(var t=0; t<params.length; t++) {
		var c = params[t];
		switch(c) {
			case '|':  // ELS - SEPARATOR
			case '!':  // ELS - SEPARATOR (alternative for use in tiddler slices)
				createTiddlyText(place,this.separator); // ELS
				break; // ELS
			case '>':
				var btn = createTiddlyButton(place,this.moreLabel,this.morePrompt,config.macros.toolbar.onClickMore);
				addClass(btn,"moreCommand");
				var e = createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"moreCommand");
				e.style.display = "none";
				place = e;
				break;
			default:
				var theClass = "";
				switch(c.substr(0,1)) {
					case "+":
						theClass = "defaultCommand";
						c = c.substr(1);
						break;
					case "-":
						theClass = "cancelCommand";
						c = c.substr(1);
						break;
				}
				if(c in config.commands)
					this.createCommand(place,c,tiddler,theClass);
				else { // ELS - WIKIFY TIDDLER/SLICE/SECTION
					if (c.substr(0,1)=="~") c=c.substr(1); // ignore leading ~
					var txt=store.getTiddlerText(c);
					if (txt) {
						txt=txt.replace(/^\n*/,"").replace(/\n*$/,""); // trim any leading/trailing newlines
						txt=txt.replace(/^\{\{\{\n/,"").replace(/\n\}\}\}$/,""); // trim PRE format wrapper if any
						wikify(txt,createTiddlyElement(place,"span"),null,tiddler);
					}
				} // ELS - end WIKIFY CONTENT
				break;
		}
	}
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/608 - OPEN
// // This tweak extends the {{{<<toolbar>>}}} macro to make the ">" (more) a //toggle// between more/less with the additional toolbar commands displayed on a separate line.
//{{{
merge(config.macros.toolbar,{
	moreLabel: 'more',
	morePrompt: "Show additional commands",
	lessLabel: 'less',
	lessPrompt: "Hide additional commands"
});
config.macros.toolbar.onClickMore = function(ev)
{
	var e = this.nextSibling;
	var showing=e.style.display=="block";
	e.style.display = showing?"none":"block";
	this.innerHTML=showing?config.macros.toolbar.moreLabel:config.macros.toolbar.lessLabel;
	this.title=showing?config.macros.toolbar.morePrompt:config.macros.toolbar.lessPrompt;
	return false;
};
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/607 - OPEN
// // This tweak automatically sets the HREF for the 'permaview' sidebar command link so you can use the 'right click' context menu for faster, easier bookmarking.  Note that this does ''not'' automatically set the permaview in the browser's current location URL... it just sets the HREF on the command link.  You still have to click the link to apply the permaview.
//{{{
config.macros.permaview.handler = function(place)
{
	var btn=createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,this.onClick);
	addEvent(btn,"mouseover",this.setHREF);
	addEvent(btn,"focus",this.setHREF);
};
config.macros.permaview.setHREF = function(event){
	var links = [];
	story.forEachTiddler(function(title,element) {
		links.push(String.encodeTiddlyLink(title));
	});
	var newURL=document.location.href;
	var hashPos=newURL.indexOf("#");
	if (hashPos!=-1) newURL=newURL.substr(0,hashPos);
	this.href=newURL+"#"+encodeURIComponent(links.join(" "));
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/529 - OPEN
// // This tweak hijacks the standard browser function, document.getElementById(), to work-around the case-INsensitivity error in Internet Explorer (all versions up to and including IE7) //''Note: This tweak is only applied when using IE, and only for lookups of rendered tiddler elements within the containing "tiddlerDisplay" element.''//
//{{{
if (config.browser.isIE) {
document.coreTweaks_coreGetElementById=document.getElementById;
document.getElementById=function(id) {
	var e=document.coreTweaks_coreGetElementById(id);
	if (!e || !e.parentNode || e.parentNode.id!="tiddlerDisplay") return e;
	for (var i=0; i<e.parentNode.childNodes.length; i++)
		if (id==e.parentNode.childNodes[i].id) return e.parentNode.childNodes[i];
	return null;
};
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/471 - OPEN
// // This tweak HIJACKS the core's saveTiddler() function to automatically add a "creator" field to a tiddler when it is FIRST created. You can use {{{<<view creator>>}}} (or {{{<<view creator wikified>>}}} if you prefer) to show this value embedded directly within the tiddler content, or {{{<span macro="view creator"></span>}}} in the ViewTemplate and/or EditTemplate to display the creator value in each tiddler.  
//{{{
// hijack saveTiddler()
TiddlyWiki.prototype.CoreTweaks_creatorSaveTiddler=TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler;
TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler=function(title,newTitle,newBody,modifier,modified,tags,fields)
{
	var existing=store.tiddlerExists(title);
	var tiddler=this.CoreTweaks_creatorSaveTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	if (!existing) store.setValue(title,"creator",config.options.txtUserName);
	return tiddler;
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/458 - CLOSED: WON'T FIX
// // This tweak assigns a "permalink"-like HREF to internal Tiddler links (which normally do not have any HREF defined).  This permits the link's context menu (right-click) to include 'open link in another window/tab' command.  Based on a request from Dustin Spicuzza.
//{{{
window.coreTweaks_createTiddlyLink=window.createTiddlyLink;
window.createTiddlyLink=function(place,title,includeText,theClass,isStatic,linkedFromTiddler,noToggle)
{
	// create the core button, then add the HREF (to internal links only)
	var link=window.coreTweaks_createTiddlyLink.apply(this,arguments);
	if (!isStatic)
		link.href=document.location.href.split("#")[0]+"#"+encodeURIComponent(String.encodeTiddlyLink(title));
	return link;
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/444 - OPEN
// // When invoking a macro, this tweak makes the current containing tiddler object and DOM rendering location available as global variables (window.tiddler and window.place, respectively).  These globals can then be used within "computed macro parameters" to retrieve tiddler-relative and/or DOM-relative values or perform tiddler-specific side-effect functionality.
//{{{
window.coreTweaks_invokeMacro = window.invokeMacro;
window.invokeMacro = function(place,macro,params,wikifier,tiddler) {
	var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	window.tiddler=here?store.getTiddler(here.getAttribute("tiddler")):null;
	window.place=place;
	window.coreTweaks_invokeMacro.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/401 - CLOSED: WON'T FIX
// // This tweak allows definition of an optional [[PageTitle]] tiddler that, when present, provides alternative text for display in the browser window's titlebar, instead of using the combined text content from [[SiteTitle]] and [[SiteSubtitle]] (which will still be displayed as usual in the TiddlyWiki document header area)
//{{{
window.coreTweaks_getPageTitle=window.getPageTitle;
window.getPageTitle=function() { 
	var txt=wikifyPlain("PageTitle"); if (txt.length) return txt;
	return window.coreTweaks_getPageTitle.apply(this,arguments);
}
store.addNotification("PageTitle",refreshPageTitle); // so title stays in sync with tiddler changes
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/67 - OPEN
// // The "missing links" list includes items contained within "quoted" text (i.e., content that will not render as wiki-syntax, and so CANNOT create any tiddler links, even if the quoted text matches valid link syntax).  This tweak removes content contained between certain delimiters before scanning tiddler source for possible links.
/***
Delimiters include:
{{{
/%...%/
{{{...}}}
"""..."""
<nowiki>...</nowiki>
<html>...</html>
<script>...</script>
}}}
***/
//{{{
Tiddler.prototype.coreTweaks_changed = Tiddler.prototype.changed;
Tiddler.prototype.changed = function()
{
	var savedtext=this.text;
	// remove 'quoted' text before scanning tiddler source
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\/%((?:.|\n)*?)%\//g,""); // /%...%/
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\{{3}((?:.|\n)*?)\}{3}/g,""); // {{{...}}}
	this.text=this.text.replace(/"{3}((?:.|\n)*?)"{3}/g,""); // """..."""
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\<nowiki\>((?:.|\n)*?)\<\/nowiki\>/g,""); // <nowiki>...</nowiki>
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\<html\>((?:.|\n)*?)\<\/html\>/g,""); // <html>...</html>
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\<script((?:.|\n)*?)\<\/script\>/g,""); // <script>...</script>
	this.coreTweaks_changed.apply(this,arguments);
	// restore quoted text to tiddler source
	this.text=savedtext;
};
//}}}
// // }}}
/***
!!! Fixed in TW240
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
// // calculate version number for conditional inclusion of tweaks below...
//{{{
var ver=version.major+version.minor/10;
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/578 - FIXED IN TW240
// // This tweak trims any leading whitespace/newline and the trailing newline from tiddler sections
//{{{
if (ver<2.4) {
TiddlyWiki.prototype.coreTweaks_getTiddlerText = TiddlyWiki.prototype.getTiddlerText;
TiddlyWiki.prototype.getTiddlerText = function(title,defaultText)
{
	var r=TiddlyWiki.prototype.coreTweaks_getTiddlerText.apply(this,arguments);
	if (r&&title.indexOf(config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator)!=-1)
		r=r.replace(/^[ \t]*\n/,"").replace(/\n$/,""); // trim any leading/trailing newlines
	return r;
};
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/541 - FIXED IN TW240
// // This tweak adds a conditional check to the core's 'open' paramifier, so that when the document is viewed in readOnly mode, non-existent tiddlers specified using a permalink/permaview (i.e. "#TiddlerName" in the document URL) will not be displayed as an empty tiddler (which shows the "double-click to create" default text).
//{{{
if (ver<2.4) {
config.paramifiers.open = { 
onstart: function(v) { 
		if(!readOnly || store.tiddlerExists(v) || store.isShadowTiddler(v)) 
			story.displayTiddler("bottom",v,null,false,null); 
	} 
}; 
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/470 - FIXED IN TW240
// // This tweak lets you set an alternative initial focus field when editing a tiddler (default field is "text")
// // Enter initial focus field name: <<option txtEditorFocus>> (//usage:// {{{<<option txtEditorFocus>>}}})
//{{{
if (ver<2.4) {
config.commands.editTiddler.coreTweaks_handler = config.commands.editTiddler.handler;
config.commands.editTiddler.handler = function(event,src,title)
{
	if (config.options.txtEditorFocus==undefined) config.options.txtEditorFocus="text";
	this.coreTweaks_handler.apply(this,arguments);
	story.focusTiddler(title,config.options.txtEditorFocus);
	return false;
};
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/468 - FIXED IN TW240
// // This tweak extends the core's {{{<<tag>>}}} macro to accept additional parameters for specifying alternative label and tooltip text for the tag popup "button" link (i.e., "`PrettyTags").  Based on a suggestion by ~PBee.
//{{{
// hijack tag handler()
if (ver<2.4) {
config.macros.tag.CoreTweaks_handler=config.macros.tag.handler;
config.macros.tag.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	this.CoreTweaks_handler.apply(this,arguments);
	var btn=place.lastChild;
	if (params[1]) btn.innerHTML=params[1];
	if (params[2]) btn.title=params[2];
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/320 - FIXED IN TW240
// // This tweak updates the core's forceReflow() function to fix a Firefox rendering problem, whereby the contents of the a tiddler editor text area can be incorrectly displayed (overlapping other content) when more than one tiddler is in edit mode.
//{{{
if (ver<2.4) {
function forceReflow()
{
	if(config.browser.isGecko) {
		setStylesheet("body {top:-0px;margin-top:0px;}");
		setTimeout('setStylesheet("")',1); // invoke async to bypass browser optimization
	}
}
}
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/42 - FIXED IN TW240
// // This tweak adjusts the left position of a TW popup so that it won't overlap with the browser window's vertical scrollbar, when present.
//{{{
if (ver<2.4) {
Popup.place = function(root,popup,offset)
{
	if(!offset) var offset = {x:0, y:0};
	var rootLeft = findPosX(root);
	var rootTop = findPosY(root);
	var rootHeight = root.offsetHeight;
	var popupLeft = rootLeft + offset.x;
	var popupTop = rootTop + rootHeight + offset.y;
	var winWidth = findWindowWidth();
	if(popup.offsetWidth > winWidth*0.75)
		popup.style.width = winWidth*0.75 + "px";
	var popupWidth = popup.offsetWidth;
	// ELS: leave space for vertical scrollbar
	var scrollWidth=winWidth-document.body.offsetWidth;
	if(popupLeft+popupWidth > winWidth-scrollWidth-1)
		popupLeft = winWidth-popupWidth-scrollWidth-1;
	popup.style.left = popupLeft + "px";
	popup.style.top = popupTop + "px";
	popup.style.display = "block";
};
}
//}}}
// // }}}
/***
!!!Unticketed Tweaks
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
// // This tweak adds an optional 'sortby' parameter to the {{{<<tag tagname label tip sortby>>}}} macro, as well as the {{{<<allTags excludeTag sortby>>}}} macro used to generate the sidebar contents 'tags' list.  Specify the field on which the contents of each tag popup is to be sorted, with a "+" or "-" prefix to indicate ascending/descending order, respectively.

// // Example: {{{<<tag systemConfig "plugins" "list plugins by date, most recent first" "-modified">>}}}
// // Try it: <<tag systemConfig "plugins" "list plugins by date, most recent first" "-modified">>

// // Similarly, to change the sort order used by the popups from all tags shown in the sidebar contents, edit the [[TagTags]] shadow tiddler and enter: {{{<<allTags excludeLists -modified>>}}}

//{{{
// hijack tag handler() to add 'sortby' attribute to tag button
config.macros.tag.CoreTweaksSortTags_handler=config.macros.tag.handler;
config.macros.tag.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	this.CoreTweaksSortTags_handler.apply(this,arguments);
	var btn=place.lastChild;
	if (params[3]) btn.setAttribute("sortby",params[3]);
}

// TWEAK <<allTags>> macro to add 'sortby' attribute to each tag button
var fn=config.macros.allTags.handler;
var lines=fn.toString().split("\n");
lines.splice(lines.length-2,0,['if(params[1]) btn.setAttribute("sortby",params[1]);']);
fn=lines.join("\n");
eval("config.macros.allTags.handler="+fn);

// TWEAK event handler for clicking on a tiddler tag to use 'sortby' attribute
var fn=onClickTag;
fn=fn.toString().replace(
	/store.getTaggedTiddlers\(tag\);/g,
	'store.getTaggedTiddlers(tag);'
	+'var sortby=this.getAttribute("sortby");'
	+'if(sortby&&sortby.length) store.sortTiddlers(tagged,sortby);'
);
eval(fn);
//}}}
// // }}}
// // {{groupbox small{
// // This HIJACK tweak pre-processes source content to convert "double-backslash-newline" into {{{<br>}}} before wikify(), so that literal newlines can be embedded in line-mode wiki syntax (e.g., tables, bullets, etc.).  Based on a suggestion from Sitaram Chamarty.
//{{{
window.coreWikify = wikify;
window.wikify = function(source,output,highlightRegExp,tiddler)
{
	if (source) arguments[0]=source.replace(/\\\\\n/mg,"<br>");
	coreWikify.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}
<html><div id="myCrimp" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img291.imageshack.us/img291/2943/crimpoc4.jpg"><br><div align="center">Crimp Fold</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myCrimp')">Crimp Fold</a></html>
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
 @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ [[Crypto-Gram podcasts here|http://crypto-gram.libsyn.com/index.php?post_category=podcasts]]
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
/***
|''Name:''|~DC3.LightBox|
|''Description:''|LightBox support library|
|''Date:''|Dec 25, 2006|
|''Source:''|http://solo.dc3.com/tw/#DC3.LightBox|
|''Author:''|Bob Denny ~DC-3 Dreams, SP|
|''License:''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|''Version:''|1.0.1|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.1.x|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.5/2.0; Internet Explorer 6.0/7.0; Safari|
|''Require:''|LightBoxCSS (see below), support HTML in MarkupPreHead (see below), access to icon images in subdir ''im'' (showAlert() only)|
!Description
This plugin implements a lightbox widget for ~TiddlyWiki. Via Javascript, you can display any HTML div in the lightbox, or use "canned" divs for displaying HTML message in a box or an alert with icon. The lightbox is closed by either clicking the X-icon or anywhere outside the lightbox. Only one lightbox can be active at a time. See the usage section below.
!!Usage
This plugin is a __library__, not a macro. Thus, it must be tagged {{{systemConfig}}}, but it does not support macro invocation. It is callable only from Javascript so the [[InlineJavascriptPlugin|http://www.tiddlytools.com/#InlineJavascriptPlugin]] is a virtual necessity!
|!Usage|!Sample Javascript|
|Display HTML message|{{{DC3.LightBox.showContent("Some <i>message</i>");}}}|
|Display alert|{{{DC3.LightBox.showAlert("ok", "All is well");}}}|
|Display any DIV in a lightbox|{{{DC3.LightBox.showBox("myLightBox");}}}|
|Close current lightbox|{{{DC3.LightBox.hideBox()}}}|
*The frame for the showContent() and showAlert() methods should expand to enclose text, but this happens only on IE and not FireFox. To be safe, just keep your messages short and use showBox() and your own HTML div for "big" messages etc.
*The first parameter to showAlert() is the icon name. This is simply translated to {{{im/icon.png}}}. The standard icon image files (below) are used with icon strings of "error, "info", "ok", "question", and "warning". 
*The generalized showBox() method can be used to display images, media players, whatever you want! Just make up the HTML div, give it an id, then pass that ID to showBox().
!!Advanced Usage - onClose
All three of the above methods support an optional parameter onClose, supplied as the last parameter in a call. It must evaluate to a function which is called (with no parameters) when the lightbox is about to close. If the onClose() function returns false, the lightbox will not be closed. For example 
{{{
DC3.LightBox.showAlert("warning", "Something <em>bad</em> is about to happen", soundBuzzer);
}}}
!Installation
#Paste this entire tiddler into a tiddler called DC3.LightBox and tag it {{{systemConfig}}}.
#Paste the Required CSS (below) into a tiddler called LightBoxCSS and tag it {{{systemContent}}}.
#Paste the content for MarkupPreHead (below) into MarkupPreHead.
#Put the image files (below) into a subfolder ''im'' relative to the location of the TiddlyWiki. 
!!!Required CSS
Paste into a tiddler called LightBoxCSS.
{{{
#lightBoxOverlay {
    position:absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    z-index: 90;   
    background-color: #000;
    -moz-opacity: 0.6;
    opacity: .60;
    filter: alpha(opacity=60);
}
#lightBoxOverlay[id]{ 
    position: fixed;
}

div.lightBox {
    background: #2d2d2d;
    color: #fff;
    border: 2px solid #eee;
}

img.lightBoxClose {
    position: absolute;
    top: -5px;
    right: -5px;
    margin: 0px;
    cursor: pointer;
}

div.lightBoxAlert {
    width: 300px;
    height: 64px;
    background: #2d2d2d;
    color: #fff;
    padding: 10px;
    border: 2px solid #eee;
}

div.lightBoxAlertIcon {
	position: absolute;
	top: 8px;
	left: 8px;
	width: 48px;
	height: 48px;
}

div.lightBoxAlertMessage {
	margin-left: 56px;
	margin-top: 16px;
}
}}}
!!!Content for MarkupPreHead
{{{
<!-- LightBox translucent overlay -->
<div id="lightBoxOverlay" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" style="display:none"></div>
<!-- General use simple LightBox -->
<div class="lightBox" id="lightBox" style="display:none">
	<img class="lightBoxClose" src="im/close.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
	<div id="lightBoxContent"></div>
</div>
<!-- General use Alert LightBox -->
<div class="lightBoxAlert" id="lightBoxAlert" style="display:none">
	<img class="lightBoxClose" src="im/close.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
	<div class="lightBoxAlertIcon"><img id="lightBoxAlertIcon" src="runtime" alt="runtime" title="runtime"></div>
	<div class="lightBoxAlertMessage" id="lightBoxAlertMessage">runtime</div>
</div>
<!-- End of LightBox -->
}}}
!!!Images (close box and alert icons)
These must be in a subfolder ''im'' below the ~TiddlyWiki. You can get the images by right clicking on the links and //save target/link//, or right clicking on the images and //save image//. @@Note: The images below will display ugly in IE6, but they will display nice (with transparency) in the lightbox alerts, owing to the use of the DXFilters for transparency in the code.@@
|[[close.gif|im/close.gif]]|[img[im/close.gif]]|[[error.png|im/error.png]]|[img[im/error.png]]|
|[[info.png|im/info.png]]|[img[im/info.png]]|[[ok.png|im/ok.png]]|[img[im/ok.png]]|
|[[question.png|im/question.png]]|[img[im/question.png]]|[[warning.png|im/warning.png]]|[img[im/warning.png]]|
!!Credits
This TiddlyWiki library and CSS is an amalgamation of the techniques and code described in the following: 
* [[Original LightBox|http://www.huddletogether.com/projects/lightbox/]] by Lokesh Dhakar
* [[Lightweight LightBox|http://www.pjhyett.com/posts/190-the-lightbox-effect-without-lightbox]] that can show any DIV by PJ Hyett
* [[Better Modal Windows with LightBox|http://blog.feedmarker.com/2006/02/12/how-to-make-better-modal-windows-with-lightbox/]] by Bruno
Bruno's CSS for the overlay is much better than the first two, it is independent of any PNG image(s) and does not have CSS quirk-hacks for IE, nor does it use IE's DXFilters for PNG transparency. Of course for IE6, the DXFilters are used in the Javascript!
!!Revision History
<<<
''2006.12.02 [1.0.1]'' Initial creation
''2006.12.03 [1.0.1]'' hideBox() no longer takes //id// just closes currently open box. Needed for overlay click/close.
''2006.12.03 [1.0.1]'' Add support for special Alert type LightBox with switchable icon. Hack IE for alpha transparency. See inline comments. Add showContent(html), showAlert(icon, message)
''2006.12.04 [1.0.1]'' Ignore show calls if box is already displayed. Optional callback for hideBox(), can prevent hiding. Allows modal box to be set up by caller.
''2006.12.25 [1.0.1]'' Documentation and installation instructions
<<<
!!Code
***/
//{{{

// Initialize style sheet from tiddler
refreshStyles("LightBoxCSS");

if (!window.DC3) window.DC3 = {};
window.DC3.LightBox = 
{
	//
	//Internal proterties
	//
	_curBox: null,						// [sentinel]
	_onClose: null,						// [sentinel]
	_alertImgDiv: null,					// [sentinel]
	_alertImgHTML: null,				// [sentinel]
	
	//
	// Public interface
	//
	showContent: function(content, onClose) {							// Uses generic LightBox in MarkupPreBody
		if(this._curBox) return;										// Ignore if box already showing (typ.)
		document.getElementById("lightBoxContent").innerHTML = content;
		this.showBox("lightBox", onClose);
	},
	
	showAlert: function(icon, message, onClose) {						// Uses standard alert LightBox in MarkupPreBody
		if(this._curBox) return;
		var icoElem = document.getElementById("lightBoxAlertIcon");
		icoElem.src = "im/" + icon + ".png";							// Requires icon.png (48 x 48)
		icoElem.title = icon;
		icoElem.alt = icon;
		document.getElementById("lightBoxAlertMessage").innerHTML = message;
		DC3.LightBox.showBox("lightBoxAlert", onClose);
	},
	
	showBox: function(id, onClose) 
	{
		if(this._curBox) return;
		this._onClose = onClose;										// If valid, call this in hideBox. See comments there!
		//
		// Surprise! In IE, the height:100% in the #overlay CSS definition does
		// not honor the z-order, and calculates the height to be the top margin!
		// So, for IE, I have added this imperfect hack which ,forces the overlay
		// size to the scroll size. This causes funny scrollbar behavior, but the
		// alternatives I tried were really complex. 
		//
		// Surprise #2! IE6 doesn't support alpha transparency in PNG images, and 
		// I use same for the icons in the LightBox Alert. Another hack needed.
		// We can't just change the DIV from containing an IMG tag to using the
		// bloody MS AlphaImageLoader, we also have to save the original IMG tag
		// because the alert is multi-use: the image to be shown can be changed 
		// dynamically. When closing the Lightbox, we restore the original inner
		// IMG tag and clear the filter style. On showing the box, we grab the path
		// to the image file then zap the IMG tag, using the image file path in
		// the filter/AlphaImageLoader. Egad!!!
		//
		var ovly = document.getElementById('lightBoxOverlay');
		if(config.browser.isIE) {
			var h1 = document.documentElement.scrollHeight;
			var h2 = document.documentElement.offsetHeight;
			ovly.style.height = Math.max(h1, h2);
			ovly.style.width = document.documentElement.scrollWidth;
			// Change icon div for IE proprietary
			var alertDivs = document.getElementById(id).getElementsByTagName("div");
			this._alertImgDiv = null;
			for(var i in alertDivs) {
				if(alertDivs[i].className && alertDivs[i].className == "lightBoxAlertIcon") {
					this._alertImgDiv = alertDivs[i];
					break;
				}
			}
			if(this._alertImgDiv) {
				var imgFile = this._alertImgDiv.firstChild.src;
				this._alertImgHTML = this._alertImgDiv.innerHTML;		// Saved to allow dynamic change of image file
				this._alertImgDiv.innerHTML = "";
				this._alertImgDiv.style.filter = "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader(src=\"" + imgFile + "\", sizingMethod=\"scale\")";
			}
		}
	    ovly.style.display = 'block';
	    this._center(id);
	    this._curBox = id;
	    return false;
	},
	
	hideBox: function()
	{
		if(!this._curBox) return;
		if(this._onClose && this._onClose() === false)					// If onClose() returns false, refuse to close
			return false;
	    document.getElementById(this._curBox).style.display = 'none';
	    document.getElementById('lightBoxOverlay').style.display = 'none';
	    this._curBox = null;											// Allow show calls once again
		// Restore original non-IE image. Code may dynamically change image file!
		if(this._alertImgDiv) {
			this._alertImgDiv.innerHTML = this._alertImgHTML;
			this._alertImgDiv.style.filter = "";
		}
	    return false;
	},
	
	//
	// Internal methods
	//
	_getDimensions: function(elem)		// Lifted from Prototype and made independent
	{
		if(elem.style.display != 'none')
		  return { width: elem.offsetWidth, height: elem.offsetHeight};
		
		// All *Width and *Height properties give 0 on elements with display none,
		// so enable the elem temporarily
		var els = elem.style;
		var origVis = els.visibility;
		var origPos = els.position;
		els.visibility = 'hidden';
		els.position = 'absolute';
		els.display = '';
		var origW = elem.clientWidth;
		var origH = elem.clientHeight;
		els.display = 'none';
		els.position = origPos;
		els.visibility = origVis;
		return {width: origW, height: origH};
	},
	
	//
	// This is rather big. I'll have to look at more elegant way(s)
	// of doing this... some day! :-)
	//
	_center: function(elem)
	{
	    try{
	        elem = document.getElementById(elem);
	    }catch(e){
	        return;
	    }
	
	    var my_width  = 0;
	    var my_height = 0;
	
	    if ( typeof( window.innerWidth ) == 'number' ){
	        my_width  = window.innerWidth;
	        my_height = window.innerHeight;
	    } else if ( document.documentElement && 
	             ( document.documentElement.clientWidth ||
	               document.documentElement.clientHeight ) ){
	        my_width  = document.documentElement.clientWidth;
	        my_height = document.documentElement.clientHeight;
	    }
	    else if ( document.body &&
	            ( document.body.clientWidth || document.body.clientHeight ) ){
	        my_width  = document.body.clientWidth;
	        my_height = document.body.clientHeight;
	    }
	
	    elem.style.position = 'absolute';
	    elem.style.zIndex   = 99;
	
	    var scrollY = 0;
	
	    if ( document.documentElement && document.documentElement.scrollTop ){
	        scrollY = document.documentElement.scrollTop;
	    }else if ( document.body && document.body.scrollTop ){
	        scrollY = document.body.scrollTop;
	    }else if ( window.pageYOffset ){
	        scrollY = window.pageYOffset;
	    }else if ( window.scrollY ){
	        scrollY = window.scrollY;
	    }
	
	    var elementDimensions = this._getDimensions(elem);
	
	    var setX = ( my_width  - elementDimensions.width  ) / 2;
	    var setY = ( my_height - elementDimensions.height ) / 2 + scrollY;
	
	    setX = ( setX < 0 ) ? 0 : setX;
	    setY = ( setY < 0 ) ? 0 : setY;
	
	    elem.style.left = setX + "px";
	    elem.style.top  = setY + "px";
	
	    elem.style.display  = 'block';
	}
};
//}}}
Here are some examples of using [[DC3.LightBox]] which you can use to get the idea. Everyone wants to show pictures (well, and maybe videos), so here are some examples of those:

<html>
<div id="myImageBox" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="im/close.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="island700.jpg"><br><div align="center">island</div></div>
</div>
<a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myImageBox')">island</a></html>

<html><div id="myYVideo" style="display:none">
<div><object width="425" height="350"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/uVq2EqTC3yY"></param><param name="wmode" value="transparent"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/uVq2EqTC3yY" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" wmode="transparent" width="425" height="350"></embed></object></div>
</div>
<a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myYVideo')">Some YouTube junk (short, no close box)</a></html>

Next, a couple of usages of the 'standard' lightboxes for showing text/HTML and alerts:

<html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showContent('<div style=\'padding:10px;\'>This uses the <b>showContent()</b> method.</div>');">Here is some simple text in a div with 10px padding</a></html>
<html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showAlert('ok', 'This uses the <b>showAlert()</b> method with the \'ok\' icon specified.')">Here is an alert with icon</a></html>

Now for some examples using the basic showBox() method for the ultimate in flexibility. For this, you need to write your own box div, give it an id then call showBox() from a link (or other Javascript) similar to the examples above. Look at the supplied lightbox divs in MarkupPreBody and the (hidden) divs below to get the idea. It's pretty simple once you get it. If you don't style the lightbox, it will be transparent! The style display:none is vital to keep the lightbox div hidden till you want it to appear.

<html><div class="lightBox" id="myLB" style="display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="im/close.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div style="padding: 10px">This uses the standard lightBox CSS class and puts the close box in the standard position. It looks like the showContent() box, but you can see the div and its contents.</div>
</div>
<a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myLB')">A box that uses the standard showContent() div in MarkupPreBody</a></html>
<html><div id="myLB2" style="background:white;color:red;border:5px solid black;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="im/close.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div style="padding: 10px">This uses an inline-styled div and puts the close box in the standard position.</div>
</div>
<a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myLB2')">A box that uses an inline-styled div</a></html>
<html><embed type="video/x-ms-asf" id="player_FF" name="player_FF" displaysize="2" autosize="0"
  bgcolor="white" showcontrols="true" showtracker="0" showdisplay="0" showstatusbar="1" videoborder3d="0" width="300" height="50" src="http://abc.net.au/streaming/digjazz/digjazz.m3u" autostart="true" designtimesp="5311" loop="false" volume="100"></embed></html>

<html><embed type="video/x-ms-asf" id="player_FF" name="player_FF" displaysize="2" autosize="0"
  bgcolor="white" showcontrols="true" showtracker="0" showdisplay="0" showstatusbar="0" videoborder3d="0" width="300" height="25" src="http://abc.net.au/streaming/digradio/digradio.m3u" autostart="true" designtimesp="5311" loop="false" volume="100"></embed></html>



{{twocolumns{
{{firstletter{
@@color:#c06;O@@
}}}ur primary concern is to evaluate the reliability of inferences, the patterns of reasoning that lead from premises to conclusion in a logical argument. We'll devote a lot of attention to what works and what does not. It is vital from the outset to distinguish two kinds of inference, each of which has its own distinctive structure and standard of correctness.

@@color:#c06;''Deductive Inferences''@@

When an argument claims that the truth of its premises guarantees the truth of its conclusion, it is said to involve a deductive inference. Deductive reasoning holds to a very high standard of correctness. A deductive inference succeeds only if its premises provide such absolute and complete support for its conclusion that it would be utterly inconsistent to suppose that the premises are true but the conclusion false.

Notice that each argument either meets this standard or else it does not; there is no middle ground. Some deductive arguments are perfect, and if their premises are in fact true, then it follows that their conclusions must also be true, no matter what else may happen to be the case. All other deductive arguments are no good at all—their conclusions may be false even if their premises are true, and no amount of additional information can help them in the least.

@@color:#c06;''Inductive Inferences''@@

When an argument claims merely that the truth of its premises make it likely or probable that its conclusion is also true, it is said to involve an inductive inference. The standard of correctness for inductive reasoning is much more flexible than that for deduction. An inductive argument succeeds whenever its premises provide some legitimate evidence or support for the truth of its conclusion. Although it is therefore reasonable to accept the truth of that conclusion on these grounds, it would not be completely inconsistent to withhold judgment or even to deny it outright.

Inductive arguments, then, may meet their standard to a greater or to a lesser degree, depending upon the amount of support they supply. No inductive argument is either absolutely perfect or entirely useless, although one may be said to be relatively better or worse than another in the sense that it recommends its conclusion with a higher or lower degree of probability. In such cases, relevant additional information often affects the reliability of an inductive argument by providing other evidence that changes our estimation of the likelihood of the conclusion.

It should be possible to differentiate arguments of these two sorts with some accuracy already. Remember that deductive arguments claim to guarantee their conclusions, while inductive arguments merely recommend theirs. Or ask yourself whether the introduction of any additional information—short of changing or denying any of the premises—could make the conclusion seem more or less likely; if so, the pattern of reasoning is inductive.

@@color:#c06;''Truth and Validity''@@

Since deductive reasoning requires such a strong relationship between premises and conclusion, we will spend the majority of this survey studying various patterns of deductive inference. It is therefore worthwhile to consider the standard of correctness for deductive arguments in some detail.

A deductive argument is said to be valid when the inference from premises to conclusion is perfect. Here are two equivalent ways of stating that standard:

    * If the premises of a valid argument are true, then its conclusion must also be true.
    * It is impossible for the conclusion of a valid argument to be false while its premises are true.

(Considering the premises as a set of propositions, we will say that the premises are true only on those occasions when each and every one of those propositions is true.) Any deductive argument that is not valid is invalid: it is possible for its conclusion to be false while its premises are true, so even if the premises are true, the conclusion may turn out to be either true or false.

Notice that the validity of the inference of a deductive argument is independent of the truth of its premises; both conditions must be met in order to be sure of the truth of the conclusion. Of the eight distinct possible combinations of truth and validity, only one (@@color:#c06;'' XXXX''@@) is ruled out completely:

@@color:#c06;''The only thing that cannot happen is for a deductive argument to have true premises and a valid inference but a false conclusion.''@@
<<tiddler LogicTable>>
@@color:#c06;''Some logicians designate the combination of true premises and a valid inference as a sound argument; it is a piece of reasoning whose conclusion must be true.''@@ The trouble with every other case is that it gets us nowhere, since either at least one of the premises is false, or the inference is invalid, or both. The conclusions of such arguments may be either true or false, so they are entirely useless in any effort to gain new information.
}}} 

[[Source: http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e01.htm|http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e01.htm]]
function onClickDefaultHome(e) {
story.closeAllTiddlers();
config.options.txtDefaultTiddlers = "";
saveOptionCookie('txtDefaultTiddlers');
var start = store.getTiddlerText("MyDefaultTiddlers");
if(start)
story.displayTiddlers(null,start.readBracketedList());
}
config.macros["defaultHome"] = {label: "Home", prompt: "Show the default tiddlers", title: "Home"};
config.macros.defaultHome.handler = function(place) {
createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,onClickDefaultHome);
}
|<<option chkSearchTitles>> Titles <<option chkSearchText>> Text <<option chkSearchTags>>Tags<<option chkHoldSearches>> Hold |
|borderlessL|k
[[IntroAll]]
[[AllScienceSubjects]]
/***
|''Name''|DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin|
|''Description''|Provides support for functions removed from the TiddlyWiki core|
|''Version''|1.0.0|
|''Status''|stable|
|''Source''|http://www.tiddlywiki.com/coreplugins.html#DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin|
|''~CodeRepository:''|http://svn.tiddlywiki.org/Trunk/association/plugins/DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin/DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin.js |
|''License''|[[BSD open source license]]|
|''~CoreVersion''|2.3.0|
|''Feedback''|[[TiddlyWiki community|http://groups.google.com/group/TiddlyWiki]] |
|''Keywords''|legacySupport|
!Code
***/
//{{{
if(!version.extensions.DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin) {
version.extensions.DeprecatedFunctionsPlugin = {installed:true};

//--
//-- Deprecated code
//--

// @Deprecated: Use createElementAndWikify and this.termRegExp instead
config.formatterHelpers.charFormatHelper = function(w)
{
	w.subWikify(createTiddlyElement(w.output,this.element),this.terminator);
};

// @Deprecated: Use enclosedTextHelper and this.lookaheadRegExp instead
config.formatterHelpers.monospacedByLineHelper = function(w)
{
	var lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
	lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
	var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source);
	if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
		var text = lookaheadMatch[1];
		if(config.browser.isIE)
			text = text.replace(/\n/g,"\r");
		createTiddlyElement(w.output,"pre",null,null,text);
		w.nextMatch = lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex;
	}
};

// @Deprecated: Use <br> or <br /> instead of <<br>>
config.macros.br = {};
config.macros.br.handler = function(place)
{
	createTiddlyElement(place,"br");
};

// Find an entry in an array. Returns the array index or null
// @Deprecated: Use indexOf instead
Array.prototype.find = function(item)
{
	var i = this.indexOf(item);
	return i == -1 ? null : i;
};

// Load a tiddler from an HTML DIV. The caller should make sure to later call Tiddler.changed()
// @Deprecated: Use store.getLoader().internalizeTiddler instead
Tiddler.prototype.loadFromDiv = function(divRef,title)
{
	return store.getLoader().internalizeTiddler(store,this,title,divRef);
};

// Format the text for storage in an HTML DIV
// @Deprecated Use store.getSaver().externalizeTiddler instead.
Tiddler.prototype.saveToDiv = function()
{
	return store.getSaver().externalizeTiddler(store,this);
};

// @Deprecated: Use store.allTiddlersAsHtml() instead
function allTiddlersAsHtml()
{
	return store.allTiddlersAsHtml();
}

// @Deprecated: Use refreshPageTemplate instead
function applyPageTemplate(title)
{
	refreshPageTemplate(title);
}

// @Deprecated: Use story.displayTiddlers instead
function displayTiddlers(srcElement,titles,template,unused1,unused2,animate,unused3)
{
	story.displayTiddlers(srcElement,titles,template,animate);
}

// @Deprecated: Use story.displayTiddler instead
function displayTiddler(srcElement,title,template,unused1,unused2,animate,unused3)
{
	story.displayTiddler(srcElement,title,template,animate);
}

// @Deprecated: Use functions on right hand side directly instead
var createTiddlerPopup = Popup.create;
var scrollToTiddlerPopup = Popup.show;
var hideTiddlerPopup = Popup.remove;

// @Deprecated: Use right hand side directly instead
var regexpBackSlashEn = new RegExp("\\\\n","mg");
var regexpBackSlash = new RegExp("\\\\","mg");
var regexpBackSlashEss = new RegExp("\\\\s","mg");
var regexpNewLine = new RegExp("\n","mg");
var regexpCarriageReturn = new RegExp("\r","mg");

}
//}}}
{{floatleft{<<toolbar closeTiddler>>}}}
<<tiddler RealDeskTop>>
{{textright{
@@color:#c06;<script>
   if (!window.story) window.story=window;
   var title=story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7);
   return title+" is using "+store.getTiddlerText(title).length+" bytes";
</script>@@}}}
[[Click here for An introduction to chain indexing - T.D. Wilson|http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/chain_indexing/chain_indexing.html#Instructions]]
[[A PDF Introduction to The Dewey Decimal System|http://www.oclc.org/dewey/versions/ddc22print/intro.pdf]]
+++!!![000 – Computer science, information, and general works]
!!!!!000 Generalities
001 Knowledge
002 The book
003 Systems
004 Data processing Computer science
005 Computer programming, programs, data
006 Special computer methods
007 Not assigned or no longer used
008 Not assigned or no longer used
009 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!010 Bibliography
011 Bibliographies
012 Bibliographies of individuals
013 Bibliographies of works by specific classes of authors
014 Bibliographies of anonymous and pseudonymous works
015 Bibliographies of works from specific places
016 Bibliographies of works from specific subjects
017 General subject catalogs
018 Catalogs arranged by author & date
019 Dictionary catalogs
!!!!!020 Library & information sciences 
021 Library relationships
022 Administration of the physical plant
023 Personnel administration
024 Not assigned or no longer used
025 Library operations
026 Libraries for specific subjects
027 General libraries
028 Reading, use of other information media
029 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!030 General encyclopedic works 
031 General encyclopedic works -- American
032 General encyclopedic works in English
033 General encyclopedic works in other Germanic languages
034 General encyclopedic works in French, Provencal, Catalan
035 General encyclopedic works in Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic
036 General encyclopedic works in Spanish & Portuguese
037 General encyclopedic works in Slavic languages
038 General encyclopedic works in Scandinavian languages
039 General encyclopedic works in other languages
!!!!!040 Not assigned or no longer used 
041 Not assigned or no longer used
042 Not assigned or no longer used
043 Not assigned or no longer used
044 Not assigned or no longer used
045 Not assigned or no longer used
046 Not assigned or no longer used
047 Not assigned or no longer used
048 Not assigned or no longer used
049 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!050 General serials & their indexes 
051 General serials & their indexes American
052 General serials & their indexes In English
053 General serials & their indexes In other Germanic languages
054 General serials & their indexes In French, Provencal, Catalan
055 General serials & their indexes In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic
056 General serials & their indexes In Spanish & Portuguese
057 General serials & their indexes In Slavic languages
058 General serials & their indexes In Scandinavian languages
059 General serials & their indexes In other languages
!!!!!060 General organization & museology 
061 General organization & museology In North America
062 General organization & museology In British Isles In England
063 General organization & museology In central Europe In Germany
064 General organization & museology In France & Monaco
065 General organization & museology In Italy & adjacent territories
066 General organization & museology In Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands
067 General organization & museology In eastern Europe In Soviet Union
068 General organization & museology In other areas
069 Museology (Museum science)
!!!!!070 News media, journalism, publishing 
071 News media, journalism, publishing In North America
072 News media, journalism, publishing In British Isles In England
073 News media, journalism, publishing In central Europe In Germany
074 News media, journalism, publishing In France & Monaco
075 News media, journalism, publishing In Italy & adjacent territories
076 News media, journalism, publishing In Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands
077 News media, journalism, publishing In eastern Europe In Soviet Union
078 News media, journalism, publishing In Scandinavia
079 News media, journalism, publishing In other languages
!!!!!080 General collections 
081 General collections American
082 General collections In English
083 General collections In other Germanic languages
084 General collections In French, Provencal, Catalan
085 General collections In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic
086 General collections In Spanish & Portuguese
087 General collections In Slavic languages
088 General collections In Scandinavian languages
089 General collections In other languages
!!!!!090 Manuscripts & rare books 
091 Manuscripts
092 Block books
093 Incunabula
094 Printed books
095 Books notable for bindings
096 Books notable for illustrations
097 Books notable for ownership or origin
098 Prohibited works, forgeries, hoaxes
099 Books notable for format
===
+++!!!![100 – Philosophy and psychology]
!!!!!100 Philosophy & psychology 
101 Theory of philosophy
102 Miscellany of philosophy
103 Dictionaries of philosophy
104 Not assigned or no longer used
105 Serial publications of philosophy
106 Organizations of philosophy
107 Education, research in philosophy
108 Kinds of persons in philosophy
109 Historical treatment of philosophy
!!!!!110 Metaphysics 
111 Ontology
112 Not assigned or no longer used
113 Cosmology (Philosophy of nature)
114 Space
115 Time
116 Change
117 Structure
118 Force & Energy
119 Number & quantity
!!!!!120 Epistemology, causation, humankind 
121 Epistemology (Theory of knowledge)
122 Causation
123 Determinism & indeterminism
124 Teleology
125 Not assigned or no longer used
126 The self
127 The unconscious & the subconscious
128 Humankind
129 Origin & destiny of individual souls
!!!!!130 Paranormal phenomena 
131 Occult methods for achieving well-being
132 Not assigned or no longer used
133 Parapsychology & occultism
134 Not assigned or no longer used
135 Dreams & mysteries
136 Not assigned or no longer used
137 Divinatory graphology
138 Physiognomy
139 Phrenology
!!!!!140 Specific philosophical schools 
141 Idealism & related systems
142 Critical philosophy
143 Intuitionism & Bergsonism
144 Humanism & related systems
145 Sensationalism
146 Naturalism & related systems
147 Pantheism & related systems
148 Liberalism, eclecticism, traditionalism
149 Other philosophical systems
!!!!!150 Psychology 
151 Not assigned or no longer used
152 Perception, movement, emotions, drives
153 Mental processes & intelligence
154 Subconscious & altered states
155 Differential & developmental psychology
156 Comparative psychology
157 Not assigned or no longer used
158 Applied psychology
159 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!160 Logic 
161 Induction
162 Deduction
163 Not assigned or no longer used
164 Not assigned or no longer used
165 Fallacies & sources of error
166 Syllogisms
167 Hypotheses
168 Argument & persuasion
169 Analogy
!!!!!170 Ethics (Moral philosophy) 
171 Systems & doctrines
172 Political ethics
173 Ethics of family relationships
174 Economic & professional ethics
175 Ethics of recreation & leisure
176 Ethics of sex & reproduction
177 Ethics of social relations
178 Ethics of consumption
179 Other ethical norms
!!!!!180 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy 
181 Oriental philosophy
182 Pre-Socratic Greek philosophies
183 Sophistic & Socratic philosophies
184 Platonic philosophy
185 Aristotelian philosophy
186 Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophies
187 Epicurean philosophy
188 Stoic philosophy
189 Medieval Western philosophy
!!!!!190 Modern Western philosophy 
191 Modern Western philosophy United States & Canada
192 Modern Western philosophy British Isles
193 Modern Western philosophy Germany & Austria
194 Modern Western philosophy France
195 Modern Western philosophy Italy
196 Modern Western philosophy Spain & Portugal
197 Modern Western philosophy Soviet Union
198 Modern Western philosophy Scandinavia
199 Modern Western philosophy Other geographical areas
===
+++!!![200 – Religion]
!!!!!200 Religion 
201 Philosophy of Christianity
202 Miscellany of Christianity
203 Dictionaries of Christianity
204 Special topics
205 Serial publications of Christianity
206 Organizations of Christianity
207 Education, research in Christianity
208 Kinds of persons in Christianity
209 History & geography of Christianity
!!!!!210 Natural theology 
211 Concepts of God
212 Existence, attributes of God
213 Creation
214 Theodicy
215 Science & religion
216 Good & evil
217 Not assigned or no longer used
218 Humankind
219 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!220 Bible 
221 Old Testament
222 Historical books of Old Testament
223 Poetic books of Old Testament
224 Prophetic books of Old Testament
225 New Testament
226 Gospels & Acts
227 Epistles
228 Revelation (Apocalypse)
229 Apocrypha & pseudepigrapha
!!!!!230 Christian theology 
231 God
232 Jesus Christ & his family
233 Humankind
234 Salvation (Soteriology) & grace
235 Spiritual beings
236 Eschatology
237 Not assigned or no longer used
238 Creeds & catechisms
239 Apologetics & polemics
!!!!!240 Christian moral & devotional theology 
241 Moral theology
242 Devotional literature
243 Evangelistic writings for individuals
244 Not assigned or no longer used
245 Texts of hymns
246 Use of art in Christianity
247 Church furnishings & articles
248 Christian experience, practice, life
249 Christian observances in family life
!!!!!250 Christian orders & local church 
251 Preaching (Homiletics)
252 Texts of sermons
253 Pastoral office (Pastoral theology)
254 Parish government & administration
255 Religious congregations & orders
256 Not assigned or no longer used
257 Not assigned or no longer used
258 Not assigned or no longer used
259 Activities of the local church
260 Christian social theology 
!!!!!261 Social theology
262 Ecclesiology
263 Times, places of religious observance
264 Public worship
265 Sacraments, other rites & acts
266 Missions
267 Associations for religious work
268 Religious education
269 Spiritual renewal
!!!!!270 Christian church history 
271 Religious orders in church history
272 Persecutions in church history
273 Heresies in church history
274 Christian church in Europe
275 Christian church in Asia
276 Christian church in Africa
277 Christian church in North America
278 Christian church in South America
279 Christian church in other areas
!!!!!280 Christian denominations & sects 
281 Early church & Eastern churches
282 Roman Catholic Church
283 Anglican churches
284 Protestants of Continental origin
285 Presbyterian, Reformed, Congregational
286 Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist
287 Methodist & related churches
288 Not assigned or no longer used
289 Other denominations & sects
!!!!!290 Other & comparative religions 
291 Comparative religion
292 Classical (Greek & Roman) religion
293 Germanic religion
294 Religions of Indic origin
295 Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism, Parseeism)
296 Judaism
297 Islam & religions originating in it
298 Not assigned or no longer used
299 Other religions
===
+++!!!![300 – Social sciences]
!!!!!300 Social sciences 
301 Sociology & anthropology
302 Social interaction
303 Social processes
304 Factors affecting social behavior
305 Social groups
306 Culture & institutions
307 Communities
308 Not assigned or no longer used
309 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!310 General statistics 
311 Not assigned or no longer used
312 Not assigned or no longer used
313 Not assigned or no longer used
314 General statistics Of Europe
315 General statistics Of Asia
316 General statistics Of Africa
317 General statistics Of North America
318 General statistics Of South America
319 General statistics Of other parts of the world
!!!!!320 Political science 
321 Systems of governments & states
322 Relation of state to organized groups
323 Civil & political rights
324 The political process
325 International migration & colonization
326 Slavery & emancipation
327 International relations
328 The legislative process
329 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!330 Economics 
331 Labor economics
332 Financial economics
333 Land economics
334 Cooperatives
335 Socialism & related systems
336 Public finance
337 International economics
338 Production
339 Macroeconomics & related topics
!!!!!340 Law 
341 International law
342 Constitutional & administrative law
343 Military, tax, trade, industrial law
344 Social, labor, welfare, & related law
345 Criminal law
346 Private law
347 Civil procedure & courts
348 Law (Statutes), regulations, cases
349 Law of specific jurisdictions & areas
!!!!!350 Public administration 
351 Of central governments
352 Of local governments
353 of U.S. federal & state governments
354 Of specific central governments
355 Military science
356 Foot forces & warfare
357 Mounted forces & warfare
358 Other specialized forces & services
359 Sea (Naval) forces & warfare
!!!!!360 Social services; association 
361 General social problems & services
362 Social welfare problems & services
363 Other social problems & services
364 Criminology
365 Penal & related institutions
366 Association
367 General clubs
368 Insurance
369 Miscellaneous kinds of associations
!!!!!370 Education 
371 School management; special education
372 Elementary education
373 Secondary education
374 Adult education
375 Curriculums
376 Education of women
377 Schools & religion
378 Higher education
379 Government regulation, control, support
!!!!!380 Commerce, communications, transport 
381 Internal commerce (Domestic trade)
382 International commerce (Foreign trade)
383 Postal communication
384 Communications Telecommunication
385 Railroad transportation
386 Inland waterway & ferry transportation
387 Water, air, space transportation
388 Transportation Ground transportation
389 Metrology & standardization
!!!!!390 Customs, etiquette, folklore 
391 Costume & personal appearance
392 Customs of life cycle & domestic life
393 Death customs
394 General customs
395 Etiquette (Manners)
396 Not assigned or no longer used
397 Not assigned or no longer used
398 Folklore
399 Customs of war & diplomacy
===
+++!!![400 – Language]
!!!!!400 Language 
401 Philosophy & theory
402 Miscellany
403 Dictionaries & encyclopedias
404 Special topics
405 Serial publications
406 Organizations & management
407 Education, research, related topics
408 With respect to kinds of persons
409 Geographical & persons treatment
!!!!!410 Linguistics 
411 Writing systems
412 Etymology
413 Dictionaries
414 Phonology
415 Structural systems (Grammar)
416 Not assigned or no longer used
417 Dialectology & historical linguistics
418 Standard usage Applied linguistics
419 Verbal language not spoken or written
!!!!!420 English & Old English 
421 English writing system & phonology
422 English etymology
423 English dictionaries
424 Not assigned or no longer used
425 English grammar
426 Not assigned or no longer used
427 English language variations
428 Standard English usage
429 Old English (Anglo-Saxon)
!!!!!430 Germanic languages German 
431 German writing system & phonology
432 German etymology
433 German dictionaries
434 Not assigned or no longer used
435 German grammar
436 Not assigned or no longer used
437 German language variations
438 Standard German usage
439 Other Germanic languages
!!!!!440 Romance languages French 
441 French writing system & phonology
442 French etymology
443 French dictionaries
444 Not assigned or no longer used
445 French grammar
446 Not assigned or no longer used
447 French language variations
448 Standard French usage
449 Provencal & Catalan
!!!!!450 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romantic 
451 Italian writing system & phonology
452 Italian etymology
453 Italian dictionaries
454 Not assigned or no longer used
455 Italian grammar
456 Not assigned or no longer used
457 Italian language variations
458 Standard Italian usage
459 Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic
!!!!!460 Spanish & Portuguese languages 
461 Spanish writing system & phonology
462 Spanish etymology
463 Spanish dictionaries
464 Not assigned or no longer used
465 Spanish grammar
466 Not assigned or no longer used
467 Spanish language variations
468 Standard Spanish usage
469 Portuguese
!!!!!470 Italic Latin 
471 Classical Latin writing & phonology
472 Classical Latin etymology & phonology
473 Classical Latin dictionaries
474 Not assigned or no longer used
475 Classical Latin grammar
476 Not assigned or no longer used
477 Old, Postclassical, Vulgar Latin
478 Classical Latin usage
479 Other Italic languages
!!!!!480 Hellenic languages Classical Greek 
481 Classical Greek writing & phonology
482 Classical Greek etymology
483 Classical Greek dictionaries
484 Not assigned or no longer used
485 Classical Greek grammar
486 Not assigned or no longer used
487 Preclassical & postclassical Greek
488 Classical Greek usage
489 Other Hellenic languages
!!!!!490 Other languages 
491 East Indo-European & Celtic languages
492 Afro-Asiatic languages Semitic
493 Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages
494 Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian
495 Languages of East & Southeast Asia
496 African languages
497 North American native languages
498 South American native languages
499 Miscellaneous languages
===
+++!!!![500 – Science]
!!!!!500 Natural sciences & mathematics 
501 Philosophy & theory
502 Miscellany
503 Dictionaries & encyclopedias
504 Not assigned or no longer used
505 Serial publications
506 Organizations & management
507 Education, research, related topics
508 Natural history
509 Historical, areas, persons treatment
!!!!!510 Mathematics
511 General principles
512 Algebra & number theory
513 Arithmetic
514 Topology
515 Analysis
516 Geometry
517 Not assigned or no longer used
518 Not assigned or no longer used
519 Probabilities & applied mathematics
!!!!!520 Astronomy & allied sciences 
521 Celestial mechanics
522 Techniques, equipment, materials
523 Specific celestial bodies & phenomena
524 Not assigned or no longer used
525 Earth (Astronomical geography)
526 Mathematical geography
527 Celestial navigation
528 Ephemerides
529 Chronology
!!!!!530 Physics 
531 Classical mechanics Solid mechanics
532 Fluid mechanics Liquid mechanics
533 Gas mechanics
534 Sound & related vibrations
535 Light & paraphotic phenomena
536 Heat
537 Electricity & electronics
538 Magnetism
539 Modern physics
!!!!!540 Chemistry & allied sciences 
541 Physical & theoretical chemistry
542 Techniques, equipment, materials
543 Analytical chemistry
544 Qualitative analysis
545 Quantitative analysis
546 Inorganic chemistry
547 Organic chemistry
548 Crystallography
549 Mineralogy
!!!!!550 Earth sciences 
551 Geology, hydrology, meteorology
552 Petrology
553 Economic geology
554 Earth sciences of Europe
555 Earth sciences of Asia
556 Earth sciences of Africa
557 Earth sciences of North America
558 Earth sciences of South America
559 Earth sciences of other areas
!!!!!560 Paleontology Paleozoology 
561 Paleobotany
562 Fossil invertebrates
563 Fossil primitive phyla
564 Fossil Mollusca & Molluscoidea
565 Other fossil invertebrates
566 Fossil Vertebrata (Fossil Craniata)
567 Fossil cold-blooded vertebrates
568 Fossil Aves (Fossil birds)
569 Fossil Mammalia
!!!!!570 Life sciences 
571 Not assigned or no longer used
572 Human races
573 Physical anthropology
574 Biology
575 Evolution & genetics
576 Microbiology
577 General nature of life
578 Microscopy in biology
579 Collection and preservation
!!!!!580 Botanical sciences 
581 Botany
582 Spermatophyta (Seed-bearing plants)
583 Dicotyledones
584 Monocotyledones
585 Gymnospermae (Pinophyta)
586 Cryptogamia (Seedless plants)
587 Pteridophyta (Vascular cryptograms)
588 Bryophyta
589 Thallobionta & Prokaryotae
!!!!!590 Zoological sciences 
591 Zoology
592 Invertebrates
593 Protozoa, Echinodermata, related phyla
594 Mollusca & Molluscoidea
595 Other invertebrates
596 Vertebrata (Craniata, Vertebrates)
597 Cold-blooded vertebrates Fishes
598 Aves (Birds)
599 Mammalia (Mammals)
===
+++!!![600 – Technology]
!!!!!600 Technology (Applied sciences) 
601 Philosophy & theory
602 Miscellany
603 Dictionaries & encyclopedias
604 Special topics
605 Serial publications
606 Organizations
607 Education, research, related topics
608 Invention & patents
609 Historical, areas, persons treatment
!!!!!610 Medical sciences Medicine 
611 Human anatomy, cytology, histology
612 Human physiology
613 Promotion of health
614 Incidence & prevention of disease
615 Pharmacology & theraputics
616 Diseases
617 Surgery & related medical specialities
618 Gynecology & other medical specialities
619 Experimental medicine
!!!!!620 Engineering & allied operations 
621 Applied physics
622 Mining & related operations
623 Military & nautical engineering
624 Civil engineering
625 Engineering of railroads, roads
626 Not assigned or no longer used
627 Hydraulic engineering
628 Sanitary & municipal engineering
629 Other branches of engineering
!!!!!630 Agriculture 
631 Techniques, equipment, materials
632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
633 Field & plantation crops
634 Orchards, fruits, forestry
635 Garden crops (Horticulture)
636 Animal husbandry
637 Processing dairy & related products
638 Insect culture
639 Hunting, fishing, conservation
!!!!!640 Home economics & family living 
641 Food & drink
642 Meals & table service
643 Housing & household equipment
644 Household utilities
645 Household furnishings
646 Sewing, clothing, personal living
647 Management of public households
648 Housekeeping
649 Child rearing & home care of sick
!!!!!650 Management & auxiliary services 
651 Office services
652 Processes of written communication
653 Shorthand
654 Not assigned or no longer used
655 Not assigned or no longer used
656 Not assigned or no longer used
657 Accounting
658 General management
659 Advertising & public relations
!!!!!660 Chemical engineering 
661 Industrial chemicals technology
662 Explosives, fuels technology
663 Beverage technology
664 Food technology
665 Industrial oils, fats, waxes, gases
666 Ceramic & allied technologies
667 Cleaning, color, related technologies
668 Technology of other organic products
669 Metallurgy
!!!!!670 Manufacturing 
671 Metalworking & metal products
672 Iron, steel, other iron alloys
673 Nonferrous metals
674 Lumber processing, wood products, cork
675 Leather & fur processing
676 Pulp & paper technology
677 Textiles
678 Elastomers & elastomer products
679 Other products of specific materials
!!!!!680 Manufacture for specific uses 
681 Precision instruments & other devices
682 Small forge work (Blacksmithing)
683 Hardware & household appliances
684 Furnishings & home workshops
685 Leather, fur, related products
686 Printing & related activities
687 Clothing
688 Other final products & packaging
689 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!690 Buildings 
691 Building materials
692 Auxiliary construction practices
693 Specific materials & purposes
694 Wood construction Carpentry
695 Roof covering
696 Utilities
697 Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning
698 Detail finishing
699 Not assigned or no longer used
===
+++!!!![700 – Arts and recreation]
!!!!!700 The arts 
701 Philosophy & theory
702 Miscellany
703 Dictionaries & encyclopedias
704 Special topics
705 Serial publications
706 Organizations & management
707 Education, research, related topics
708 Galleries, museums, private collections
709 Historical, areas, persons treatment
!!!!!710 Civic & landscape art 
711 Area planning (Civic art)
712 Landscape architecture
713 Landscape architecture of trafficways
714 Water features
715 Woody plants
716 Herbaceous plants
717 Structures
718 Landscape design of cemeteries
719 Natural landscapes
!!!!!720 Architecture 
721 Architectural structure
722 Architecture to ca. 300
723 Architecture from ca. 300 to 1399
724 Architecture from 1400
725 Public structures
726 Buildings for religious purposes
727 Buildings for education & research
728 Residential & related buildings
729 Design & decoration
!!!!!730 Plastic arts Sculpture 
731 Processes, forms, subjects of sculpture
732 Sculpture to ca. 500
733 Greek, Etruscan, Roman sculpture
734 Sculpture from ca. 500 to 1399
735 Sculpture from 1400
736 Carving & carvings
737 Numismatics & sigillography
738 Ceramic arts
739 Art metalwork
!!!!!740 Drawing & decorative arts 
741 Drawing & drawings
742 Perspective
743 Drawing & drawings by subject
744 Not assigned or no longer used
745 Decorative arts
746 Textile arts
747 Interior decoration
748 Glass
749 Furniture & accessories
!!!!!750 Painting & paintings 
751 Techniques, equipment, forms
752 Color
753 Symbolism, allegory, mythology, legend
754 Genre paintings
755 Religion & religious symbolism
756 Not assigned or no longer used
757 Human figures & their parts
758 Other subjects
759 Historical, areas, persons treatment
!!!!!760 Graphic arts Printmaking & prints 
761 Relief processes (Block printing)
762 Not assigned or no longer used
763 Lithographic (Planographic) processes
764 Chromolithography & serigraphy
765 Metal engraving
766 Mezzotinting & related processes
767 Etching & drypoint
768 Not assigned or no longer used
769 Prints
!!!!!770 Photography & photographs 
771 Techniques, equipment, materials
772 Metallic salt processes
773 Pigment processes of printing
774 Holography
775 Not assigned or no longer used
776 Not assigned or no longer used
777 Not assigned or no longer used
778 Fields & kinds of photography
779 Photographs
!!!!!780 Music 
781 General principles & musical forms
782 Vocal music
783 Music for single voices The voice
784 Instruments & Instrumental ensembles
785 Chamber music
786 Keyboard & other instruments
787 Stringed instruments (Chordophones)
788 Wind instruments (Aerophones)
789 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!790 Recreational & performing arts 
791 Public performances
792 Stage presentations
793 Indoor games & amusements
794 Indoor games of skill
795 Games of chance
796 Athletic & outdoor sports & games
797 Aquatic & air sports
798 Equestrian sports & animal racing
799 Fishing, hunting, shooting
===
+++!!![800 – Literature]
!!!!!800 Literature & rhetoric 
801 Philosophy & theory
802 Miscellany
803 Dictionaries & encyclopedias
804 Not assigned or no longer used
805 Serial publications
806 Organizations
807 Education, research, related topics
808 Rhetoric & collections of literature
809 Literary history & criticism
!!!!!810 American literature in English 
811 Poetry
812 Drama
813 Fiction
814 Essays
815 Speeches
816 Letters
817 Satire & humor
818 Miscellaneous writings
819 Not assigned or no longer used
!!!!!820 English & Old English literatures 
821 English poetry
822 English drama
823 English fiction
824 English essays
825 English speeches
826 English letters
827 English satire & humor
828 English miscellaneous writings
829 Old English (Anglo-Saxon)
!!!!!830 Literatures of Germanic languages 
831 German poetry
832 German drama
833 German fiction
834 German essays
835 German speeches
836 German letters
837 German satire & humor
838 German miscellaneous writings
839 Other Germanic literatures
!!!!!840 Literatures of Romance languages 
841 French poetry
842 French drama
843 French fiction
844 French essays
845 French speeches
846 French letters
847 French satire & humor
848 French miscellaneous writings
849 Provencal & Catalan
!!!!!850 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic 
851 Italian poetry
852 Italian drama
853 Italian fiction
854 Italian essays
855 Italian speeches
856 Italian letters
857 Italian satire & humor
858 Italian miscellaneous writings
859 Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic
!!!!!860 Spanish & Portuguese literatures 
861 Spanish poetry
862 Spanish drama
863 Spanish fiction
864 Spanish essays
865 Spanish speeches
866 Spanish letters
867 Spanish satire & humor
868 Spanish miscellaneous writings
869 Portuguese
!!!!!870 Italic literatures Latin 
871 Latin poetry
872 Latin dramatic poetry & drama
873 Latin epic poetry & fiction
874 Latin lyric poetry
875 Latin speeches
876 Latin letters
877 Latin satire & humor
878 Latin miscellaneous writings
879 Literatures of other Italic languages
!!!!!880 Hellenic literatures Classical Greek 
881 Classical Greek poetry
882 Classical Greek drama
883 Classical Greek epic poetry & fiction
884 Classical Greek lyric poetry
885 Classical Greek speeches
886 Classical Greek letters
887 Classical Greek satire & humor
888 Classical Greek miscellaneous writings
889 Modern Greek
!!!!!890 Literatures of other languages 
891 East Indo-European & Celtic
892 Afro-Asiatic literatures Semitic
893 Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic literatures
894 Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian
895 Literatures of East & Southeast Asia
896 African literatures
897 North American native literatures
898 South Anerican native literatures
899 Other literatures
===
+++!!!![900 – History and geography]
!!!!!900 Geography & history 
901 Philosophy & theory
902 Miscellany
903 Dictionaries & encyclopedias
904 Collected accounts of events
905 Serial publications
906 Organizations & management
907 Education, research, related topics
908 With respect to kinds of persons
909 World history
!!!!!910 Geography & travel 
911 Historical geography
912 Graphic representations of earth
913 Ancient world
914 Europe
915 Asia
916 Africa
917 North America
918 South America
919 Other areas
!!!!!920 Biography, genealogy, insignia 
921 Not assigned or no longer used
922 Not assigned or no longer used
923 Not assigned or no longer used
924 Not assigned or no longer used
925 Not assigned or no longer used
926 Not assigned or no longer used
927 Not assigned or no longer used
928 Not assigned or no longer used
929 Genealogy, names, insignia
!!!!!930 History of ancient world 
931 History of ancient world China
932 History of ancient world Egypt
933 History of ancient world Palestine
934 History of ancient world India
935 History of ancient world Mesopotamia & Iranian Plateau
936 History of ancient world Europe north & west of Italy
937 History of ancient world Italy & adjacent territories
938 History of ancient world Greece
939 History of ancient world Other parts of ancient world
!!!!!940 General history of Europe 
941 General history of Europe British Isles
942 General history of Europe England & Wales
943 General history of Europe Central Europe Germany
944 General history of Europe France & Monaco
945 General history of Europe Italian Peninsula & adjacent islands
946 General history of Europe Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands
947 General history of Europe Eastern Europe Soviet Union
948 General history of Europe Northern Europe Scandinavia
949 General history of Europe Other parts of Europe
!!!!!950 General history of Asia Far East 
951 General history of Asia China & adjacent areas
952 General history of Asia Japan
953 General history of Asia Arabian Peninsula & adjacent areas
954 General history of Asia South Asia India
955 General history of Asia Iran
956 General history of Asia Middle East (Near East)
957 General history of Asia Siberia (Asiatic Russia)
958 General history of Asia Central Asia
959 General history of Asia Southeast Asia
!!!!!960 General history of Africa 
961 General history of Africa Tunisia & Libya
962 General history of Africa Egypt & Sudan
963 General history of Africa Ethiopia
964 General history of Africa Morocco & Canary Islands
965 General history of Africa Algeria
966 General history of Africa West Africa & offshore islands
967 General history of Africa Central Africa & offshore islands
968 General history of Africa Southern Africa
969 General history of Africa South Indian Ocean islands
!!!!!970 General history of North America 
971 General history of North America Canada
972 General history of North America Middle America Mexico
973 General history of North America United States
974 General history of North America Northeastern United States
975 General history of North America Southeastern United States
976 General history of North America South central United States
977 General history of North America North central United States
978 General history of North America Western United States
979 General history of North America Great Basin & Pacific Slope
!!!!!980 General history of South America 
981 General history of South America Brazil
982 General history of South America Argentina
983 General history of South America Chile
984 General history of South America Bolivia
985 General history of South America Peru
986 General history of South America Colombia & Ecuador
987 General history of South America Venezuela
988 General history of South America Guiana
989 General history of South America Paraguay & Uruguay
!!!!!990 General history of other areas 
991 Not assigned or no longer used
992 Not assigned or no longer used
993 General history of other areas New Zealand
994 General history of other areas Australia
995 General history of other areas Melanesia New Guinea
996 General history of other areas Other parts of Pacific Polynesia
997 General history of other areas Atlantic Ocean islands
998 General history of other areas Arctic islands & Antarctica
999 Extraterrestrial worlds
===
@@color:green;^^All copyright rights in the Dewey Decimal Classification system are owned by OCLC. Dewey, Dewey Decimal Classification, DDC, OCLC and ~WebDewey are registered trademarks of OCLC.^^@@
<html><div id="myDiamond" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none"> <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" /><div><img src="http://img176.imageshack.us/img176/5081/blingbling1151wi1.jpg"><br><div align="center">103.83-carat Flawless diamond</div></div></div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myDiamond')">Diamond</a></html>
Diamonds and Rust
(Words and Music by Joan Baez)

Well I'll be damned
Here comes your ghost again
But that's not unusual
It's just that the moon is full
And you happened to call
And here I sit
Hand on the telephone
Hearing a voice I'd known
A couple of light years ago
Heading straight for a fall

As I remember your eyes
Were bluer than robin's eggs
My poetry was lousy you said
Where are you calling from?
A booth in the midwest
Ten years ago
I bought you some cufflinks
You brought me something
We both know what memories can bring
They bring diamonds and rust

Well you burst on the scene
Already a legend
The unwashed phenomenon
The original vagabond
You strayed into my arms
And there you stayed
Temporarily lost at sea
The Madonna was yours for free
Yes the girl on the half-shell
Would keep you unharmed

Now I see you standing
With brown leaves falling around
And snow in your hair
Now you're smiling out the window
Of that crummy hotel
Over Washington Square
Our breath comes out white clouds
Mingles and hangs in the air
Speaking strictly for me
We both could have died then and there

Now you're telling me
You're not nostalgic
Then give me another word for it
You who are so good with words
And at keeping things vague
Because I need some of that vagueness now
It's all come back too clearly
Yes I loved you dearly
And if you're offering me diamonds and rust
I've already paid

© 1975 Chandos Music (ASCAP) 
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>&nbsp;[[Digital Radio|DigitalRadio]]>>
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<<<
|>|>|bgcolor:#FFF;+++^40em^[Read First!]Procrastination can drive most of us into a spiral of shame that’s as mundane as it is painfully personal. We know what we should be doing, but some invisible hang-up keeps us on the line. Unfortunately, the guaranteed consequence of procrastination is growth in the scale of the task you’ve been putting off—as well as the anxiety that it creates. <br><br>All the time you’re putting something off, your problem’s getting bigger—both in reality and in your head, where your colorful imagination is liable to turn even the most trivial item into an unsolvable juggernaut that threatens to overwhelm you. And that means extra stress, more procrastination, and the music goes round. <br><br>[[Look here next.|http://www.symbex.net.au/knowledge/organisations/demotivators_1550_3611697.jpg]]===|
[[Kick procrastination’s ass: Run a dash|Procrastination]]
@@color:green;''Do something every day that you don't want to do;
this is the golden rule for acquiring the habit of doing
your duty without pain.''@@
*File all notes as soon as possible
<<<
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The double-slit experiment consists of letting light diffract through two slits, which produces fringes or wave-like interference patterns on a screen. These interference patterns will result in projected light and dark regions that correspond to where the light waves have constructively (added) and destructively (subtracted) interfered.

Source: [[Double-slit experiment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-slit_experiment]]
|bgcolor:#fff;<<tiddler ./puddle>>|

<part puddle hidden>

{{textjustify{
''Imagine a puddle waking up one morning and thinking'', 'This is an interesting world I find myself in, an  interesting hole I find myself in, fits me rather neatly, doesn't it? {{imgfloatright{

[img[http://img249.imageshack.us/img249/2470/puddlesmnr1.jpg][http://wilsonsalmanac.blogspot.com/uploaded_images/aust_puddle1-770936.jpg]]
}}} In fact it fits me staggeringly well, must have been made to have me in it! 

This is such a powerful idea that as the sun rises in the sky and the air heats up and as, gradually, the puddle gets smaller and smaller, it's still frantically hanging on to the notion that everything's going to be alright, because this world was meant to have him in it, was built to have him in it; so the moment he disappears catches him rather by surprise. I think this may be something we need to be on the watch out for.

    * As quoted in Richard Dawkins' Eulogy for Douglas Adams

Source: [[Douglas Adams - Wikiquote|http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Douglas_Adams]]
}}}
</part>
<HTML><div align="center"><script src="memorizable.js"></script><style> .mem { border-collapse: collapse; border: solid #ccc;         border-width: 1px 0px 0px 1px; margin: 5px 5px 5px 15px; padding: 0px; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;width:500px;}.mem th {  font-weight: bold;  background-color: #ffccff; }.mem th a { font-size: 9px; }.mem td {  font-family: ariel;  font-size: 11px; border: solid #ccc;                 border-width: 0px 1px 1px 0px; padding: 1px 9px 1px 9px; }.mem th { font-family: ariel; font-size: 11px; border: solid #ccc;border-width: 0px 1px 1px 0px; padding: 1px 9px 1px 9px; }</style></HEAD><BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF" TEXT="#000000" LINK="#0000FF" VLINK="#800080"><table class="mem" align="center"><tbody><tr><th> Love Style <br> <a href="#" onmouseover="showMemorizeHelp();" onmouseout="hideHelp();" id="memorizeLink" onclick="return Mem.start( this )">(memorize)</a></th><th>  Definition <br><a href="#" onmouseover="showMemorizeHelp();" onmouseout="hideHelp();" id="memorizeLink" onclick="return Mem.start( this )">(memorize)</a></th></tr><tr><td> Stars shining </td><td>  bright above you </td></tr><tr><td> Night breezes </td><td> seem to whisper "I love you" </td></tr><tr><td> Birds singin’ </td><td> in the sycamore trees </td></tr><tr><td> Dream a </td><td> little dream of me </td></tr><tr><td> Say </td><td>  nighty-night and kiss me </td></tr><tr><td> Just </td><td>  hold me tight and tell me you’ll miss me </td></tr><tr><td> While </td><td>  I’m alone and blue as can be </td></tr><tr><td> Dream </td><td>  a little dream of me </td></tr><tr><td> Stars  </td><td> fading but I linger on dear </td></tr><tr><td> Still </td><td> craving your kiss </td></tr><tr><td> I’m </td><td> longin’ to linger till dawn dear </td></tr><tr><td> Just </td><td> saying this.... </td></tr><tr><td> Sweet </td><td> dreams till sunbeams find you </td></tr><tr><td> Sweet </td><td> dreams that leave all worries behind you </td></tr><tr><td> But </td><td> in your dreams whatever they be </td></tr><tr><td> Dream </td><td> a little dream of me </td></tr></table></div></HTML>
@@position:relative;+++^15em^[Post Codes]...
{{bgcolourblack{
[[Aust. Post (Reverse lookup)|http://www1.auspost.com.au/postcodes/]]
[[Post Codes|http://postcodes.qpzm.com.au/]]
}}}
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{{threecolumns{
UNITED  STATES  EARLY  RADIO  HISTORY
THOMAS H. WHITE  section  13 	

Radio During World War One (1914-1919)

    * Next Section:  Expanded Audion and Vacuum-tube Development (1917-1924)
    * Previous Section:  Pioneering Amateurs (1900-1917)
    * Home Page:  Table of Contents / Site Search
    
Civilian radio activities were suspended during the war, as the radio industry was taken over by the government. Numerous military applications were developed, including direct communication with airplanes. The war also exposed thousands of service personnel to the on-going advances in radio technology, and even saw a few experiments with broadcasting entertainment to the troops.
The introduction of vacuum-tube equipment promised to revolutionize radio. However, all amateur and commercial use of radio came to an abrupt halt on April 7, 1917 when, with the entrance of the United States into World War One, most private U.S. radio stations were ordered by the President to either shut down or be taken over by the government, and for the duration of the war it became illegal for private U.S. citizens to even possess an operational radio transmitter or receiver. Radio in the U.S. had become a government monopoly, reserved for the war effort. Amateur radio operators were particularly hard hit by the restrictions. Before the ban, amateurs read the monthly issues of The Electrical Experimenter in order to find out about the latest improvements in equipment design, but now that magazine was featuring articles like How the Government Seals Radio Apparatus, which appeared in July, 1917. The American Radio Relay League's July, 1917 QST magazine brought Arthur C. Young's report of What Happened at Buffalo When Closing Orders Were Received. QST also began carrying monthly reports from former amateurs who were now enlisted in the U.S. Navy, and in September, 1917, in its final issue before suspending publication for the duration of the war, mused about the uncertain future of amateur radio in Another Season Opens, But-. The war was an opportunity for some to advance beyond standard peacetime restrictions. In this heavily segregated era there were a limited number of jobs open to African-Americans, however Negroes for Army Signalmen announced that radio operator training was being established in Richmond, Virginia.

Radio communication played a vital role for all combatants during the war, although, in the era before mechanization, army transportation still largely depended on mules and horses. In the 1906 Manual of Wireless Telegraphy by A. Frederick Collins, the Clark Portable Army Set sections reviewed "apparatus as compact and portable as possible so that it may be transported on the backs of mules", and in the 1911 edition of Drill Regulations for Field Companies of the Signal Corps (Provisional), the two main radio field units were the Pack Set, carried by a "section normally composed of 10 mounted men and 4 pack mules", and the Wagon Set, whose "section is normally composed of 18 mounted men, the wagoner and engineer, who ride on the wagon, and one wagon wireless set, drawn by 4 mules". The October, 1916 edition of the United States Signal Corps' Radiotelegraphy manual reviewed advances in Pack and Wagon Set designs, including the adoption of quenched spark transmitters, and the reduction, by one, of the number of mules needed to carry a Field Pack set. Also included was a short section on the beginnings of mechanization, with development of transmitters carried by automobiles, plus information on an early form of spread spectrum transmission. After the entrance of the United States into the war, U.S. Signal Corps Radio Outfit in France, from the September, 1918 Electrical Experimenter, reported on field units deployed on the battlefield.

With the outbreak of war in Europe in August, 1914, the United States had initially declared its neutrality in the conflict. In order to enforce this neutrality, on August 5, 1914 President Woodrow Wilson issued an Executive Order instructing the Navy Department to censor international telegraph messages sent and received by radio firms, as reported in Wilson's Proclamation, from the September, 1914 The Wireless Age. The Marconi Wireless Company of America -- the dominant radio company in the U.S. at this time -- immediately and vigorously challenged the legality of this order, with their arguments spelled out in The Censorship of Messages, from the September, 1914 issue of The Wireless Age. (Although American Marconi was a U.S. corporation, its parent company had very close ties to two of the countries, Great Britain and Italy, allied against Germany). A short time later, the U.S. government complained that the American Marconi station at Siasconsett, Massachusetts had handled an unneutral message from the British cruiser Suffolk, but the Marconi company once again disputed the right of the U.S. Navy to monitor its operations, as detailed in The Censorship Situation, which appeared in the October, 1914 The Wireless Age. Dissatisfied by American Marconi's response to the Suffolk incident, the Navy shut down the Siasconsett operations for three and a half months, while the Marconi company unsuccessfully contested the action in the courts. The station reopened in January, 1915, with American Marconi now agreeing to follow the Navy regulations. On January 20, 1916, the U.S. Secretary of State sent a letter to Congress explaining the current censorship policy toward U.S. radio communications, and how it differed from cable restrictions. A New York Times article including the text of the letter was reprinted in Wireless Censorship, from the February, 1917 issue of QST. The Navy's expanding roles during this period are reviewed in the Operations and Organization of United States Naval Radio Service During Neutrality Period chapter of Linwood S. Howeth's 1963 History of Communications-Electronics in the United States Navy.

The military importance of radio was immediately apparent. In August, 1914, the Belgians had to completely destroy a major international communications station located near Brussels, in order to keep it from falling into the hands of the advancing German army, as reported in Destruction of the Brussels Radio Station, by Henry M. De Gallaix, from the November, 1919 Radio Amateur News. Directing the War by Wireless, written by George F. Worts and appearing in the May, 1915 Popular Mechanics, reviewed the multiple applications of radio in both short and ling distance wartime communication. A British overview of various uses by Great Britain and its primary foe, Germany, Wireless Waves in the World's War by H. J. B. Ward, appeared in the 1916 edition of the annual The Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony. In the May, 1917 Popular Science Monthly, Capt. A. P. Corcoran's Wireless in the Trenches reviewed radiotelegraph operations at the British front lines, where operators with portable transmitters proved invaluable, for "If a gas attack is coming, it is he who sends the warning to the men behind to put their gas helmets on." During the war, the Germans used radio transmissions to help airships navigate to their bombing run targets, reviewed by How the Zeppelin Raiders Are Guided by Radio Signals, which appeared in the April, 1918 Popular Science Monthly. However, the French would employ counter measures, as an article in the November, 1919 Electrical Experimenter reported how a special station had been used to confuse a group of enemy airships by transmitting phony signals, which put "another dent in Fritz's wild war dream" when Seven Zeppelins Were Lured to Death by Radio. In the July 15, 1917 issue of Journal of Electricity, Wireless Telephone Will be Used by The Navy in War outlined research efforts by AT&T, including one key development, two-way voice communication with airplanes, which would be quickly achieved, meaning that "squadron formations of all sorts could be maintained in the air as easily as infantry units on the ground", according to American-Developed Radio Telephone Success in Airplanes, from the November 23, 1918 Telephony. Although before the war ocean-going radio had generally been limited to passenger vessels, submarine warfare spurred merchant ships to add radio operators. In 1919, David W. Bone reviewed British World War One maritime activities in his book Merchantmen-at-Arms, and noted in the On Signals and Wireless chapter that "If to one man we seaman owe a debt unpayable, Marconi holds the bond". During the war, radio operator Dale Clemons kept a diary of his harrowing Atlantic run aboard an armed freighter, which his daughter, Bette J. Clemons, drew upon to document his adventures in a 1991 book, Wake of the Wirelessman (radio operations extracts).

During World War One, a Committee on Public Information ("Compub"), headed by George Creel, was formed to promote the U.S. war effort at home and abroad. In the September, 1922 Popular Radio, Creel's The Battle in the Air Lanes noted that the World War had been the first to include "Public Opinion as a major force" where "moral verdicts took on all the value of military decisions", and the United States, with limited access to the international cables, had turned to radio for "reaching every country on the globe with the American message".

Although much of the fear in the United States about radio being used for spying was baseless hysteria, there were also legitimate concerns, one case reported in Remarkable Radio Outfit Built By German Spy, which appeared in the June, 1917 Electrical Experimenter. After the war ended, Pierre H. Boucheron reviewed radio espionage and counter-espionage in Guarding the Ether During the War, from the September, 1919 Radio Amateur News, and A War-Time Radio Detective, a four-part series which began in the May, 1920 issue of Electrical Experimenter.

While radio remained off-limits for the general public during the war, there were occasional hints of what lay ahead. Wireless Music for Wounded Soldiers from the April, 1918 The Wireless Age reviewed a low-power transmitter that could be used to entertain hospitalized soldiers with music and news. And between the cessation of hostilities in November, 1918, and the end of the civilian radio restrictions in 1919, there were scattered reports of military personnel firing up transmitters in order to broadcast entertainment to the troops - for example a February 2, 1919 "Moonlight Witches Dance" transmitted from off the coast of San Diego, California by the battleship Marblehead, reported in Music by Wireless, in the March, 1919 issue of Telephone Engineer. A few months later, the U.S.S. George Washington was outfitted with a vacuum-tube transmitter for a transatlantic voyage, in order to test long-range radiotelephony, which was reviewed in the October, 1920 issue of General Electric Review: Radiophone Transmitter on the U.S.S. George Washington, by John H. Payne. During these tests, the experimenters found time to broadcast concerts, and even made an unsuccessful attempt to broadcast an onboard Independence Day speech by President Woodrow Wilson on July 4, 1919. These transmissions were widely heard -- the January, 1920 QST carried a report, This Looks Like Record Reception, that James B. Corum had heard the George Washington in Derring, North Dakota. In addition, the November, 1919 issue of Radio Amateur News reported a radio concert transmitted from the destroyer Blakely, located at Albany, New York, in Navy Man Gives Albany Concert By Radiophone.

In 1919, the amateurs began returning to civilian life. And, in contrast to the enthusiastic reports which had appeared in QST at the start of the war, Irving Vermilya's review of two years in the Navy, appearing in the December, 1919 issue, summed up his experiences in its title, "S.O.L."

 
"Germany, seven hours before the declaration of war at midnight on August 14, 1914, flung round the world on its chain of wireless stations the vital message to its mercantile marine: 'War declared on England, make as quickly as you can for a neutral port.' This terse dispatch unquestionably saved Germany many millions of pounds of property and secured for possible future use a fleet of passenger and cargo boats which might yet play a great part in her recovery from war's ravages." "Long Distance Services", The Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, 1916.
}}}
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#http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2009/01/australians-war-on-science-keeps-on.html
#http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2009/01/whats-up-with-polynomial-fits-yes-it.html
#http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2008/07/global-warming-resources.html
#Don't forget Australia's own http://bravenewclimate.com/ as well 
#The international http://www.realclimate.org/
#http://www.mii.org/ Mineral Information Institute - dedicated to educating youth about the science of minerals and other natural resources.
#http://www.gemhut.com provides an index of gemstones and photos of several cut minerals and a few uncut specimens.
#http://mineral.galleries.com/default.htm provides an index of minerals with information.
#http://www.allmetsat.com/ ***** @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ Extensive Satellite Images
#http://users.ictp.it/~pwc/ @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@Earth System Physics - Weather and Climate (Italy)

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{{textcenter headline{
From issue 2573 of New Scientist magazine, 12 October 2006, page 36-41
}}}
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{{ twocolumns{
{{firstletter{
 @@color:#c06;H@@
 }}}umans are undoubtedly the most dominant species the Earth has ever known. In just a few thousand years we have swallowed up more than a third of the planet's land for our cities, farmland and pastures. By some estimates, we now commandeer 40 per cent of all its productivity. And we're leaving quite a mess behind: ploughed-up prairies, razed forests, drained aquifers, nuclear waste, chemical pollution, invasive species, mass extinctions and now the looming spectre of climate change. If they could, the other species we share Earth with would surely vote us off the planet. "15,589 Number of species threatened with extinction"

Now just suppose they got their wish. Imagine that all the people on Earth - all 6.5 billion of us and counting - could be spirited away tomorrow, transported to a re-education camp in a far-off galaxy. (Let's not invoke the mother of all plagues to wipe us out, if only to avoid complications from all the corpses). Left once more to its own devices, Nature would begin to reclaim the planet, as fields and pastures reverted to prairies and forest, the air and water cleansed themselves of pollutants, and roads and cities crumbled back to dust.

"The sad truth is, once the humans get out of the picture, the outlook starts to get a lot better," says John Orrock, a conservation biologist at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara, California. But would the footprint of humanity ever fade away completely, or have we so altered the Earth that even a million years from now a visitor would know that an industrial society once ruled the planet?

{{floatleft{
|bgcolor:#fef;width:10em;"''9.7'' Average eco-footprint of a US citizen, in hectares"|
}}}If tomorrow dawns without humans, even from orbit the change will be evident almost immediately, as the blaze of artificial light that brightens the night begins to wink out. Indeed, there are few better ways to grasp just how utterly we dominate the surface of the Earth than to look at the distribution of artificial illumination (see Graphic). By some estimates, 85 per cent of the night sky above the European Union is light-polluted; in the US it is 62 per cent and in Japan 98.5 per cent. In some countries, including Germany, Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands, there is no longer any night sky untainted by light pollution.

{{floatleft{
|bgcolor:#fef;width:10em;"''18.7'' Percentage of Earth's surface affected by light pollution"|
}}}"Pretty quickly - 24, maybe 48 hours - you'd start to see blackouts because of the lack of fuel added to power stations," says Gordon Masterton, president of the UK's Institution of Civil Engineers in London. Renewable sources such as wind turbines and solar will keep a few automatic lights burning, but lack of maintenance of the distribution grid will scuttle these in weeks or months. The loss of electricity will also quickly silence water pumps, sewage treatment plants and all the other machinery of modern society.

The same lack of maintenance will spell an early demise for buildings, roads, bridges and other structures. Though modern buildings are typically engineered to last 60 years, bridges 120 years and dams 250, these lifespans assume someone will keep them clean, fix minor leaks and correct problems with foundations. Without people to do these seemingly minor chores, things go downhill quickly.

The best illustration of this is the city of Pripyat near Chernobyl in Ukraine, which was abandoned after the nuclear disaster 20 years ago and remains deserted. "From a distance, you would still believe that Pripyat is a living city, but the buildings are slowly decaying," says Ronald Chesser, an environmental biologist at Texas Tech University in Lubbock who has worked extensively in the exclusion zone around Chernobyl. "The most pervasive thing you see are plants whose root systems get into the concrete and behind the bricks and into doorframes and so forth, and are rapidly breaking up the structure. You wouldn't think, as you walk around your house every day, that we have a big impact on keeping that from happening, but clearly we do. It's really sobering to see how the plant community invades every nook and cranny of a city."

With no one to make repairs, every storm, flood and frosty night gnaws away at abandoned buildings, and within a few decades roofs will begin to fall in and buildings collapse. This has already begun to happen in Pripyat. Wood-framed houses and other smaller structures, which are built to laxer standards, will be the first to go. Next down may be the glassy, soaring structures that tend to win acclaim these days. "The elegant suspension bridges, the lightweight forms, these are the kinds of structures that would be more vulnerable," says Masterton. "There's less reserve of strength built into the design, unlike solid masonry buildings and those using arches and vaults."

But even though buildings will crumble, their ruins - especially those made of stone or concrete - are likely to last thousands of years. "We still have records of civilisations that are 3000 years old," notes Masterton. "For many thousands of years there would still be some signs of the civilisations that we created. It's going to take a long time for a concrete road to disappear. It might be severely crumbling in many places, but it'll take a long time to become invisible."

The lack of maintenance will have especially dramatic effects at the 430 or so nuclear power plants now operating worldwide. Nuclear waste already consigned to long-term storage in air-cooled metal and concrete casks should be fine, since the containers are designed to survive thousands of years of neglect, by which time their radioactivity - mostly in the form of caesium-137 and strontium-90 - will have dropped a thousandfold, says Rodney Ewing, a geologist at the University of Michigan who specialises in radioactive waste management. Active reactors will not fare so well. As cooling water evaporates or leaks away, reactor cores are likely to catch fire or melt down, releasing large amounts of radiation. The effects of such releases, however, may be less dire than most people suppose.

The area around Chernobyl has revealed just how fast nature can bounce back. "I really expected to see a nuclear desert there," says Chesser. "I was quite surprised. When you enter into the exclusion zone, it's a very thriving ecosystem."

The first few years after people evacuated the zone, rats and house mice flourished, and packs of feral dogs roamed the area despite efforts to exterminate them. But the heyday of these vermin proved to be short-lived, and already the native fauna has begun to take over. Wild boar are 10 to 15 times as common within the Chernobyl exclusion zone as outside it, and big predators are making a spectacular comeback. "I've never seen a wolf in the Ukraine outside the exclusion zone. I've seen many of them inside," says Chesser.

The same should be true for most other ecosystems once people disappear, though recovery rates will vary. Warmer, moister regions, where ecosystem processes tend to run more quickly in any case, will bounce back more quickly than cooler, more arid ones. Not surprisingly, areas still rich in native species will recover faster than more severely altered systems. In the boreal forests of northern Alberta, Canada, for example, human impact mostly consists of access roads, pipelines, andother narrow strips cut through the forest. In the absence of human activity, the forest will close over 80 per cent of these within 50 years, and all but 5 per cent within 200, according to simulations by Brad Stelfox, an independent land-use ecologist based in Bragg Creek, Alberta.

In contrast, places where native forests have been replaced by plantations of a single tree species may take several generations of trees - several centuries - to work their way back to a natural state. The vast expanses of rice, wheat and maize that cover the world's grain belts may also take quite some time to revert to mostly native species.

At the extreme, some ecosystems may never return to the way they were before humans interfered, because they have become locked into a new "stable state" that resists returning to the original. In Hawaii, for example, introduced grasses now generate frequent wildfires that would prevent native forests from re-establishing themselves even if given free rein, says David Wilcove, a conservation biologist at Princeton University.

Feral descendants of domestic animals and plants, too, are likely to become permanent additions in many ecosystems, just as wild horses and feral pigs already have in some places. Highly domesticated species such as cattle, dogs and wheat, the products of centuries of artificial selection and inbreeding, will probably evolve back towards hardier, less specialised forms through random breeding. "If man disappears tomorrow, do you expect to see herds of poodles roaming the plains?" asks Chesser. Almost certainly not - but hardy mongrels will probably do just fine. Even cattle and other livestock, bred for meat or milk rather than hardiness, are likely to persist, though in much fewer numbers than today.

{{floatleft{
|bgcolor:#fef;width:10em;"''3.3bn'' Global population of cattle, sheep and goats"|
}}}What about genetically modified crops? In August, Jay Reichman and colleagues at the US Environmental Protection Agency's labs in Corvallis, Oregon, reported that a GM version of a perennial called creeping bentgrass had established itself in the wild after escaping from an experimental plot in Oregon. Like most GM crops, however, the bentgrass is engineered to be resistant to a pesticide, which comes at a metabolic cost to the organism, so in the absence of spraying it will be at a disadvantage and will probably die out too.

Nor will our absence mean a reprieve for every species teetering on the brink of extinction. Biologists estimate that habitat loss is pivotal in about 85 per cent of cases where US species become endangered, so most such species will benefit once habitats begin to rebound. However, species in the direst straits may have already passed some critical threshold below which they lack the genetic diversity or the ecological critical mass they need to recover. These "dead species walking" - cheetahs and California condors, for example - are likely to slip away regardless.

{{floatleft{
|bgcolor:#fef;width:10em;"''784'' Number of species that have gone extinct in the wild since 1500 AD"|
}}}Other causes of species becoming endangered may be harder to reverse than habitat loss. For example, about half of all endangered species are in trouble at least partly because of predation or competition from invasive introduced species. Some of these introduced species - house sparrows, for example, which are native to Eurasia but now dominate many cities in North America - will dwindle away once the gardens and bird feeders of suburban civilisation vanish. Others though, such as rabbits in Australia and cheat grass in the American west, do not need human help and will likely be around for the long haul and continue to edge out imperilled native species.

{{floatleft{
|bgcolor:#fef;width:10em;"''388'' Number of species listed on the invasive species database"|
}}}Ironically, a few endangered species - those charismatic enough to have attracted serious help from conservationists - will actually fare worse with people no longer around to protect them. Kirtland's warbler - one of the rarest birds in North America, once down to just a few hundred birds - suffers not only because of habitat loss near its Great Lakes breeding grounds but also thanks to brown-headed cowbirds, which lay their eggs in the warblers' nests and trick them into raising cowbird chicks instead of their own. Thanks to an aggressive programme to trap cowbirds, warbler numbers have rebounded, but once people disappear, the warblers could be in trouble, says Wilcove.

On the whole, though, a humanless Earth will likely be a safer place for threatened biodiversity. "I would expect the number of species that benefit to significantly exceed the number that suffer, at least globally," Wilcove says.

''On the rebound''

In the oceans, too, fish populations will gradually recover from drastic overfishing. The last time fishing more or less stopped - during the second world war, when few fishing vessels ventured far from port - cod populations in the North Sea skyrocketed. Today, however, populations of cod and other economically important fish have slumped much further than they did in the 1930s, and recovery may take significantly longer than five or so years.

The problem is that there are now so few cod and other large predatory fish that they can no longer keep populations of smaller fish such as gurnards in check. Instead, the smaller fish turn the tables and outcompete or eat tiny juvenile cod, thus keeping their erstwhile predators in check. The problem will only get worse in the first few years after fishing ceases, as populations of smaller, faster-breeding fish flourish like weeds in an abandoned field. Eventually, though, in the absence of fishing, enough large predators will reach maturity to restore the normal balance. Such a transition might take anywhere from a few years to a few decades, says Daniel Pauly, a fisheries biologist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.

With trawlers no longer churning up nutrients from the ocean floor, near-shore ecosystems will return to a relatively nutrient-poor state. This will be most apparent as a drop in the frequency of harmful algal blooms such as the red tides that often plague coastal areas today. Meanwhile, the tall, graceful corals and other bottom-dwelling organisms on deep-water reefs will gradually begin to regrow, restoring complex three-dimensional structure to ocean-floor habitats that are now largely flattened, featureless wastelands.

Long before any of this, however - in fact, the instant humans vanish from the Earth - pollutants will cease spewing from automobile tailpipes and the smokestacks and waste outlets of our factories. What happens next will depend on the chemistry of each particular pollutant. A few, such as oxides of nitrogen and sulphur and ozone (the ground-level pollutant, not the protective layer high in the stratosphere), will wash out of the atmosphere in a matter of a few weeks. Others, such as chlorofluorocarbons, dioxins and the pesticide DDT, take longer to break down. Some will last a few decades.

The excess nitrates and phosphates that can turn lakes and rivers into algae-choked soups will also clear away within a few decades, at least for surface waters. A little excess nitrate may persist for much longer within groundwater, where it is less subject to microbial conversion into atmospheric nitrogen. "Groundwater is the long-term memory in the system," says Kenneth Potter, a hydrologist at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Carbon dioxide, the biggest worry in today's world because of its leading role in global warming, will have a more complex fate. Most of the CO2 emitted from burning fossil fuels is eventually absorbed into the ocean. This happens relatively quickly for surface waters - just a few decades - but the ocean depths will take about a thousand years to soak up their full share. Even when that equilibrium has been reached, though, about 15 per cent of the CO2 from burning fossil fuels will remain in the atmosphere, leaving its concentration at about 300 parts per million compared with pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. "There will be CO2 left in the atmosphere, continuing to influence the climate, more than 1000 years after humans stop emitting it," says Susan Solomon, an atmospheric chemist with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado. Eventually calcium ions released from sea-bottom sediments will allow the sea to mop up the remaining excess over the next 20, 000 years or so.

Even if CO2 emissions stop tomorrow, though, global warming will continue for another century, boosting average temperatures by a further few tenths of a degree. Atmospheric scientists call this "committed warming", and it happens because the oceans take so long to warm up compared with the atmosphere. In essence, the oceans are acting as a giant air conditioner, keeping the atmosphere cooler than it would otherwise be for the present level of CO2. Most policy-makers fail to take this committed warming into account, says Gerald Meehl, a climate modeller at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, also in Boulder. "They think if it gets bad enough we'll just put the brakes on, but we can't just stop and expect everything to be OK, because we're already committed to this warming."

That extra warming we have already ordered lends some uncertainty to the fate of another important greenhouse gas, methane, which produces about 20 per cent of our current global warming. Methane's chemical lifetime in the atmosphere is only about 10 years, so its concentration could rapidly return to pre-industrial levels if emissions cease. The wild card, though, is that there are massive reserves of methane in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and frozen into permafrost. Further temperature rises may destabilise these reserves and dump much of the methane into the atmosphere. "We may stop emitting methane ourselves, but we may already have triggered climate change to the point where methane may be released through other processes that we have no control over," says Pieter Tans, an atmospheric scientist at NOAA in Boulder.

No one knows how close the Earth is to that threshold. "We don't notice it yet in our global measurement network, but there is local evidence that there is some destabilisation going on of permafrost soils, and methane is being released," says Tans. Solomon, on the other hand, sees little evidence that a sharp global threshold is near.

All things considered, it will only take a few tens of thousands of years at most before almost every trace of our present dominance has vanished completely. Alien visitors coming to Earth 100,000 years hence will find no obvious signs that an advanced civilisation ever lived here.

Yet if the aliens had good enough scientific tools they could still find a few hints of our presence. For a start, the fossil record would show a mass extinction centred on the present day, including the sudden disappearance of large mammals across North America at the end of the last ice age. A little digging might also turn up intriguing signs of a long-lost intelligent civilisation, such as dense concentrations of skeletons of a large bipedal ape, clearly deliberately buried, some with gold teeth or grave goods such as jewellery.

And if the visitors chanced across one of today's landfills, they might still find fragments of glass and plastic - and maybe even paper - to bear witness to our presence. "I would virtually guarantee that there would be some," says William Rathje, an archaeologist at Stanford University in California who has excavated many landfills. "The preservation of things is really pretty amazing. We think of artefacts as being so impermanent, but in certain cases things are going to last a long time."

Ocean sediment cores will show a brief period during which massive amounts of heavy metals such as mercury were deposited, a relic of our fleeting industrial society. The same sediment band will also show a concentration of radioactive isotopes left by reactor meltdowns after our disappearance. The atmosphere will bear traces of a few gases that don't occur in nature, especially perfluorocarbons such as CF4, which have a half-life of tens of thousands of years. Finally a brief, century-long pulse of radio waves will forever radiate out across the galaxy and beyond, proof - for anything that cares and is able to listen - that we once had something to say and a way to say it.

But these will be flimsy souvenirs, almost pathetic reminders of a civilisation that once thought itself the pinnacle of achievement. Within a few million years, erosion and possibly another ice age or two will have obliterated most of even these faint traces. If another intelligent species ever evolves on the Earth - and that is by no means certain, given how long life flourished before we came along - it may well have no inkling that we were ever here save for a few peculiar fossils and ossified relics. The humbling - and perversely comforting - reality is that the Earth will forget us remarkably quickly.
}}}

From issue 2573 of New Scientist magazine, 12 October 2006, page 36-41
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!!!!!''El Niño'' (ěl nēn'yō)
''A warming of the surface water of the eastern'' and central Pacific Ocean, occurring every 4 to 12 years and causing unusual global weather patterns. An El Niño is said to occur when the trade winds that usually push warm surface water{{imgfloatright{
[img[http://img367.imageshack.us/img367/4069/elninovx4.gif]]
}}} westward weaken, allowing the warm water to pool as far eastward as the western coast of South America. When this happens, the typical pattern of coastal upwelling that carries nutrients from the cold depths
to the ocean surface is disrupted, and fish and plankton die off in large numbers. El Niño warming is associated with the atmospheric phenomenon known as the southern oscillation, and their combined effect ''brings heavy rain to western South American and drought to eastern Australia and Indonesia''. El Niño also affects the weather in the United States, but not as predictably.

!!!!!''La Niña'' (lä nēn'yä)
''A cooling of the surface water of the eastern and'' central Pacific Ocean, occurring somewhat less frequently than El Niño events but causing similar, generally opposite disruptions to global weather patterns. La Niña conditions occur when the Pacific trade winds blow more strongly than usual, pushing the sun-warmed surface water farther west and increasing the upwelling of cold water in the eastern regions. Together with the atmospheric effects of the related southern oscillation, ''the cooler water brings drought to western South America and heavy rains to eastern Australia and Indonesia''.

<html><div id="modernbricksmenu"><ul><li style="margin-left: 1px">[[Geological Ages|GeologicalAges]]</li><li>[[Periodic Table|PeriodicTable]]</li><li id="current">[[Elements|Elements]]</li><li>[[BoilingPoint|ElementsMeltingBoilingPoint]]</li><li>[[Naming|Naming]]</li></ul></div><div id="modernbricksmenuline">&nbsp;</div></html>
{{textcenter{
@@color:#00f;&dagger;@@+++[Note About Elements]
{{textleft{
<<<
There are between 88 and 92 elements that appear in nature; figures vary, because a handful of the elements with atomic numbers less than 92 have not actually been found in nature, but were produced in laboratories. (All elements with an atomic number higher than that of uranium, which is 92, are artificial.)
<<<
}}}
===
}}}
{{tablecenter{
|>|>|>|>| !Chemical series of the periodic table |h
|bgcolor:#ff6666; [[Alkali metals|http://www.answers.com/Alkali%20metals]] |bgcolor:#ffdead; [[Alkaline earth metals|http://www.answers.com/topic/alkaline-earth-metal]] |bgcolor:#ffbfff; [[Lanthanides|http://www.answers.com/Lanthanides]] |bgcolor:#ff99cc; [[Actinides|http://www.answers.com/Actinides]] |bgcolor:#ffc0c0; [[Transition metals|http://www.answers.com/Transition%20metals]] |
|bgcolor:#cccccc; [[Poor metals|http://www.answers.com/Poor%20metals]] |bgcolor:#cccc99; [[Metalloids|http://www.answers.com/Metalloids]] |bgcolor:#a0ffa0; [[Nonmetals|http://www.answers.com/Nonmetals]] |bgcolor:#ffff99; [[Halogens|http://www.answers.com/Halogens]] |bgcolor:#c0ffff; [[Noble gases|http://www.answers.com/Noble%20gases]] |
}}}
----
{{tablecenter{
| !Name | !Symbol | !Atomic Number | !Atomic Mass | !Group | !Period |h
|[[Actinium|http://www.answers.com/topic/actinium]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Ac | 89 | [227] |  | 7 |
|[[Aluminium|http://www.answers.com/topic/aluminium]] (@@color:#C06;Aluminum@@) |background-color:#cccccc; Al | 13 | 26.9815386 | 13 | 3 |
|[[Americium|http://www.answers.com/topic/americium]]  |background-color:#ff99cc; Am | 95 | [243] | | 7 |
|[[Antimony|http://www.answers.com/topic/antimony]] (@@color:#C06;Stibium@@)|background-color:#cccc99; Sb | 51 | 121.760 | 15 | 5 |
|@@color:#C06;Argentum&mdash;see Silver@@ | Ag |||||
|[[Argon|http://www.answers.com/topic/argon]]|background-color:#c0ffff; Ar | 18 | 39.948 | 18 | 3 |
|[[Arsenic|http://www.answers.com/topic/arsenic]]|background-color:#cccc99; As | 33 | 74.92160 | 15 | 4 |
|[[Astatine|http://www.answers.com/topic/astatine]]|background-color:#ffff99; At | 85 | [210] | 17 | 6 |
|@@color:#C06;Aurum&mdash;see Gold@@ | Au |||||
|[[Barium|http://www.answers.com/topic/barium]]|background-color:#ffdead; Ba | 	56 | 137.327 | 2 | 6 |
|[[Berkelium |http://www.answers.com/topic/berkelium]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Bk | 97 | [247] || 7 |
|[[Beryllium |http://www.answers.com/topic/beryllium]]|background-color:#ffdead; Be | 4 | 9.012182 | 2 | 2 |
|[[Bismuth |http://www.answers.com/topic/bismuth]]|background-color:#cccccc; Bi | 83 | 208.98040 | 15 | 6 |
|[[Bohrium |http://www.answers.com/topic/bohrium]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Bh | 107 | [264] | 7 | 7 |
|[[Boron |http://www.answers.com/topic/boron]]|background-color:#cccc99; B | 5 | 10.811 | 13 | 2 |
|[[Bromine |http://www.answers.com/topic/bromine]]|background-color:#ffff99; Br | 35 | 79.904 | 17 | 4 |
|[[Cadmium |http://www.answers.com/topic/cadmium]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Cd | 48 | 112.411 | 12 | 5 |
|[[Caesium|http://www.answers.com/topic/caesium]] (@@color:#C06;Cesium@@)|background-color:#ff6666; Cs | 55 | 132.9054519 | 1 | 6 |
|[[Calcium |http://www.answers.com/topic/calcium]]|background-color:#ffdead; Ca | 20 | 40.078 | 2 | 4 |
|[[Californium |http://www.answers.com/topic/californium]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Cf | 98 | [251] | | 7 |
|[[Carbon ||http://www.answers.com/topic/carbon]]|background-color:#a0ffa0; C | 6 | 12.010 | 14 | 2 |
|[[Cerium |http://www.answers.com/topic/cerium]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Ce | 58 | 140.116 || 6 |
|[[Chlorine |http://www.answers.com/topic/chlorine]]|background-color:#ffff99; Cl | 17 | 35.453 | 17 | 3 |
|[[Chromium |http://www.answers.com/topic/chromium]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Cr | 24 | 51.9961 | 6 | 4 |
|[[Cobalt|http://www.answers.com/topic/cobalt]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Co | 27 | 58.933195 | 9 | 4 |
|[[Copper |http://www.answers.com/topic/copper-3]](@@color:#C06;Cuprum@@) |background-color:#ffc0c0; Cu | 29 | 63.546 | 11 | 4 |
|[[Curium |http://www.answers.com/topic/curium]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Cm | 96 | [247] || 7 |
|[[Darmstadtium |http://www.answers.com/topic/darmstadtium]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Ds | 110 | [271] | 10 | 7 |
|[[Dubnium |http://www.answers.com/topic/dubnium]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Db | 105 | [262] | 5 | 7 |
|[[Dysprosium |http://www.answers.com/topic/dysprosium]] |background-color:#ffbfff; Dy | 66 | 162.500 || 6 |
|[[Einsteinium |http://www.answers.com/topic/einsteinium]] |background-color:#ff99cc; Es | 99 | [252] || 7 |
|[[Erbium |http://www.answers.com/topic/erbium]] |background-color:#ffbfff; Er | 68 | 167.259 || 6 |
|[[Europium |http://www.answers.com/topic/europium]] |background-color:#ffbfff; Eu | 63 | 151.964 | | 6 |
|[[Fermium |http://www.answers.com/topic/fermium]] |background-color:#ff99cc; Fm | 100 | [257] || 7 |
|@@color:#C06;Ferrum&mdash;see Iron@@ | Fe ||||
|[[Fluorine |http://www.answers.com/topic/fluorine]] |background-color:#ffff99; F | 9 | 18.9984032 | 17 | 2 |
|[[Francium |http://www.answers.com/topic/francium]] |background-color:#ff6666; Fr | 87 | [223] | 1 | 7 |
|[[Gadolinium |http://www.answers.com/topic/gadolinium]] |background-color:#ffbfff; Gd | 64 | 157.25 || 6 |
|[[Gallium |http://www.answers.com/topic/gallium]] |background-color:#cccccc; Ga | 31 | 69.723 | 13 | 4 |
|[[Germanium |http://www.answers.com/topic/germanium]] |background-color:#cccc99; Ge | 32 | 72.64 | 14 | 4 |
|[[Gold |http://www.answers.com/topic/gold]] (@@color:#C06;Aurum@@) |background-color:#ffc0c0; Au | 79 | 196.966569 | 11 | 6 |
|[[Hafnium |http://www.answers.com/topic/hafnium]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Hf | 72 | 178.49 | 4 | 6 |
|[[Hassium |http://www.answers.com/topic/hassium]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Hs | 108 | [277] | 8 | 7 |
|[[Helium |http://www.answers.com/topic/helium]]|background-color:#c0ffff; He | 2 | 4.002602 | 18 | 1 |
|[[Holmium |http://www.answers.com/topic/holmium]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Ho | 67 | 164.930 | | 6 |
|@@color:#C06;Hydrargyrum&mdash;see Mercury@@ | Hg |||||
|[[Hydrogen |http://www.answers.com/topic/hydrogen]]|background-color:#a0ffa0; H | 1 | 1.00794 | 1 | 1 |
|[[Indium |http://www.answers.com/topic/indium]] |background-color:#cccccc; In | 49 | 114.818 | 13 | 5 |
|[[Iodine |http://www.answers.com/topic/iodine]] |background-color:#ffff99; I | 53 | 126.90447 | 17 | 5 |
|[[Iridium |http://www.answers.com/topic/iridium]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Ir | 77 | 192.217 | 9 | 6 |
|[[Iron |http://www.answers.com/topic/iron]] (@@color:#C06;Ferrum@@) |background-color:#ffc0c0; Fe | 26 | 55.845 | 8 | 4 |
|@@color:#C06;Kalium&mdash;see Potassium@@ | K |||||
|[[Krypton |http://www.answers.com/topic/krypton]] |background-color:#c0ffff; Kr | 36 | 83.798 | 18 | 4 |
|[[Lanthanum |http://www.answers.com/topic/lanthanum]] |background-color:#ffbfff; La | 57 | 138.90547 | | 6 |
|[[Lawrencium |http://www.answers.com/topic/lawrencium]] |background-color:#ff99cc; Lr | 103 | [262] | 3 | 7 |
|[[Lead |http://www.answers.com/topic/lead-10]] (@@color:#C06;Plumbum@@) |background-color:#cccccc; Pb | 82 | 207.2 | 14 | 6 |
|[[Lithium |http://www.answers.com/topic/lithium]] |background-color:#ff6666; Li | 3 | 6.941 | 1 | 2 |
|[[Lutetium |http://www.answers.com/topic/lutetium]] |background-color:#ffbfff; Lu | 71 | 174.967 | 3 | 6 |
|[[Magnesium |http://www.answers.com/topic/magnesium]] |background-color:#ffdead; Mg | 12 | 24.3050 | 2 | 3 |
|[[Manganese |http://www.answers.com/topic/manganese]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Mn | 25 | 54.938045 | 7 | 4 |
|[[Meitnerium |http://www.answers.com/topic/meitnerium]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Mt | 109 | [268] | 9 | 7 |
|[[Mendelevium |http://www.answers.com/topic/mendelevium]] |background-color:#ff99cc; Md | 101 | [258] || 7 |
|[[Mercury |http://www.answers.com/topic/mercury]] (@@color:#C06;Hydrargyrum@@)|background-color:#ffc0c0; Hg | 80 | 200.59 | 12 | 6 |
|[[Molybdenum |http://www.answers.com/topic/molybdenum]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Mo | 42 | 95.94 | 6 | 5 |
|@@color:#C06;Natrium&mdash;see Sodium@@ | Na |||||
|[[Neodymium |http://www.answers.com/topic/neodymium]] |background-color:#ffbfff; Nd | 60 | 144.242 || 6 |
|[[Neon |http://www.answers.com/topic/neon]] |background-color:#c0ffff; Ne | 10 | 20.1797 | 18 | 2 |
|[[Neptunium |http://www.answers.com/topic/neptunium]] |background-color:#ff99cc; Np | 93 | [237] || 7 |
|[[Nickel |http://www.answers.com/topic/nickel]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Ni | 28 | 58.6934 | 10 | 4 |
|[[Niobium |http://www.answers.com/topic/niobium]] |background-color:#ffc0c0; Nb | 41 | 92.906 | 5 | 5 |
|[[Nitrogen |http://www.answers.com/topic/nitrogen]] |background-color:#a0ffa0; N | 7 | 14.0067 | 15 | 2 |
|[[Nobelium |http://www.answers.com/topic/nobelium]] |background-color:#ff99cc; No | 102 | [259] || 7 |
|[[Osmium |http://www.answers.com/topic/osmium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Os | 76 | 190.23 | 8 | 6 |
|[[Oxygen |http://www.answers.com/topic/oxygen ]]|background-color:#a0ffa0; O | 8 | 15.9994 | 16 | 2 |
|[[Palladium |http://www.answers.com/topic/palladium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Pd | 46 | 106.42 | 10 | 5 |
|@@color:#C06;Plumbum&mdash;see Lead@@ | Pb |||||
|[[Phosphorus |http://www.answers.com/topic/phosphorus ]]|background-color:#a0ffa0; P | 15 | 30.973762 | 15 | 3 |
|[[Platinum |http://www.answers.com/topic/platinum ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Pt | 78 | 195.084 | 10 | 6 |
|[[Plutonium |http://www.answers.com/topic/plutonium ]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Pu | 94 | [244] | | 7 |
|[[Polonium |http://www.answers.com/topic/polonium ]]|background-color:#cccc99; Po | 84 | [210] | 16 | 6 |
|[[Potassium(Kalium) |http://www.answers.com/topic/potassium ]]|background-color:#ff6666; K | 19 | 39.0983 | 1 | 4 |
|[[Praseodymium |http://www.answers.com/topic/praseodymium ]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Pr | 59 | 140.90765 || 6 |
|[[Promethium |http://www.answers.com/topic/promethium ]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Pm | 61 | [145] | | 6 |
|[[Protactinium |http://www.answers.com/topic/protactinium ]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Pa | 91 | 231.03588 || 7 |
|[[Radium |http://www.answers.com/topic/radium ]]|background-color:#ffdead; Ra | 88 | [226] | 2 | 7 |
|[[Radon |http://www.answers.com/topic/radon ]]|background-color:#c0ffff; Rn | 86 | [220] || 6 |
|[[Rhenium |http://www.answers.com/topic/rhenium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Re | 75 | 186.207 | 7 | 6 |
|[[Rhodium |http://www.answers.com/topic/rhodium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Rh | 45 | 102.905 | 9 | 5 |
|[[Roentgenium |http://www.answers.com/topic/roentgenium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Rg | 111 | [272] | 11 | 7 |
|[[Rubidium |http://www.answers.com/topic/rubidium ]]|background-color:#ff6666; Rb | 37 | 85.4678 | 1 | 5 |
|[[Ruthenium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ruthenium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Ru | 44 | 101.07 | 8 | 5 |
|[[Rutherfordium |http://www.answers.com/topic/rutherfordium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Rf | 104 | 261 | 4 | 7 |
|[[Samarium |http://www.answers.com/topic/samarium ]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Sm | 62 | 150.36 || 6 |
|[[Scandium |http://www.answers.com/topic/scandium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Sc | 21 | 44.955912 | 3 | 4 |
|[[Seaborgium |http://www.answers.com/topic/seaborgium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Sg | 106 | [266] | 6 | 7 |
|[[Selenium |http://www.answers.com/topic/selenium ]]|background-color:#a0ffa0; Se | 34 | 78.96 | 16 | 4 |
|[[Silicon |http://www.answers.com/topic/silicon ]]|background-color:#cccc99; Si | 14 | 28.0855 | 14 | 3 |
|[[Silver |http://www.answers.com/topic/silver]](@@color:#C06;Argentum@@)|background-color:#ffc0c0; Ag | 47 | 107.8682 | 11 | 5 |
|[[Sodium |http://www.answers.com/topic/sodium]](@@color:#C06;Natrium@@) |background-color:#ff6666; Na | 11 | 22.98976928 | 1 | 3 |
|@@color:#C06;Stannum&mdash;see Tin@@ | Sn |||||
|@@color:#C06;Stibium&mdash;see Antimony@@ | Sb |||||
|[[Strontium |http://www.answers.com/topic/strontium]]|background-color:#ffdead; Sr | 38 | 87.62 | 2 | 5 |
|[[Sulfur |http://www.answers.com/topic/sulfur ]]|background-color:#a0ffa0; S | 16 | 32.065 | 16 | 3 |
|[[Tantalum |http://www.answers.com/topic/tantalum]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Ta | 73 | 180.94788 | 5 | 6 |
|[[Technetium |http://www.answers.com/topic/technetium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Tc | 43 | [98] | 7 | 5 |
|[[Tellurium |http://www.answers.com/topic/tellurium ]]|background-color:#cccc99; Te | 52 | 127.60 | 16 | 5 |
|[[Terbium |http://www.answers.com/topic/terbium ]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Tb | 65 | 158.92535 || 6 |
|[[Thallium |http://www.answers.com/topic/thallium ]]|background-color:#cccccc; Tl | 81 | 204.3833 | 13 | 6 |
|[[Thorium |http://www.answers.com/topic/thorium ]]|background-color:#ff99cc; Th | 90 | 232.03806 |  | 7 |
|[[Thulium |http://www.answers.com/topic/thulium ]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Tm | 69 | 168.93421 || 6 |
|[[Tin |http://www.answers.com/topic/tin]] (@@color:#C06;Stannum@@) |background-color:#cccccc; Sn | 50 | 118.710 | 14 | 5 |
|[[Titanium |http://www.answers.com/topic/titanium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Ti | 22 | 47.867 | 4 | 4 |
|[[Tungsten |http://www.answers.com/topic/tungsten]](@@color:#C06;Wolfram@@) |background-color:#ffc0c0; W | 74 | 183.84 | 6 | 6 |
|[[Ununbium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ununbium]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Uub | 112 | [285] | 12 | 7 |
|[[Ununhexium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ununhexium ]]|background-color:#cccccc; Uuh | 116 | [292] | 16 | 7 |
|[[Ununoctium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ununoctium ]]|background-color:#c0ffff; Uuo | 118 | [294] | 18 | 7 |
|[[Ununpentium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ununpentium ]]|background-color:#cccccc; Uup | 115 | [288] | 15 | 7 |
|[[Ununquadium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ununquadium ]]|background-color:#cccccc; Uuq | 114 | [289] | 14 | 7 |
|[[Ununseptium |http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery?s=Ununseptium&gwp=13]] |background-color:#ffff99; Uus | 117 | undiscovered | 17 | 7 |
|[[Ununtrium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ununtrium ]]|background-color:#cccccc; Uut | 113 | [284] | 13 | 7 |
|[[Uranium |http://www.answers.com/topic/uranium ]]|background-color:#ff99cc; U | 92 | 238.02891 || 7 |
|[[Vanadium |http://www.answers.com/topic/vanadium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; V | 23 | 50.9415 | 5 | 4 |
|@@color:#C06;Wolfram&mdash;see Tungsten@@ | W |&nbsp;|&nbsp;|&nbsp;|&nbsp;|
|[[Xenon |http://www.answers.com/topic/xenon ]]|background-color:#c0ffff; Xe | 54 | 131.293 | 18 | 5 |
|[[Ytterbium |http://www.answers.com/topic/ytterbium ]]|background-color:#ffbfff; Yb | 70 | 173.04 || 6 |
|[[Yttrium |http://www.answers.com/topic/yttrium  ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Y | 39 | 88.90585 | 3 | 5 |
|[[Zinc |http://www.answers.com/topic/zinc]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Zn | 30 | 65.409 | 12 | 4 |
|[[Zirconium |http://www.answers.com/topic/zirconium ]]|background-color:#ffc0c0; Zr | 40 | 91.224 | 4 | 5 |
----
{{tablecenter{
|>|>|>|>| !Chemical series of the periodic table |h
|bgcolor:#ff6666; [[Alkali metals|http://www.answers.com/Alkali%20metals]] |bgcolor:#ffdead; [[Alkaline earth metals|http://www.answers.com/topic/alkaline-earth-metal]] |bgcolor:#ffbfff; [[Lanthanides|http://www.answers.com/Lanthanides]] |bgcolor:#ff99cc; [[Actinides|http://www.answers.com/Actinides]] |bgcolor:#ffc0c0; [[Transition metals|http://www.answers.com/Transition%20metals]] |
|bgcolor:#cccccc; [[Poor metals|http://www.answers.com/Poor%20metals]] |bgcolor:#cccc99; [[Metalloids|http://www.answers.com/Metalloids]] |bgcolor:#a0ffa0; [[Nonmetals|http://www.answers.com/Nonmetals]] |bgcolor:#ffff99; [[Halogens|http://www.answers.com/Halogens]] |bgcolor:#c0ffff; [[Noble gases|http://www.answers.com/Noble%20gases]] |
}}}
}}}
+++[Argentum]
*is Silver (Ag)
===

+++[Aurum]
*is Gold (Au)
===

+++[Ferrum]
*is Iron (Fe)
===

+++[Hydrargyrum]
*is Mercury (Hg)
===

+++[Kalium]
*is Potassium (K)
===

+++[Natrium]
*is Sodium (Na)
===

+++[Plumbum]
*is Lead (Pb)
===

+++[Stannum]
*is Tin (Sn)
===

+++[Stibium]
*is Antimony (Sb)
===

+++[Wolfram]
*is Tungsten (W)
===


<html><div id="modernbricksmenu"><ul><li style="margin-left: 1px">[[Geological Ages|GeologicalAges]]</li><li>[[Periodic Table|PeriodicTable]]</li><li>[[Elements|Elements]]</li><li id="current">[[BoilingPoint|ElementsMeltingBoilingPoint]]</li><li>[[Naming|Naming]]</li></ul></div><div id="modernbricksmenuline">&nbsp;</div></html>
<html> <hide linebreaks><table border="1"><caption class="hw">Elements Melting Boiling Point</caption><thead><tr><th>Element</th><th>Symbol</th><th>Atomic Number</th><th>Atomic Weight<a href="#fn1" style="text-decoration: none;"><sup>1</sup></a></th><th>Melting Point (Degrees Celsius)</th><th>Boiling Point (Degrees Celsius)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>actinium</td><td>Ac</td><td>89</td><td>227.0278</td><td>1050.</td><td>3200. ±300</td></tr><tr><td>aluminum</td><td>Al</td><td>13</td><td>26.98154</td><td>660.37</td><td>2467.</td></tr><tr><td>americium</td><td>Am</td><td>95</td><td>(243)</td><td>1172.</td><td>2600.</td></tr><tr><td>antimony</td><td>Sb</td><td>51</td><td>121.75</td><td>630.74</td><td>1750.</td></tr><tr><td>argon</td><td>Ar</td><td>18</td><td>39.948</td><td>−189.2</td><td>−185.7</td></tr><tr><td>arsenic</td><td>As</td><td>33</td><td>74.9216</td><td>817. (at 28 atmospheres)</td><td>613. (sublimates)</td></tr><tr><td>astatine</td><td>At</td><td>85</td><td>(210)</td><td>302. (<a href="/topic/erhard-seminars-training" class="alnk" target="_top" name="&amp;lid=ALINK" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">est</a>.)</td><td>337. (est.)</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>barium</td><td>Ba</td><td>56</td><td>137.33</td><td>725.</td><td>1640.</td></tr><tr><td>berkelium</td><td>Bk</td><td>97</td><td>(247)</td><td>1050.</td><td>2590.</td></tr><tr><td>beryllium</td><td>Be</td><td>4</td><td>9.01218</td><td>1278. ±5</td><td>2970.</td></tr><tr><td>bismuth</td><td>Bi</td><td>83</td><td>208.9804</td><td>271.3</td><td>1560. ±5</td></tr><tr><td>bohrium</td><td>Bh</td><td>107</td><td>(262)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>boron</td><td>B</td><td>5</td><td>10.81</td><td>2300.</td><td>2550. (sublimates)</td></tr><tr><td>bromine</td><td>Br</td><td>35</td><td>79.904</td><td>−7.2</td><td>58.78</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>cadmium</td><td>Cd</td><td>48</td><td>112.41</td><td>320.9</td><td>765.</td></tr><tr><td>calcium</td><td>Ca</td><td>20</td><td>40.08</td><td>839. ±2</td><td>1484.</td></tr><tr><td>californium</td><td>Cf</td><td>98</td><td>(251)</td><td>900.</td><td>1470.</td></tr><tr><td>carbon</td><td>C</td><td>6</td><td>12.011</td><td>∼3550.</td><td>4827.</td></tr><tr><td>cerium</td><td>Ce</td><td>58</td><td>140.12</td><td>799.</td><td>3426.</td></tr><tr><td>cesium</td><td>Cs</td><td>55</td><td>132.9054</td><td>28.40</td><td>669.3</td></tr><tr><td>chlorine</td><td>Cl</td><td>17</td><td>35.453</td><td>−100.98</td><td>−34.6</td></tr><tr><td>chromium</td><td>Cr</td><td>24</td><td>51.996</td><td>1857. ±20</td><td>2672.</td></tr><tr><td>cobalt</td><td>Co</td><td>27</td><td>58.9332</td><td>1495.</td><td>2870.</td></tr><tr><td>copper</td><td>Cu</td><td>29</td><td>63.546</td><td>1083.4 ±0.2</td><td>2567.</td></tr><tr><td>curium</td><td>Cm</td><td>96</td><td>(247)</td><td>1340. ±40</td><td>3110.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>darmstadtium</td><td>Ds</td><td>110</td><td>(271)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>dubnium</td><td>Db</td><td>105</td><td>(262)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>dysprosium</td><td>Dy</td><td>66</td><td>162.50</td><td>1412.</td><td>2562.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>einsteinium</td><td>Es</td><td>99</td><td>(252)</td><td>857.</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>erbium</td><td>Er</td><td>68</td><td>167.26</td><td>1529.</td><td>2863.</td></tr><tr><td>europium</td><td>Eu</td><td>63</td><td>151.96</td><td>822.</td><td>1597.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>fermium</td><td>Fm</td><td>100</td><td>(257)</td><td>1527.</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>fluorine</td><td>F</td><td>9</td><td>18.998403</td><td>−219.62</td><td>−188.14</td></tr><tr><td>francium</td><td>Fr</td><td>87</td><td>(223)</td><td>(27) (est.)</td><td>(677) (est.)</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>gadolinium</td><td>Gd</td><td>64</td><td>157.25</td><td>1313. ±1</td><td>3266.</td></tr><tr><td>gallium</td><td>Ga</td><td>31</td><td>69.72</td><td>29.78</td><td>2403.</td></tr><tr><td>germanium</td><td>Ge</td><td>32</td><td>72.59</td><td>937.4</td><td>2830.</td></tr><tr><td>gold</td><td>Au</td><td>79</td><td>196.9665</td><td>1064.43</td><td>2808.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>hafnium</td><td>Hf</td><td>72</td><td>178.49</td><td>2227. ±20</td><td>4602.</td></tr><tr><td>hassium</td><td>Hs</td><td>108</td><td>(265)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>helium</td><td>He</td><td>2</td><td>4.0026</td><td>&lt;−272.2</td><td>−268.934</td></tr><tr><td>holmium</td><td>Ho</td><td>67</td><td>164.9304</td><td>1474.</td><td>2425.</td></tr><tr><td>hydrogen</td><td>H</td><td>1</td><td>1.00794</td><td>−259.14</td><td>−252.87</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>indium</td><td>In</td><td>49</td><td>114.82</td><td>156.61</td><td>2080.</td></tr><tr><td>iodine</td><td>I</td><td>53</td><td>126.9045</td><td>113.5</td><td>184.35</td></tr><tr><td>iridium</td><td>Ir</td><td>77</td><td>192.22</td><td>2410.</td><td>4130.</td></tr><tr><td>iron</td><td>Fe</td><td>26</td><td>55.847</td><td>1535.</td><td>2750.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>krypton</td><td>Kr</td><td>36</td><td>83.80</td><td>−156.6</td><td>−152.30 ±0.10</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>lanthanum</td><td>La</td><td>57</td><td>138.9055</td><td>921.</td><td>3457.</td></tr><tr><td>lawrencium</td><td>Lr</td><td>103</td><td>(262)</td><td>1627.</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>lead</td><td>Pb</td><td>82</td><td>207.2</td><td>327.502</td><td>1740.</td></tr><tr><td>lithium</td><td>Li</td><td>3</td><td>6.941</td><td>180.54</td><td>1342.</td></tr><tr><td>lutetium</td><td>Lu</td><td>71</td><td>174.967</td><td>1663.</td><td>3395.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>magnesium</td><td>Mg</td><td>12</td><td>24.305</td><td>648.8 ±0.5</td><td>1090.</td></tr><tr><td>manganese</td><td>Mn</td><td>25</td><td>54.9380</td><td>1244. ±3</td><td>1962.</td></tr><tr><td>meitnerium</td><td>Mt</td><td>109</td><td>(266)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>mendelevium</td><td>Md</td><td>101</td><td>(258)</td><td>827.</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>mercury</td><td>Hg</td><td>80</td><td>200.59</td><td>−38.842</td><td>356.58</td></tr><tr><td>molybdenum</td><td>Mo</td><td>42</td><td>95.94</td><td>2617.</td><td>4612.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>neodymium</td><td>Nd</td><td>60</td><td>144.24</td><td>1021.</td><td>3068.</td></tr><tr><td>neon</td><td>Ne</td><td>10</td><td>20.179</td><td>−248.67</td><td>−246.048</td></tr><tr><td>neptunium</td><td>Np</td><td>93</td><td>237.0482</td><td>640. ±1</td><td>3902. (est.)</td></tr><tr><td>nickel</td><td>Ni</td><td>28</td><td>58.69</td><td>1453.</td><td>2732.</td></tr><tr><td>niobium</td><td>Nb</td><td>41</td><td>92.9064</td><td>2468. ±10</td><td>4742.</td></tr><tr><td>nitrogen</td><td>N</td><td>7</td><td>14.0067</td><td>−209.86</td><td>−195.8</td></tr><tr><td>nobelium</td><td>No</td><td>102</td><td>(259)</td><td>827.</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>osmium</td><td>Os</td><td>76</td><td>190.2</td><td>3045. ±30</td><td>5027. ±100</td></tr><tr><td>oxygen</td><td>O</td><td>8</td><td>15.9994</td><td>−218.4</td><td>−182.962</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>palladium</td><td>Pd</td><td>46</td><td>106.42</td><td>1554.</td><td>2970.</td></tr><tr><td>phosphorus</td><td>P</td><td>15</td><td>30.97376</td><td>44.1 (white)</td><td>280. (white)</td></tr><tr><td>platinum</td><td>Pt</td><td>78</td><td>195.08</td><td>1772.</td><td>3827. ±100</td></tr><tr><td>plutonium</td><td>Pu</td><td>94</td><td>(244)</td><td>641.</td><td>3232.</td></tr><tr><td>polonium</td><td>Po</td><td>84</td><td>(209)</td><td>254.</td><td>962.</td></tr><tr><td>potassium</td><td>K</td><td>19</td><td>39.0983</td><td>63.25</td><td>760.</td></tr><tr><td>praseodymium</td><td>Pr</td><td>59</td><td>140.9077</td><td>931.</td><td>3512.</td></tr><tr><td>promethium</td><td>Pm</td><td>61</td><td>(145)</td><td>1042</td><td>3000. (est.)</td></tr><tr><td>protactinium</td><td>Pa</td><td>91</td><td>231.0359</td><td>&lt;1600.</td><td>4026.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>radium</td><td>Ra</td><td>88</td><td>226.0254</td><td>700.</td><td>1140.</td></tr><tr><td>radon</td><td>Rn</td><td>86</td><td>(222)</td><td>−71.</td><td>−61.8</td></tr><tr><td>rhenium</td><td>Re</td><td>75</td><td>186.207</td><td>3180.</td><td>5627. (est.)</td></tr><tr><td>rhodium</td><td>Rh</td><td>45</td><td>102.9055</td><td>1966. ±3</td><td>3727. ±100</td></tr><tr><td>roentgenium</td><td>Rg</td><td>111</td><td>(272)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>rubidium</td><td>Rb</td><td>37</td><td>85.4678</td><td>38.89</td><td>686.</td></tr><tr><td>ruthenium</td><td>Ru</td><td>44</td><td>101.07</td><td>2310.</td><td>3900.</td></tr><tr><td>rutherfordium</td><td>Rf</td><td>104</td><td>(261)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>samarium</td><td>Sm</td><td>62</td><td>150.36</td><td>1072. ±5</td><td>1791.</td></tr><tr><td>scandium</td><td>Sc</td><td>21</td><td>44.9559</td><td>1541.</td><td>2831.</td></tr><tr><td>seaborgium</td><td>Sg</td><td>106</td><td>(266)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>selenium</td><td>Se</td><td>34</td><td>78.96</td><td>217.</td><td>684.9 ±1.0</td></tr><tr><td>silicon</td><td>Si</td><td>14</td><td>28.0855</td><td>1410.</td><td>2355.</td></tr><tr><td>silver</td><td>Ag</td><td>47</td><td>107.8682</td><td>961.93</td><td>2212.</td></tr><tr><td>sodium</td><td>Na</td><td>11</td><td>22.98977</td><td>97.81 ±0.03</td><td>882.9</td></tr><tr><td>strontium</td><td>Sr</td><td>38</td><td>87.62</td><td>269.</td><td>1384.</td></tr><tr><td>sulfur</td><td>S</td><td>16</td><td>32.06</td><td>112.8</td><td>444.674</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>tantalum</td><td>Ta</td><td>73</td><td>180.9479</td><td>2996.</td><td>5425. ±100</td></tr><tr><td>technetium</td><td>Tc</td><td>43</td><td>(98)</td><td>2200.</td><td>4877.</td></tr><tr><td>tellurium</td><td>Te</td><td>52</td><td>127.60</td><td>449.5 ±0.3</td><td>989.8 ±3.8</td></tr><tr><td>terbium</td><td>Tb</td><td>65</td><td>158.9254</td><td>1356.</td><td>3123.</td></tr><tr><td>thallium</td><td>Tl</td><td>81</td><td>204.383</td><td>303.5</td><td>1457. ±10</td></tr><tr><td>thorium</td><td>Th</td><td>90</td><td>232.0381</td><td>1750.</td><td>∼4790.</td></tr><tr><td>thulium</td><td>Tm</td><td>69</td><td>168.9342</td><td>1545. ±15</td><td>1947.</td></tr><tr><td>tin</td><td>Sn</td><td>50</td><td>118.69</td><td>231.9681</td><td>2270.</td></tr><tr><td>titanium</td><td>Ti</td><td>22</td><td>47.88</td><td>1660. ±10</td><td>3287.</td></tr><tr><td>tungsten</td><td>W</td><td>74</td><td>183.85</td><td>3410. ±20</td><td>5660.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>ununbium</td><td>Uub</td><td>112</td><td>(285)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>ununhexium</td><td>Uuh</td><td>116</td><td>(292)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>ununoctium</td><td>Uuo</td><td>118</td><td>(294)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>ununpentium</td><td>Uup</td><td>115</td><td>(288)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>ununquadium</td><td>Uuq</td><td>114</td><td>(289)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>ununtrium</td><td>Uut</td><td>113</td><td>(284)</td><td>—</td><td>—</td></tr><tr><td>uranium</td><td>U</td><td>92</td><td>238.0289</td><td>1132.3 ±0.8</td><td>3818.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>vanadium</td><td>V</td><td>23</td><td>50.9415</td><td>1890. ±10</td><td>3380.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>xenon</td><td>Xe</td><td>54</td><td>131.29</td><td>−111.9</td><td>−107.1 ±3</td></tr><tr><td>ytterbium</td><td>Yb</td><td>70</td><td>173.04</td><td>819.</td><td>1194.</td></tr><tr><td>yttrium</td><td>Y</td><td>39</td><td>88.9059</td><td>1522. ±8</td><td>3338.</td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td>zinc</td><td>Zn</td><td>30</td><td>65.38</td><td>419.58</td><td>907.</td></tr><tr><td>zirconium</td><td>Zr</td><td>40</td><td>91.22</td><td>1852. ±2</td><td>4377.</td></tr></tbody></table><sup id="fn1">1</sup>Parentheses indicate most <a href="/topic/stable-isotope" class="alnk" target="_top" name="&amp;lid=ALINK" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">stable isotope</a>.</div></html>
''We make many decisions, and sometimes we are more or less logical about them. And it is arguable that all decision are, ultimately emotional.''

!!!''Logical vs. emotional decision-making''
Decision-making is a cognitive process where the outcome is a choice between alternatives. We often have different preferences as to our preferred, approach, varying between thinking and feeling.

!!!''Logical decision-making''
When we use logic to make decisions, we seek to exclude emotions, using only rational methods, and perhaps even mathematical tools. The foundation of such decisions is the principle of utility, whereby the value of each option is assessed by assigning criteria (often weighted).

!!!''Emotional decision-making''
There is a whole range of decision-making that uses emotion, depending on the degree of logic that is included in the process.

A totally emotional decision is typically very fast. This is because it takes time (at least 0.1 seconds) for the rational cortex to get going. This is the reactive (and largely subconscious) decision-making that you encounter in heated arguments or when faced with immediate danger.

''Common emotional decisions may use some logic, but the main driving force is emotion, which either overrides logic or uses a pseudo-logic to support emotional choices (this is extremely common).

Another common use of emotion in decision is to start with logic and then use emotion in the final choice.''

!!!''The point of decision''
''Always emotional decision?''

So at the point of decision, emotions are very important for choosing. In fact even with what we believe are logical decisions, the very point of choice is arguably always based on emotion.

We talk about decisions that feel or seem right. When logical decisions are wrong, we will often feel that this is so. Emotions are perhaps signals from the subconscious that tell us a lot about what we really choose.

''Subconscious in charge?''
An even stranger factor is research where the subject's brain was wired up to recorders and the subject was asked to simply press a red button at any time. The notion was that if the conscious mind was in charge, then that part of the brain would be seen to change first, an if the decision started in the subconscious, then electrical activity in that part of the brain would work first.

And the answer was...that the subconscious started activity first. The shocking conclusion is that the subconscious is in charge of the bus, and that we are living an illusion of conscious choice. As emotions also stem from the subconscious, then this makes it even more likely that decisions have a strong emotional influence.

''Alphabetical list of emotions''
* Acceptance, Agitation, Alarm, Amusement, Anger, Angst, Anticipation, Apathy, Apprehension, Awe
* Bitterness, Boredom
* Calmness, Comfort, Compersion, Contentment, Confidence, Courage
* Depression, Disappointment, Discontentment, Disgust, Desire, Delight
* Elation or Euphoria, Embarrassment, Ennui, Envy, Ecstasy
* Fear, Frustration
* Glee, Gladness, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt
* Hate, Happiness, Homesickness, Honor, Hope, Horror, Humility
* Joy, Jealousy
* Kindness
* Loneliness, Love, Lust, Limerence
* Modesty
* Nervousness, Negativity, Nostalgia
* Pain, Patience, Peace, Phobia, Pity, Pride
* Rage, Remorse
* Sadness, Schadenfreude, Self-pity, Selflessness, Shame, Shyness, Sorrow, Shock, Surprise, Suspense
* Terror
* Unhappiness
* Worry
<<tiddler [[Emotion and Decision]]>>
<script>
/*<![CDATA[*/

/***********************************************
* Encrypt Email script- Please keep notice intact
* Tool URL: http://www.dynamicdrive.com/emailriddler/
* **********************************************/
<!-- Encrypted version of: msgray [at] ******.***.** //-->

var emailriddlerarray=[109,115,103,114,97,121,64,115,121,109,98,101,120,46,110,101,116,46,97,117]
var encryptedemail_id19='' //variable to contain encrypted email 
for (var i=0; i<emailriddlerarray.length; i++)
 encryptedemail_id19+=String.fromCharCode(emailriddlerarray[i])

document.write('<a href="mailto:'+encryptedemail_id19+'">Contact Us</a>')

/*]]>*/
</script>



{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("TYPETARGETEDURLHERE","plagiarism")'>URL to target at iframe</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1847042,00.html" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
!!!Energy ^^&bull;[[Detach this|Energy]]^^
<<<
[[Renewable Fuels Association (RFA)|http://www.ethanolrfa.org/]]
[[History of Solar Energy|http://www.solarenergy.com/info_history.html]]
http://www.greenpower.gov.au
[[Hydroelectric Power|http://www.dannynicholson.co.uk/learningzone/ks4energy/hydro.htm]]
[[Make your own hydroelectric generator|http://www.fwee.org/TG/assembly_inst_guide.pdf]]
<<<
!!!''Engineering'' ^^&bull;[[Detach this|Engineering]]^^
<<<
!!!!Inventing a Wheel - Mecanum
http://www.airtrax.com/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mecanum_wheel
!!!!Homemade Segway
[[Two-wheeled scooter |http://tlb.org/scooter.html]]
<<<
<<<
[[Engineering Toolbox|http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/]] @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ Tools and Basic Information for Design, Engineering and Construction of Technical Applications
<<<
<<<
[[Cooking for Engineers|http://www.cookingforengineers.com/]]
[[Danish Wind Power|http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/pwr.htm]] 5 Star *****
!!!!Stirling Engines
http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~khirata/
http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/engines.html
http://www.stirlingengine.com/
StirlingEngine
!!!!Interesting Water Pumps
http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/dtu/pubs/lift.html
http://www.clemson.edu/irrig/Equip/ram.htm
http://www.lurkertech.com/chris/eco/
<<<
<<slider chkSlider GreekHtmlEntities "Click here to slide out GreekHtmlEntities">>
<<slider chkSlider LatinHtmlEntities "Click here to slide out LatinHtmlEntities">>
<<slider chkSlider HtmlEntities "Click here to slide out HtmlEntities">>
<<slider chkSlider MathHtmlEntities "Click here to slide out MathHtmlEntities">>
!!!Environment ^^&bull;[[Detach this|Environment]]^^
<<<
[img[http://img252.imageshack.us/img252/1945/waterillustrationdm1.gif]]
http://environmentalchemistry.com/
http://www.greenpower.gov.au
[[Hydroelectric Power|http://www.dannynicholson.co.uk/learningzone/ks4energy/hydro.htm]]
<<<
<html><ul><li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/astronomical-objects-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Astronomical objects named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-comic-and-cartoon-characters-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Cartoon characters named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/chemical-elements-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Chemical elements named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-eponymous-diseases" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Diseases named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-companies-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Companies named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-countries-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Countries named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-food-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Foods named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-human-anatomical-parts-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Human anatomical parts named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-inventions-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Inventions named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-places-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Places and political entities named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/prizes-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Prizes named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/scientific-constants-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Scientific constants named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/scientific-laws-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Scientific laws named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/scientific-phenomena-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Scientific phenomena named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/scientific-units-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Scientific units named after people</a></li>
<li><a href="http://www.answers.com/topic/list-of-colleges-and-universities-named-after-people" class="ilnk" target="_blank" onclick="assignParam('navinfo','method|4'+getLinkTextForCookie(this));">Universities named after people</a></li>
</ul>
</html>
Simon Singh
{{textjustify{
''The pop star controversy''

@@color:#c06;&bull;&nbsp;@@''Listen to'' the re-recorded version of the song [[here.|http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/today/listenagain/ram/today1_melua_20051015.ram]]

''It took me years to write my three bestselling books on'' cosmology, mathematics, and cryptography. Yet I am particularly proud of a 500-word article that I wrote last fall in less than an hour and of the hullabaloo that it caused. The consequences were bizarre: As far as I know I became the first ex-particle physicist to persuade a No.1-selling pop artist to re-record a song to make it more scientifically accurate.{{imgfloatright{[img[http://img338.imageshack.us/img338/6824/katie20meluaxa5.jpg]]}}}

The artist was Katie Melua, Britain's answer to+++^[Norah Jones] <<tiddler NorahJones>>=== In October she had a top-five hit with a song entitled Nine Million Bicycles, which essentially said that it was a fact that there are nine million bicycles in Beijing. She went on to quote another fact, namely that she would always remain with her new found love. So far, so good.

However, in the second verse, Katie made a reference to cosmology that implied that the universe is 12 billion years old, whereas current estimates imply an age of 13.7 billion years. While this error annoyed me, the next line was even more irritating. She implied that scientists could only ever guess at the age of the universe, contrasting such guesswork with her own confidence in her blossoming long-term love.

I responded by writing an article for The Guardian newspaper in which I corrected the fact and tried to explain that the number is not a mere guess but rather a careful measurement. To some extent my article was tongue-in-cheek but I was also trying to make a serious point: Although much of cosmology seems fanciful and is indeed still speculative (for example, theories about wormholes and inflation), there are some aspects that are on much firmer ground, such as the age of the universe.{{imgfloatleft{[img[http://img389.imageshack.us/img389/4489/singhhy6.jpg]]}}}

I thought that would be the end of the matter but I was wrong. Mike Batt, Katie Melua's co-writer, wrote a rebuttal in the same newspaper, light-heartedly defending his poetic license. Katie herself occasionally commented on my article when she was being interviewed on TV and radio about her new album. Eventually, the artist-versus-scientist controversy was featured in two other national newspapers, on a primetime quiz on BBC1, and in newspapers in Germany, Australia, and India.

The highlight of the whole two weeks came when Katie Melua offered to re-record the contentious verse according to some lyrics that I had composed for her. We met in a recording studio where she admitted that she was particularly embarrassed by the error in her song because she had been a member of the astronomy club at school. I admitted that I was embarrassed by my lyrics, which had sacrificed rhyme for reason. I had also sacrificed scansion and any notion of romanticism. Nevertheless, the result was played on Britain's biggest breakfast news radio show.

Thanks to my flippant spat with Katie, people who would never think of picking up my 500-page book on the big bang were getting a dose of cosmology. As a writer who wants to get people excited about science, the writing of the original article was probably the most productive hour of my career.
}}}
The original verse by Katie Melua in the original version of Nine Million Bicycles
We are 12 billion light years from the edge
That’s a guess
No one can ever say it’s true
But I know that I will always be with you.

The new, more scientifically accurate verse by Simon Singh
We are 13.7 billion light years from the edge of the observable universe
That’s a good estimate with well defined error bars
Scientists say it’s true, but acknowledge that it may be refined
And with the available information, I predict that I will always be with you.

Listen to the re-recorded version of the song at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/today/listenagain/ram/today1_melua_20051015.ram

Source: [[symmetry - February 2006 - Essay: Simon Singh|http://symmetrymagazine.org/cms/?pid=1000266]]

{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("TYPETARGETEDURLHERE","plagiarism")'></a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/index.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/index.html","plagiarism")'></a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/index.html" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Curves/Curves.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Curves/Curves.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>



// //''Name:'' FAQ List
// //''Version:'' 1.4 for TW 2.0.0
// //''Author:'' AlanHecht
// //''Type:'' [[Macro|Macros]]

// //''Description:'' FAQ List lets you compile a list of Frequently Asked Questions and present them in a cascading style for the viewer.  Each question is turned into a link that will toggle the view of the answer text.  The list can be compiled either from all tiddlers containing a certain tag or from a single tiddler that contains all the needed questions and answers.

// //''Syntax:'' << {{{ faqlist mode source sortBy hrSeparator }}} >>
// // ''faqlist:'' the macro call (required)
// // ''mode:'' either "byTag" or "byTitle" (required)
// // ''source:'' the associated tag or tiddler title (required)
// // ''sortBy:'' if byTag, sort can be "title," "modifier," "modified." If byTitle, sort can be "question" and will reorder the questions in alphabetical order. (this parameter is optional; use "null" if you don't want a sort order, but want to use "hr" as the last paramter)
// // ''hrSeparator:'' if "hr" is included at the end of the call string, each question/answer set will be separated by a horizontal rule.
// //Examples: (edit these two tiddlers to see the syntax used for each)
// // • [[FAQ Method One]] (compiled from tiddlers tagged with a certain tag)
// // • [[FAQ Method Two]] (compiled using the content of a single tiddler)
// // • @@color(#ff0000):''New!''@@ [[FAQ Method Three]] (uses the {{{<<tiddler>>}}} macro to pull the faq questions from a single tiddler and the answers from other tiddlers...very cool!)

// //''Directions:'' <<tiddler StartupBehaviorDirections>> <<tiddler MacroDirections>>

// //''Notes:'' If you choose to use byTitle mode where the entire set of questions/answers comes from a single tiddler, the syntax for the tiddler content is as follows:
// // • Each question must be a single line (i.e. no hard returns) but can wrap as needed
// // • The answer to a question begins on the next line after the question and can be as long as needed.  It can also include hard returns as part of the answer text, but it cannot include empty lines (i.e. an empty line is the result of pressing enter twice).
// // • Each question/answer set must be seperated by two hard returns (i.e. must have a single, blank line between them.
// // Refer to [[FAQ Tiddler Sample]] for an example.

// //''Known Issues:'' If a user clicks too quickly to toggle a FAQ entry on/off, they will go into tiddler edit mode.  This should be corrected in the future by allowing web-hosted versions of the faq to disable double-clicking.

// //''Revision History:''
// // v0.1.0 (01 August 2005): initial release
// // v0.1.1 (04 August 2005): Fixed an endless loop bug (thanks to Kevin Kleinfelter).
// // v0.1.2 (19 October 2005): Fixed TW compatibility .32 bugs (newline for block quote and e.preventDefault by Clint Checketts)
// // v0.1.3 (01 November 2005): Thanks to Clint's work, I fixed a similar "jump to top" problem when using the expand & collapse buttons.  Also added the description for [[FAQ Method Three]]
// // v0.1.4 (05 January 2006): Created a special version of FaqList to work with TW v2.0.0


// //''Code section:''
version.extensions.faqlist = {major: 0, minor: 1, revision: 4, date: new Date("Jan 05, 2006")};
config.macros.faqlist = {
	bulletCollapse: "+",
	bulletExpand: "-",
	expandButton: {title: "Expand All", tooltip: "Open all items for reading"},
	collapseButton: {title: "Collapse All", tooltip: "Close all items"}
};
config.macros.faqlist.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	lingo = config.macros.faqlist;
	var mode = params[0].toLowerCase();
	var list = [];
	switch(mode)
		{
		case "bytag":
			var tagged = store.getTaggedTiddlers(params[1], params[2]);
			for(t=0; t<tagged.length; t++)
				{
				var title = tagged[t].title;
				list[t] = [title,store.getTiddlerText(title)];
				}
			var subTitle = store.fetchTiddler(title).getSubtitle();
			break;
		case "bytitle":
			var faqText = store.getTiddlerText(params[1]);
			var faqItems = faqText.split("\n\n");
			if(params[2] == "question")
				faqItems.sort();
			for(t=0; t<faqItems.length; t++)
				{
				list[t] = [faqItems[t].substring(0,faqItems[t].indexOf("\n")),faqItems[t].substring(faqItems[t].indexOf("\n")+1)];
				}
			var subTitle = null;
			break;
		}
	
	var faqHeading = place.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
		faqHeading.appendChild(createTiddlyButton(faqHeading,lingo.expandButton.title,lingo.expandButton.tooltip,faqExpandAll));
		faqHeading.appendChild(createTiddlyButton(faqHeading,lingo.collapseButton.title,lingo.collapseButton.tooltip,faqCollapseAll));
		faqHeading.appendChild(document.createElement("p"));
	var faqBody = place.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
	for(var t=0; t<list.length; t++)
		{
		var title = list[t][0];

		var content = "<<<\n" + list[t][1] + "=\n<<<\n";
		var theClass = "tiddlyLinkExisting tiddlyLink";
		var itemHeading = faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
			itemHeading.appendChild(document.createTextNode(config.macros.faqlist.bulletCollapse + " "));
		createTiddlyButton(itemHeading,title,subTitle,faqToggleThis,theClass);
		var itemBody = faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("span"));
			itemBody.style.display = "none";
			itemBody.className = "itemBody";
			wikify(content,itemBody,null,null);
			faqBody.appendChild(itemBody);
		faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("p"));
		if(params[3] == "hr")
			faqBody.appendChild(document.createElement("hr"));
		}
}

function faqToggleThis(e)
{
	var content = this.parentNode.nextSibling;
	var shown = content.style.display;
	if(shown == "none")
		{
		content.style.display = "inline";
		this.previousSibling.nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletExpand + " ";
		}
	else
		{
		content.style.display = "none";
		this.previousSibling.nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletCollapse + " ";
		}
}

function faqExpandAll(e)
{
	for(t=0; t<this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes.length; t++)
		{
		if(this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].className == "itemBody")
			{
			this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].style.display = "inline";
			this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].previousSibling.childNodes[0].nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletExpand + " ";
			}
		}
//	e.preventDefault();
}

function faqCollapseAll(e)
{
	for(t=0; t<this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes.length; t++)
		{
		if(this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].className == "itemBody")
			{
			this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].style.display = "none";
			this.parentNode.nextSibling.childNodes[t].previousSibling.childNodes[0].nodeValue = config.macros.faqlist.bulletCollapse + " ";
			}
		}
//	e.preventDefault();
}
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.oddee.com/item_95679.aspx]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://tinyurl.com/3qctd6","FifteenTopOrigami")'>More origami links</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="FifteenTopOrigami" name="FifteenTopOrigami" src ="http://www.oddee.com/item_95679.aspx" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.firepiston.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.firepiston.com/","plagiarism")'>The Firepiston</a>@@color:#C06;&nbsp;|&nbsp;@@<a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.onagocag.com/piston.html","plagiarism")'>The Firepiston: Ancient Firemaking Machine</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.firepiston.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
''Desecration Isn't What It Used To Be''

Flag desecration is coming back into vogue these days.
Unfortunately after years of watching flag burning I have seen it
deteriorate from a highly satisfying pastime to a flash in the pan.

Once a upon a time flags were made from cotton. Those were the good
old days. The burners could set it alight, and actually watch it burn.
If it burned away from the staff and fell to the ground the protesters
could lift it again with a stick to get it back in view of the cameras.
Later they could all stomp on it as it slowly burned completely away and
then do unspeakable things to the ashes. Not so these days of man made
materials.

Now flags are made from nylon or rayon or other artificial materials
that don't breath when you wear them. These materials burn rather too
quickly - far too quickly. In fact, so quickly that sometimes the camera
misses it altogether as it instantly melts and drips liquid flames to the
ground. These days most good journalists, in order to achieve truth in
journalism and spontaneity, must carry several spare flags so the scene
can be re-shot, several times if necessary.

Possibly flags should be made from material that doesn't burn easily.
Unfortunately things like spun glass or stainless steel chain-link causes
them to lose some of their flagness. They would no longer proudly wave
but would probably proudly droop. Also it would be a bit rash, if not
causing one, to wrap one's self in a spun glass flag at sporting events.
That would be extremely irritating to our swimming athletes not to mention
that stainless steel would be uncomfortable, if not down right dangerous,
during the winter Olympics.

Fortuitously, there is a good material that is a compromise and that
is Kevlar. Flame resistant, self-extinguishing Kevlar is the answer.
Protesters would be forced to keep a blowtorch playing on it just to get
it to burn and then it would only burn as long as the blowtorch was on it.
There would be plenty of time to set the cameras up properly and there
would be enough footage left to edit back at the studio to get this week's
ad nausium burning issue across.

Of course variations could be made for Australian flags that were
combinations of Kevlar and nylon. For the republicans who wish to be done
of Mother England the union jack portion could be nylon and would just
vanish in flaming drips without desecrating the whole flag. For the
secessionists from the Northern Territory, only the NT point of the
Commonwealth star might melt away. And for the whinging pommies maybe
only the union jack could be made from Kevlar and the Southern Cross and
all of the rest of the colony would burn and vanish just like the rest of
their empire..

There are certain technical problems associated with making the blue
field nylon, the southern cross would lose its crossness and fall into a
little pile of oddly shaped stars; sort of like the real Commonwealth.

My personal choice would be to have the flag made from hemp. Now that
would be worth rallying around. Hemp is not the best burner; it smoulders
a lot, but hey, after a little while everyone would forget what they were
protesting about and go home happy, or maybe just go to sleep so they
could be early for the next day's protest whatever that may be....

I hope this has contributed to the flag burning issue in a positive way.

Morris Gray
<html><div id="myUnfold" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img516.imageshack.us/img516/851/unfoldwn3.jpg"><br><div align="center">Unfold Demo</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myUnfold')">~FoldUnfoldDemo</a></html>
//~~(Part of the [[ForEachTiddlerPlugin]])~~//

Create customizable lists, tables etc. for your selections of tiddlers. Specify the tiddlers to include and their order through a powerful language.

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''forEachTiddler'' [''in'' //tiddlyWikiPath//] [''where'' //whereCondition//] [''sortBy'' //sortExpression// [''ascending'' //or// ''descending'']] [''script'' //scriptText//] [//action// [//actionParameters//]]{{{>>}}}|
|//tiddlyWikiPath//|The filepath to the TiddlyWiki the macro should work on. When missing the current TiddlyWiki is used.|
|//whereCondition//|(quoted) JavaScript boolean expression. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//sortExpression//|(quoted) JavaScript expression returning "comparable" objects (using '{{{<}}}','{{{>}}}','{{{==}}}'. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and {{{context}}}.|
|//scriptText//|(quoted) JavaScript text. Typically defines JavaScript functions that are called by the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...)|
|//action//|The action that should be performed on every selected tiddler, in the given order. By default the actions [[addToList|AddToListAction]] and [[write|WriteAction]] are supported. When no action is specified [[addToList|AddToListAction]] is used.|
|//actionParameters//|(action specific) parameters the action may refer while processing the tiddlers (see action descriptions for details). <<tiddler [[JavaScript in actionParameters]]>>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|


''Using JavaScript''

To give you a lot of flexibility the [[ForEachTiddlerMacro]] uses JavaScript in its arguments. Even if you are not that familiar with JavaScript you may find forEachTiddler useful. Just have a look at the various ready-to-use [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]] and adapt them to your needs.

''The Elements of the Macro''

The arguments of the ForEachTiddlerMacro consist of multiple parts, each of them being optional.

<<slider chkFETInClause [[inClause]] "inClause" "inClause">>
<<slider chkFETWhereClause [[whereClause]] "whereClause" "whereClause">>
<<slider chkFETSortClause [[sortClause]] "sortClause" "sortClause">>
<<slider chkFETScriptClause [[scriptClause]] "scriptClause" "scriptClause">>
<<slider chkFETActions [[Action Specification]] "Action Specification" "Action Specification">>

''Using Macros and ">" inside the forEachTiddler Macro''

You may use other macro calls into the expression, especially in the actionParameters. To avoid that the {{{>>}}} of such a macro call is misinterpreted as the end of the {{{<<forEachTiddler...>>}}} macro you must escape the {{{>>}}} of the inner macro with {{{$))}}} E.g. if you want to use {{{<<tiddler ...>>}}} inside the {{{forEachTiddler}}} macro you have to write {{{<<tiddler ...$))}}}.

In addition it is necessary to escape single {{{>}}} with the text {{{$)}}}.



See also [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]].
/***
|''Name:''|ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Version:''|1.0.8 (2007-04-12)|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Author:''|UdoBorkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|
|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]|
|''Copyright:''|&copy; 2005-2007 [[abego Software|http://www.abego-software.de]]|
|''TiddlyWiki:''|1.2.38+, 2.0|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.0.4+; Firefox 1.5; InternetExplorer 6.0|
!Description

Create customizable lists, tables etc. for your selections of tiddlers. Specify the tiddlers to include and their order through a powerful language.

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''forEachTiddler'' [''in'' //tiddlyWikiPath//] [''where'' //whereCondition//] [''sortBy'' //sortExpression// [''ascending'' //or// ''descending'']] [''script'' //scriptText//] [//action// [//actionParameters//]]{{{>>}}}|
|//tiddlyWikiPath//|The filepath to the TiddlyWiki the macro should work on. When missing the current TiddlyWiki is used.|
|//whereCondition//|(quoted) JavaScript boolean expression. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and  {{{context}}}.|
|//sortExpression//|(quoted) JavaScript expression returning "comparable" objects (using '{{{<}}}','{{{>}}}','{{{==}}}'. May refer to the build-in variables {{{tiddler}}} and  {{{context}}}.|
|//scriptText//|(quoted) JavaScript text. Typically defines JavaScript functions that are called by the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...)|
|//action//|The action that should be performed on every selected tiddler, in the given order. By default the actions [[addToList|AddToListAction]] and [[write|WriteAction]] are supported. When no action is specified [[addToList|AddToListAction]]  is used.|
|//actionParameters//|(action specific) parameters the action may refer while processing the tiddlers (see action descriptions for details). <<tiddler [[JavaScript in actionParameters]]>>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|

See details see [[ForEachTiddlerMacro]] and [[ForEachTiddlerExamples]].

!Revision history
* v1.0.8 (2007-04-12)
** Adapted to latest TiddlyWiki 2.2 Beta importTiddlyWiki API (introduced with changeset 2004). TiddlyWiki 2.2 Beta builds prior to changeset 2004 are no longer supported (but TiddlyWiki 2.1 and earlier, of cause)
* v1.0.7 (2007-03-28)
** Also support "pre" formatted TiddlyWikis (introduced with TW 2.2) (when using "in" clause to work on external tiddlers)
* v1.0.6 (2006-09-16)
** Context provides "viewerTiddler", i.e. the tiddler used to view the macro. Most times this is equal to the "inTiddler", but when using the "tiddler" macro both may be different.
** Support "begin", "end" and "none" expressions in "write" action
* v1.0.5 (2006-02-05)
** Pass tiddler containing the macro with wikify, context object also holds reference to tiddler containing the macro ("inTiddler"). Thanks to SimonBaird.
** Support Firefox 1.5.0.1
** Internal
*** Make "JSLint" conform
*** "Only install once"
* v1.0.4 (2006-01-06)
** Support TiddlyWiki 2.0
* v1.0.3 (2005-12-22)
** Features: 
*** Write output to a file supports multi-byte environments (Thanks to Bram Chen) 
*** Provide API to access the forEachTiddler functionality directly through JavaScript (see getTiddlers and performMacro)
** Enhancements:
*** Improved error messages on InternetExplorer.
* v1.0.2 (2005-12-10)
** Features: 
*** context object also holds reference to store (TiddlyWiki)
** Fixed Bugs: 
*** ForEachTiddler 1.0.1 has broken support on win32 Opera 8.51 (Thanks to BrunoSabin for reporting)
* v1.0.1 (2005-12-08)
** Features: 
*** Access tiddlers stored in separated TiddlyWikis through the "in" option. I.e. you are no longer limited to only work on the "current TiddlyWiki".
*** Write output to an external file using the "toFile" option of the "write" action. With this option you may write your customized tiddler exports.
*** Use the "script" section to define "helper" JavaScript functions etc. to be used in the various JavaScript expressions (whereClause, sortClause, action arguments,...).
*** Access and store context information for the current forEachTiddler invocation (through the build-in "context" object) .
*** Improved script evaluation (for where/sort clause and write scripts).
* v1.0.0 (2005-11-20)
** initial version

!Code
***/
//{{{

	
//============================================================================
//============================================================================
//		   ForEachTiddlerPlugin
//============================================================================
//============================================================================

// Only install once
if (!version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin) {

if (!window.abego) window.abego = {};

version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, 
	date: new Date(2007,3,12), 
	source: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin",
	licence: "[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]",
	copyright: "Copyright (c) abego Software GmbH, 2005-2007 (www.abego-software.de)"
};

// For backward compatibility with TW 1.2.x
//
if (!TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler) {
	TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler = function(callback) {
		for(var t in this.tiddlers) {
			callback.call(this,t,this.tiddlers[t]);
		}
	};
}

//============================================================================
// forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================

version.extensions.forEachTiddler = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, date: new Date(2007,3,12), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Configurations and constants 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler = {
	 // Standard Properties
	 label: "forEachTiddler",
	 prompt: "Perform actions on a (sorted) selection of tiddlers",

	 // actions
	 actions: {
		 addToList: {},
		 write: {}
	 }
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  The forEachTiddler Macro Handler 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler = function(e) {
	while(e && !hasClass(e,"tiddler"))
		e = e.parentNode;
	var title = e ? e.getAttribute("tiddler") : null; 
	return title ? store.getTiddler(title) : null;
};

config.macros.forEachTiddler.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
	// config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler);

	if (!tiddler) tiddler = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(place);
	// --- Parsing ------------------------------------------

	var i = 0; // index running over the params
	// Parse the "in" clause
	var tiddlyWikiPath = undefined;
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "in") {
		i++;
		if (i >= params.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "TiddlyWiki path expected behind 'in'.");
			return;
		}
		tiddlyWikiPath = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the where clause
	var whereClause ="true";
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "where") {
		i++;
		whereClause = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the sort stuff
	var sortClause = null;
	var sortAscending = true; 
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "sortBy") {
		i++;
		if (i >= params.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "sortClause missing behind 'sortBy'.");
			return;
		}
		sortClause = this.paramEncode(params[i]);
		i++;

		if ((i < params.length) && (params[i] == "ascending" || params[i] == "descending")) {
			 sortAscending = params[i] == "ascending";
			 i++;
		}
	}

	// Parse the script
	var scriptText = null;
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "script") {
		i++;
		scriptText = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the action. 
	// When we are already at the end use the default action
	var actionName = "addToList";
	if (i < params.length) {
	   if (!config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[params[i]]) {
			this.handleError(place, "Unknown action '"+params[i]+"'.");
			return;
		} else {
			actionName = params[i]; 
			i++;
		}
	} 
	
	// Get the action parameter
	// (the parsing is done inside the individual action implementation.)
	var actionParameter = params.slice(i);


	// --- Processing ------------------------------------------
	try {
		this.performMacro({
				place: place, 
				inTiddler: tiddler,
				whereClause: whereClause, 
				sortClause: sortClause, 
				sortAscending: sortAscending, 
				actionName: actionName, 
				actionParameter: actionParameter, 
				scriptText: scriptText, 
				tiddlyWikiPath: tiddlyWikiPath});

	} catch (e) {
		this.handleError(place, e);
	}
};

// Returns an object with properties "tiddlers" and "context".
// tiddlers holds the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter,
// context the context of the execution of the macro.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlersAndContext = function(parameter) {

	var context = config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext(parameter.place, parameter.whereClause, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, parameter.actionName, parameter.actionParameter, parameter.scriptText, parameter.tiddlyWikiPath, parameter.inTiddler);

	var tiddlyWiki = parameter.tiddlyWikiPath ? this.loadTiddlyWiki(parameter.tiddlyWikiPath) : store;
	context["tiddlyWiki"] = tiddlyWiki;
	
	// Get the tiddlers, as defined by the whereClause
	var tiddlers = this.findTiddlers(parameter.whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki);
	context["tiddlers"] = tiddlers;

	// Sort the tiddlers, when sorting is required.
	if (parameter.sortClause) {
		this.sortTiddlers(tiddlers, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, context);
	}

	return {tiddlers: tiddlers, context: context};
};

// Returns the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlers = function(parameter) {
	return this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter).tiddlers;
};

// Performs the macros with the given parameter.
//
// @param parameter holds the parameter of the macro as separate properties.
//				  The following properties are supported:
//
//						place
//						whereClause
//						sortClause
//						sortAscending
//						actionName
//						actionParameter
//						scriptText
//						tiddlyWikiPath
//
//					All properties are optional. 
//					For most actions the place property must be defined.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.performMacro = function(parameter) {
	var tiddlersAndContext = this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter);

	// Perform the action
	var actionName = parameter.actionName ? parameter.actionName : "addToList";
	var action = config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[actionName];
	if (!action) {
		this.handleError(parameter.place, "Unknown action '"+actionName+"'.");
		return;
	}

	var actionHandler = action.handler;
	actionHandler(parameter.place, tiddlersAndContext.tiddlers, parameter.actionParameter, tiddlersAndContext.context);
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  The actions 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
// --- The addToList Action -----------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.addToList.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
	// Parse the parameter
	var p = 0;

	// Check for extra parameters
	if (parameter.length > p) {
		config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "addToList", parameter, p);
		return;
	}

	// Perform the action.
	var list = document.createElement("ul");
	place.appendChild(list);
	for (var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		var listItem = document.createElement("li");
		list.appendChild(listItem);
		createTiddlyLink(listItem, tiddler.title, true);
	}
};

abego.parseNamedParameter = function(name, parameter, i) {
	var beginExpression = null;
	if ((i < parameter.length) && parameter[i] == name) {
		i++;
		if (i >= parameter.length) {
			throw "Missing text behind '%0'".format([name]);
		}
		
		return config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[i]);
	}
	return null;
}

// Internal.
//
// --- The write Action ---------------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.write.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
	// Parse the parameter
	var p = 0;
	if (p >= parameter.length) {
		this.handleError(place, "Missing expression behind 'write'.");
		return;
	}

	var textExpression = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
	p++;

	// Parse the "begin" option
	var beginExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("begin", parameter, p);
	if (beginExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;
	var endExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("end", parameter, p);
	if (endExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;
	var noneExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("none", parameter, p);
	if (noneExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;

	// Parse the "toFile" option
	var filename = null;
	var lineSeparator = undefined;
	if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "toFile") {
		p++;
		if (p >= parameter.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "Filename expected behind 'toFile' of 'write' action.");
			return;
		}
		
		filename = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath(config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]));
		p++;
		if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "withLineSeparator") {
			p++;
			if (p >= parameter.length) {
				this.handleError(place, "Line separator text expected behind 'withLineSeparator' of 'write' action.");
				return;
			}
			lineSeparator = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
			p++;
		}
	}
	
	// Check for extra parameters
	if (parameter.length > p) {
		config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "write", parameter, p);
		return;
	}

	// Perform the action.
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(textExpression, context);
	var count = tiddlers.length;
	var text = "";
	if (count > 0 && beginExpression)
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(beginExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
	
	for (var i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		text += func(tiddler, context, count, i);
	}
	
	if (count > 0 && endExpression)
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(endExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);

	if (count == 0 && noneExpression) 
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(noneExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
		

	if (filename) {
		if (lineSeparator !== undefined) {
			lineSeparator = lineSeparator.replace(/\\n/mg, "\n").replace(/\\r/mg, "\r");
			text = text.replace(/\n/mg,lineSeparator);
		}
		saveFile(filename, convertUnicodeToUTF8(text));
	} else {
		var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(place, "span");
		wikify(text, wrapper, null/* highlightRegExp */, context.inTiddler);
	}
};


// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  Helpers
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext = function(placeParam, whereClauseParam, sortClauseParam, sortAscendingParam, actionNameParam, actionParameterParam, scriptText, tiddlyWikiPathParam, inTiddlerParam) {
	return {
		place : placeParam, 
		whereClause : whereClauseParam, 
		sortClause : sortClauseParam, 
		sortAscending : sortAscendingParam, 
		script : scriptText,
		actionName : actionNameParam, 
		actionParameter : actionParameterParam,
		tiddlyWikiPath : tiddlyWikiPathParam,
		inTiddler : inTiddlerParam, // the tiddler containing the <<forEachTiddler ...>> macro call.
		viewerTiddler : config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(placeParam) // the tiddler showing the forEachTiddler result
	};
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns a TiddlyWiki with the tiddlers loaded from the TiddlyWiki of 
// the given path.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.loadTiddlyWiki = function(path, idPrefix) {
	if (!idPrefix) {
		idPrefix = "store";
	}
	var lenPrefix = idPrefix.length;
	
	// Read the content of the given file
	var content = loadFile(this.getLocalPath(path));
	if(content === null) {
		throw "TiddlyWiki '"+path+"' not found.";
	}
	
	var tiddlyWiki = new TiddlyWiki();

	// Starting with TW 2.2 there is a helper function to import the tiddlers
	if (tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki) {
		if (!tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki(content))
			throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
		tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;
		return tiddlyWiki;
	}
	
	// The legacy code, for TW < 2.2
	
	// Locate the storeArea div's
	var posOpeningDiv = content.indexOf(startSaveArea);
	var posClosingDiv = content.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);
	if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1)) {
		throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
	}
	var storageText = content.substr(posOpeningDiv + startSaveArea.length, posClosingDiv);
	
	// Create a "div" element that contains the storage text
	var myStorageDiv = document.createElement("div");
	myStorageDiv.innerHTML = storageText;
	myStorageDiv.normalize();
	
	// Create all tiddlers in a new TiddlyWiki
	// (following code is modified copy of TiddlyWiki.prototype.loadFromDiv)
	var store = myStorageDiv.childNodes;
	for(var t = 0; t < store.length; t++) {
		var e = store[t];
		var title = null;
		if(e.getAttribute)
			title = e.getAttribute("tiddler");
		if(!title && e.id && e.id.substr(0,lenPrefix) == idPrefix)
			title = e.id.substr(lenPrefix);
		if(title && title !== "") {
			var tiddler = tiddlyWiki.createTiddler(title);
			tiddler.loadFromDiv(e,title);
		}
	}
	tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;

	return tiddlyWiki;
};


	
// Internal.
//
// Returns a function that has a function body returning the given javaScriptExpression.
// The function has the parameters:
// 
//	 (tiddler, context, count, index)
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction = function (javaScriptExpression, context) {
	var script = context["script"];
	var functionText = "var theFunction = function(tiddler, context, count, index) { return "+javaScriptExpression+"}";
	var fullText = (script ? script+";" : "")+functionText+";theFunction;";
	return eval(fullText);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.findTiddlers = function(whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki) {
	var result = [];
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(whereClause, context);
	tiddlyWiki.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler) {
		if (func(tiddler, context, undefined, undefined)) {
			result.push(tiddler);
		}
	});
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement = function(place, actionName, parameter, firstUnusedIndex) {
	var message = "Extra parameter behind '"+actionName+"':";
	for (var i = firstUnusedIndex; i < parameter.length; i++) {
		message += " "+parameter[i];
	}
	this.handleError(place, message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortAscending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
	var result = 
		(tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
			? 0
			: (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
			   ? -1 
			   : +1; 
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortDescending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
	var result = 
		(tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
			? 0
			: (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
			   ? +1 
			   : -1; 
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortTiddlers = function(tiddlers, sortClause, ascending, context) {
	// To avoid evaluating the sortClause whenever two items are compared 
	// we pre-calculate the sortValue for every item in the array and store it in a 
	// temporary property ("forEachTiddlerSortValue") of the tiddlers.
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(sortClause, context);
	var count = tiddlers.length;
	var i;
	for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		tiddler.forEachTiddlerSortValue = func(tiddler,context, undefined, undefined);
	}

	// Do the sorting
	tiddlers.sort(ascending ? this.sortAscending : this.sortDescending);

	// Delete the temporary property that holds the sortValue.	
	for (i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
		delete tiddlers[i].forEachTiddlerSortValue;
	}
};


// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.trace = function(message) {
	displayMessage(message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall = function(place,macroName,params) {
	var message ="<<"+macroName;
	for (var i = 0; i < params.length; i++) {
		message += " "+params[i];
	}
	message += ">>";
	displayMessage(message);
};


// Internal.
//
// Creates an element that holds an error message
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createErrorElement = function(place, exception) {
	var message = (exception.description) ? exception.description : exception.toString();
	return createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"forEachTiddlerError","<<forEachTiddler ...>>: "+message);
};

// Internal.
//
// @param place [may be null]
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.handleError = function(place, exception) {
	if (place) {
		this.createErrorElement(place, exception);
	} else {
		throw exception;
	}
};

// Internal.
//
// Encodes the given string.
//
// Replaces 
//	 "$))" to ">>"
//	 "$)" to ">"
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode = function(s) {
	var reGTGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)\\)","mg");
	var reGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)","mg");
	return s.replace(reGTGT, ">>").replace(reGT, ">");
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns the given original path (that is a file path, starting with "file:")
// as a path to a local file, in the systems native file format.
//
// Location information in the originalPath (i.e. the "#" and stuff following)
// is stripped.
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath = function(originalPath) {
	// Remove any location part of the URL
	var hashPos = originalPath.indexOf("#");
	if(hashPos != -1)
		originalPath = originalPath.substr(0,hashPos);
	// Convert to a native file format assuming
	// "file:///x:/path/path/path..." - pc local file --> "x:\path\path\path..."
	// "file://///server/share/path/path/path..." - FireFox pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
	// "file:///path/path/path..." - mac/unix local file --> "/path/path/path..."
	// "file://server/share/path/path/path..." - pc network file --> "\\server\share\path\path\path..."
	var localPath;
	if(originalPath.charAt(9) == ":") // pc local file
		localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(8)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
	else if(originalPath.indexOf("file://///") === 0) // FireFox pc network file
		localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(10)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");
	else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:///") === 0) // mac/unix local file
		localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(7));
	else if(originalPath.indexOf("file:/") === 0) // mac/unix local file
		localPath = unescape(originalPath.substr(5));
	else // pc network file
		localPath = "\\\\" + unescape(originalPath.substr(7)).replace(new RegExp("/","g"),"\\");	
	return localPath;
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Stylesheet Extensions (may be overridden by local StyleSheet)
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
setStylesheet(
	".forEachTiddlerError{color: #ffffff;background-color: #880000;}",
	"forEachTiddler");

//============================================================================
// End of forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================


//============================================================================
// String.startsWith Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true if the string starts with the given prefix, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.startsWith"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.startsWith = function(prefix) {
	var n =  prefix.length;
	return (this.length >= n) && (this.slice(0, n) == prefix);
};



//============================================================================
// String.endsWith Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true if the string ends with the given suffix, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.endsWith"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.endsWith = function(suffix) {
	var n = suffix.length;
	return (this.length >= n) && (this.right(n) == suffix);
};


//============================================================================
// String.contains Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the string contains the given substring, false otherwise.
//
version.extensions["String.contains"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
String.prototype.contains = function(substring) {
	return this.indexOf(substring) >= 0;
};

//============================================================================
// Array.indexOf Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns the index of the first occurance of the given item in the array or 
// -1 when no such item exists.
//
// @param item [may be null]
//
version.extensions["Array.indexOf"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.indexOf = function(item) {
	for (var i = 0; i < this.length; i++) {
		if (this[i] == item) {
			return i;
		}
	}
	return -1;
};

//============================================================================
// Array.contains Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains the given item, otherwise false. 
//
// @param item [may be null]
//
version.extensions["Array.contains"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.contains = function(item) {
	return (this.indexOf(item) >= 0);
};

//============================================================================
// Array.containsAny Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains at least one of the elements 
// of the item. Otherwise (or when items contains no elements) false is returned.
//
version.extensions["Array.containsAny"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.containsAny = function(items) {
	for(var i = 0; i < items.length; i++) {
		if (this.contains(items[i])) {
			return true;
		}
	}
	return false;
};


//============================================================================
// Array.containsAll Function
//============================================================================
//
// Returns true when the array contains all the items, otherwise false.
// 
// When items is null false is returned (even if the array contains a null).
//
// @param items [may be null] 
//
version.extensions["Array.containsAll"] = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 0, date: new Date(2005,11,20), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};
//
Array.prototype.containsAll = function(items) {
	for(var i = 0; i < items.length; i++) {
		if (!this.contains(items[i])) {
			return false;
		}
	}
	return true;
};


} // of "install only once"

// Used Globals (for JSLint) ==============
// ... DOM
/*global 	document */
// ... TiddlyWiki Core
/*global 	convertUnicodeToUTF8, createTiddlyElement, createTiddlyLink, 
			displayMessage, endSaveArea, hasClass, loadFile, saveFile, 
			startSaveArea, store, wikify */
//}}}


/***
!Licence and Copyright
Copyright (c) abego Software ~GmbH, 2005 ([[www.abego-software.de|http://www.abego-software.de]])

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of abego Software nor the names of its contributors may be
used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific
prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
***/

<<forEachTiddler
    script '
        function lastDays(tiddler) {
            var compareDate = new Date();
            compareDate.setDate(compareDate.getDate() - 30);  
            if (tiddler.modified > compareDate) 
                return  "|[[" + tiddler.title + "]]| "+tiddler.text.length+"|"+tiddler.tags+" |\n"; 
            else 
                return ""; 
        }
    '

    write 'context.output+= lastDays(tiddler) , ""'

        begin 'context.output = ""'

        end 'context.output
                ? context.output
                : "<<tiddler [[List the 10 most recently modified tiddlers]]\>\>"        
        '
>>
| !@@color:white;To get@@ | !@@color:white;  Type this @@ |
| ''Bold'' | {{{''Bold''  (double single quotes)}}} |
| ==Strikethrough== | {{{==Strikethrough==}}} |
| --Proposed Change-- | {{{--Strikethrough--}}} |
| __Underline__ | {{{__Underline__}}} (that's two underline characters) |
| //Italic// | {{{//Italic//}}} |
| Superscript: 2^^3^^=8 | {{{2^^3^^=8}}} |
| Subscript: a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~ | {{{a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~}}} |
|@@color:green;green coloured@@|{{{@@color:green;green coloured@@}}}|
|@@background-color:#ff0000;color:#ffffff;red highlight@@|{{{@@background-color:#ff0000;color:#ffffff;red coloured@@}}}|
|>| //''For backwards compatibility, the following highlight syntax is also accepted:''// |
|@@color(#00ff00):green text@@|{{{@@color(#00ff00):green text@@ }}}|
|@@bgcolor(#ff0000):color(#ffffff):red highlight@@|{{{@@bgcolor(#ff0000):color(#ffffff):red coloured@@ }}}|
| @@highlight@@ | {{{@@highlight@@}}} |
|>|<<tiddler Entities>>|
----
<<<
| !@@color:green;To get@@ | !@@color:green;  Type this @@ |
| ''Bold'' | {{{''Bold''  (double single quotes)}}} |
| ==Strikethrough== | {{{==Strikethrough==}}} |
| __Underline__ | {{{__Underline__}}} (that's two underline characters) |
| //Italic// | {{{//Italic//}}} |
| Superscript: 2^^3^^=8 | {{{2^^3^^=8}}} |
| Subscript: a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~ | {{{a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~}}} |
| @@highlight@@ | {{{@@highlight@@}}} |
|@@color:green;green coloured@@|{{{@@color:green;green coloured@@}}}|
|@@background-color:#ff0000;color:#ffffff;red coloured@@|{{{@@background-color:#ff0000;color:#ffffff;red coloured@@}}}|
|>| //''For backwards compatibility, the following highlight syntax is also accepted:''// |
|@@color(#00ff00):green coloured@@|{{{@@color(#00ff00):green coloured@@ }}}|
|@@bgcolor(#ff0000):color(#ffffff):red coloured@@|{{{@@bgcolor(#ff0000):color(#ffffff):red coloured@@ }}}|
The highlight can also accept CSS syntax to directly style the text:
@@text-shadow:black 3px 3px 8px;font-size:14pt;display:block;margin:1em 1em 1em 1em;border:3px solid black;Access any CSS style@@{{{@@text-shadow:black 3px 3px 8px;font-size:14pt;display:block;margin:1em 1em 1em 1em;border:3px solid black;Access any CSS style@@}}}
<<<
There are several ways to format text in tiddlers click here+++

''Bold''+++{{{''Bold''  (double single quotes)}}}
===

==Strikethrough==+++
 {{{==Strikethrough== (double equals)}}}
===

__Underline__+++
{{{__Underline__}}} (that's two underline characters)
===

//Italic//+++
{{{//Italic//}}} (double forward strokes)
===

 Superscript: 2^^3^^=8+++
 {{{2^^3^^=8}}} (double carets)
===

Subscript: a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~ +++
{{{a~~ij~~ = -a~~ji~~}}} (double tilde)
===

@@highlight@@+++
{{{@@highlight@@}}}
===
===
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.freshpatents.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www.freshpatents.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="450"></iframe></div></html>
From Tourist To Terrorist
'A plea for common sense security before we are all ruined.'

Molly came to see me on Saturday. She is my five year old neighbour who made significant contributions to my electronic pest control experiment about a year ago. The minute she walked into my workshop I knew something was wrong mainly because she was walking. Molly never walks anywhere, she skips..... or used to anyhow. She had a death grip on her teddy bear; her arm was locked around its neck and was firmly secured by her thumb clamped in her mouth. In her other arm was a GI Joe doll, her black patent leather shoe with a broken strap was dangling from her hand.

Hi, I said cheerfully, how's my little tourist. She had just returned from visiting her father who is temporarily working in the USA. Her beautiful eyes filled with tears but she didn't cry. She unplugged her thumb from her pretty little mouth and handed me her teddy bear, it had an eye missing. With her lips quivering she handed up GI Joe with two dislocated shoulders and the shoe with the broken strap.

I see we have some work to do, I said, do you want to tell me how all this happened? I sat her on a stool and laid her precious possessions in a row on the bench. She sat there looking at me accusingly as though I had done something wrong. I know that look it's usually when she is mad at the world so I ignored it knowing I was about to find out why.

A few weeks ago she had skipped out of my workshop in that shoe, it was the day she flew out to visit her father in the USA. I had said to her that she made a pretty little tourist and when she got to America she would blow their minds. She wasn't sure exactly what I had said but she knew it was a compliment and I got a big smile as she skipped away.

I started to laugh as Molly began the story of her trip. It appears that not a hour after I had seen her last she was standing at the check-in counter at Sydney airport with her mother. The airline clerk asked her mother the purpose of their trip. Molly announced loudly, in a not quite verbatim version of what I had said to her, that she was a pretty little terrorist and she was going to blow up the minds of the Americans. This got a lot of laughs from the people waiting in the queue but the airline clerk hardly smiled and picked up her phone. As usual Molly didn't know what she had said that was so funny.

By the time Molly reached the security area there were double the usual number of guards. Molly carried her teddy bear through the metal detector and the alarm sounded loudly. Molly thought that was great fun and made several skips back and forth through it before she could be stopped. An unsmiling guard told her that her teddy bear would have to be run through the x-ray machine. To Molly's mind this was totally unacceptable, her teddy bear would not be pried from her grip. A five-minute discussion finally convinced Molly the teddy bear had to go through the x-ray machine or she couldn't go see her daddy.

With the logic and agility that only five year olds have and quicker than I can say it, Molly and her teddy bear were on the belt leading into the x-ray machine. A dim witted but agile guard grabbed Molly's ankle just as she disappeared under the flaps of the machine. Pandemonium broke out. People were screaming stop the machine! The befuddled guards couldn't find out how to shut the thing off. The guard that had hold of Molly's ankle was slowly dragging her back out of the machine as the flat of Molly's hand made screeching noises on the rubber belt as she kicked wildly at the guard with her free foot.

The guard finally got her out of the machine but by then Molly was holding her teddy bear by nothing but its eye. Just as the guard tried to lift Molly from the moving belt the eye detached and the teddy bear dropped back onto the belt and started its own ride through the machine. Molly made a lunge for the teddy bear and her shoe came off in the guard's hand. Molly started her ride again.

By the time she was extracted from the x-ray machine, dragging her teddy bear behind her, the teddy bear's eye had successfully made it through the machine. The eye tinkled down the metal ramp and was declared free of terrorism contents.

Meanwhile one of the guards was doing a full body search of the teddy bear in a life and death struggle with Molly. The security supervisor had a conference with his officers and decided that x-raying one of the teddy bear's eyes would have to suffice this time.

Molly apparently had a good time with her father in California, he bought her a GI Joe doll to make up for the teddy bear's eye and that was the beginning of Molly's next encounter with airport security.

By the time Molly got to security in Los Angeles on her way home she had almost given up on trying to talk sense to people in uniform. She unceremoniously threw her teddy bear into a plastic tray and watched it make its lonely trip through the machine.

When the guard told Molly that he was confiscating GI Joe's gun she started getting really mad. The guard was very nice, had a way with children and treated her with great respect. He patiently explained to her his orders were to confiscate all guns and anything that looked like a gun. He even showed her his orders and pointed out where it said he had to confiscate anything that looked like a gun. Molly impatiently explained to the guard that it was a dumb rule, the tiny gun was a toy, even kids know that and besides she couldn't read.

Evidently the conversation deteriorated after that. In the ensuing security alert GI Joe was disarmed and suffered two broken arms in the process. Several guards also suffered minor injuries due to Molly's mother having her fingernail clippers confiscated early in the trip but went back to work after being treated.

When she got to the Honolulu Airport, security had already heard of Molly and she was given the red carpet treatment. A pretty young female guard was assigned to walk Molly through security. When Molly walked through the metal detector the alarm went off. She stopped in her tracks and wouldn't move. It appears that in all of Molly's security events her shoes had never successfully passed through any metal detector and her five year old patience had expired. She decided to stand there with the alarm sounding until they fixed their dumb machine.

Trying to talk over the beeping alarm the young female guard explained that it must be the buckles on her shoes. The guard stooped down to unbuckle Molly's shoes. Evidently the damage to the shoe incurred during Molly's aborted ride through the x-ray machine in Sydney, so long ago, caused the strap to come away in the guards hand. Molly looked down at her damaged shoe and tears filled her eyes. This all was too much.

The guard looked up at Molly and said, Oh sweetie I am so sorry. Molly wiped her eyes and said, So am I! Then she kicked the guard's shin as hard as she could with her good shoe.

The young guard yelled with pain and fell over backwards clutching her leg. Another guard turned around and saw the pretty young guard rolling around on the floor. He screamed, officer down, officer down, pulled his gun and set off the alarm.

Molly limped through all the confusion carrying her broken shoe and, in spite of a full security alert, boarded the plane to Sydney by herself.

Molly was done. She stopped talking then. Sitting in my workshop she looked much older than her five years. A long silence passed between us. Finally I said, Molly I think your mum would be the best one to sew your teddy's eye back on and I have a friend that can make your shoe look just like new.

Molly looked at me steadily with fire in her eyes and said, I just want you to make GI Joe another gun. Smiling, I said, of course I can do that but it might not be as fancy as the one he lost. He didn't lose it! Molly snapped, through tight lips, and continued to look into my eyes in a way that made the hairs stand up on the back of my neck.

Finally she took her teddy bear from the bench and jumped down from the stool as tears welled up again. She touched the teddy's blinded eye as she walked slowly to the door and turned to look at me with streaks running down her face. She levelled her gaze at me, roughly rubbed her tears away with her little fist and said, I don't want his new gun to be like the last one. I want you to make one that really shoots.

Morris Gray
{{textcenter{
@@color:#00b;''Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora.''@@
@@color:#c06;&laquo;.It is vain to do with more what can be done with less.&raquo;@@
}}}
/***
|Name|FullScreenPlugin|
|Created by|SaqImtiaz|
|Location|http://tw.lewcid.org/#FullScreenPlugin|
|Version|1.1|
|Requires|~TW2.x|
!Description:
Toggle between viewing tiddlers fullscreen and normally. Very handy for when you need more viewing space.

!Demo:
Click the ↕ button in the toolbar for this tiddler. Click it again to turn off fullscreen.

!Installation:
Copy the contents of this tiddler to your TW, tag with systemConfig, save and reload your TW.
Edit the ViewTemplate to add the fullscreen command to the toolbar.

!History:
*25-07-06: ver 1.1
*20-07-06: ver 1.0

!Code
***/
//{{{
var lewcidFullScreen = false;

config.commands.fullscreen =
{
            text:"«FullScreen»",
            tooltip:"Fullscreen mode"
};

config.commands.fullscreen.handler = function (event,src,title)
{
            if (lewcidFullScreen == false)
               {
                lewcidFullScreen = true;
                setStylesheet('#sidebar, #mainMenu{display:none;} #displayArea{margin:0em 0 0 0 !important;}',"lewcidFullScreenStyle");
               }
            else
               {
                lewcidFullScreen = false;
                setStylesheet(' ',"lewcidFullScreenStyle");
               }
}

config.macros.fullscreen={};
config.macros.fullscreen.handler =  function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)
{
        var label = params[0]||" «FullScreen» ";
        var tooltip = params[1]||"Fullscreen mode";
        createTiddlyButton(place,label,tooltip,config.commands.fullscreen.handler);
}

var lewcid_fullscreen_closeTiddler = Story.prototype.closeTiddler;
Story.prototype.closeTiddler =function(title,animate,slowly)
{
           lewcid_fullscreen_closeTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
           if (story.isEmpty() && lewcidFullScreen == true)
              config.commands.fullscreen.handler();
}


Slider.prototype.lewcidStop = Slider.prototype.stop;
Slider.prototype.stop = function()
{
           this.lewcidStop();
           if (story.isEmpty() && lewcidFullScreen == true)
              config.commands.fullscreen.handler();
}
//}}}
|bgcolor:white;padding:0.8em;<<tiddler ./gor>>|

<part gor hidden>
{{textjustify{
{{firstletter{
@@color:#c06;G@@
}}}ORGUS (Topyos). 1. Son of the Messenian hero, Aristomenes, who betrothed him in marriage to the maiden by whose aid he had himself escaped when captured by a body of Cretan bowmen, mer­cenaries of Sparta. [See Vol. I. p. 308.] ''Gorgus'' is mentioned by Pausanias as righting bravely by his father's side in the last desperate struggle, when Eira had been surprised by the Spartans. 
{{imgfloatright{
[img[http://img484.imageshack.us/img484/3208/msgkb2.gif]]
}}}
Soon after this Aristomenes declined to take the command of the Messenians, who wished to mi­grate to another country, and named ''Gorgus'' and Manticlus, son of the seer Theoclus, as their lead­ers. ''Gorgus'' proposed to take possession of the island of Zacynthus, while Manticlus was in favour of a settlement in Sardinia. Neither of these courses, however, was adopted, and Rhegium was fixed upon as the new home of the exiles. (Paus. iv. 19, 21, 23 ; Muller, Dor. i. 7. § 10 ; comp. anaxilaus.)

2. King, of Salamis, in Cyprus, was son of Cher-sis, and great-grandson of Evelthon, the contem­porary of Arcesilaus III. of Gyrene. His brother Onesilus, having long urged him in vain to revolt from the Persian king, at length drove him from the city, and, usurping the throne, set up the stand­ard of rebellion with the lonians in b. c. 499. ''Gorgus'' was restored to his kingdom in the next year on the reduction of the Cyprians and the death of Onesilus in battle. He joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, and his brother Philaon was taken prisoner by the Greeks in the first of the three battles at Artemisium in b. c. 480. (He­rod, v. 104, 115, vii. 98, viii. 11 ; Larcher ad

Source: [[Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, page 286 (v. 2)|http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1394.html]]
}}}
</part>
Galway Bay Lyrics

If you ever go across the sea to Ireland,
Then maybe at the closing of your day;
You will sit and watch the moonrise over Claddagh,
And see the sun go down on Galway Bay.

Just to hear again the ripple of the trout stream,
The women in the meadows making hay,
And to sit beside a turf fire in the cabin,
And watch the barefoot gossoons at their play,

For the breezes blowing o'er the seas from Ireland,
Are perfum'd by the heather as they blow;
And the women in the uplands diggin' praties,
Speak a language that the strangers do not know,

For the strangers came and tried to teach their way,
They scorn'd us just for being what we are;
But they might as well go chasing after moonbeams,
Or light a penny candle from a star.

And if there is going to be a life hereafter,
And somehow I am sure there's going to be;
I will ask my God to let me make my Heaven,
In that dear land across the Irish sea.
<<tabs tabsCookie [[intro]] "tooltip 1" [[MyGeneralLinks]] [[who]] "tooltip 1" [[Who]]  [[what]] "tooltip 2" [[What]]  [[where]] "tool tip 3" [[Where]] [[why]] "tooltip 1" [[Why]]  [[when]] "tooltip 2" [[When]]  [[how]] "tool tip 3" [[How]] >>
!!!''General Science'' ^^&bull;[[Detach this|General Science]]^^
<<<
*[[TiddlyPedia|http://www.tiddlypedia.com/solarsystem/]] (the tiddlers therein are copied directly from Wikipedia) +++[more...]
http://martinswiki.com/prereleases.html#MediaWikiFormatterPlugin
===

[[Google Scholar|http://scholar.google.com/scholar]]
[[Union of Concerned Scientists |http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/]]
http://www.newscientist.com/blog/technology/
[[Nova|http://www.science.org.au/nova/index.htm]] Published by Australian Academy of Science
[[The Funneled Web|http://www.the-funneled-web.com]]
[[Australian Academy of Science|http://www.science.org.au/]]
[[Principia Cybernetica|http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/]]
[[Search Scirus|http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/]]
[[Search InfoPlease|http://www.infoplease.com/index.html]]
<<<
{{borderless{
|bgcolor:#Fff;<<tiddler Who>>|bgcolor:#Fff;<<tiddler What>>|bgcolor:#Fff;<<tiddler Where>>|
|bgcolor:#FFF;<<tiddler Why>> |bgcolor:#FFF;<<tiddler When>> |bgcolor:#FFF;<<tiddler How>> |
----
|>|>|bgcolor:#FFF; @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Earth|http://earth.google.com/]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Maps|http://maps.google.com/]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Patent Search|http://www.google.com/patents/]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Scholar|http://scholar.google.com/scholar]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Docs|http://docs.google.com/]] |
|>|>|bgcolor:#FFF;  @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Webmaster Central|http://www.google.com/webmasters/ ]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Google Mapplets|http://www.google.com/apis/maps/documentation/mapplets/#Geocoding]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[StatCounter|http://my2.statcounter.com/project/]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[Internet Security AusCert|http://www.auscert.org.au/]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ [[BuddhaNet|http://www.buddhanet.net/index.html]] @@color:#c06;&bull;@@ http://home.wanadoo.nl/bruch/ |
}}}


<html>
<style type="text/css">
#General_Links .title {display:none;}
</html>
</style>
/***
|''Name:''|GenerateRssByTagPlugin|
|''Description:''|Only tiddlers with a specific tag are inluded in the RSSFeed. If no tiddlers are selected then works as before. (see ticket #270: http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/tiddlywiki/ticket/270). <br>RssTag: <<option txtRssTag>>|
|''Version:''|1.0.1|
|''Date:''|Mar 20, 2007|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#GenerateRssByTagPlugin|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.2.0 (Changeset 1583)|
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.GenerateRssByTagPlugin = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 1, 
	date: new Date("Mar 20, 2007"),
	source: 'http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#PasswordOptionPlugin',
	author: 'BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info',
	coreVersion: '2.2.0 (Changeset 1583)',
};

if (!window.bidix) window.bidix = {}; // bidix namespace

bidix.generateRssByTag = function()
{
	var s = [];
	var d = new Date();
	var u = store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl");
	// Assemble the header
	s.push("<" + "?xml version=\"1.0\"" + " encoding='UTF-8' " + "?" + ">");
	s.push("<rss version=\"2.0\">");
	s.push("<channel>");
	s.push("<title" + ">" + wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode() + "</title" + ">");
	if(u)
		s.push("<link>" + u.htmlEncode() + "</link>");
	s.push("<description>" + wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode() + "</description>");
	s.push("<language>en-us</language>");
	s.push("<copyright>Copyright " + d.getFullYear() + " " + config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode() + "</copyright>");
	s.push("<pubDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</pubDate>");
	s.push("<lastBuildDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</lastBuildDate>");
	s.push("<docs>http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss</docs>");
	s.push("<generator>TiddlyWiki " + version.major + "." + version.minor + "." + version.revision + "</generator>");
	// The body
	var tiddlers;
	if (config.options.txtRssTag && store.getTaggedTiddlers(config.options.txtRssTag).length > 0)
		tiddlers = store.getTaggedTiddlers(config.options.txtRssTag,"modified");
	else
		tiddlers = store.getTiddlers("modified","excludeLists");
	var n = config.numRssItems > tiddlers.length ? 0 : tiddlers.length-config.numRssItems;
	for (var t=tiddlers.length-1; t>=n; t--)
		s.push(tiddlers[t].saveToRss(u));
	// And footer
	s.push("</channel>");
	s.push("</rss>");
	// Save it all
	return s.join("\n");
};

//
// Initializations
//
bidix.generateRss = generateRss; // backup core version
generateRss = bidix.generateRssByTag; // install new one
config.options.txtRssTag = "toRSS"; // default RssTag. <<option txtRssTag>> could be added in AdvancedOptions
//}}}
<html><div id="modernbricksmenu"><ul><li  id="current" style="margin-left: 1px">[[Geological Ages|GeologicalAges]]</li><li>[[Periodic Table|PeriodicTable]]</li><li>[[Elements|Elements]]</li><li>[[BoilingPoint|ElementsMeltingBoilingPoint]]</li><li>[[Naming|Naming]]</li></ul></div><div id="modernbricksmenuline">&nbsp;</div></html>
{{textcenter{
[[Go to: GeoWhen Database|http://www.stratigraphy.org/geowhen/stages/Paleoproterozoic.html]] (Remote Link)
}}}
{{tablecenter{
|>|>|bgcolor:#fff; (mya = million years ago) |
|bgcolor:#fff;vertical-align:top;padding:5px;text-align:left;Phanerozoic Eon(543 mya to present)|bgcolor:#ffc;[[Cenozoic Era(65 mya to today)|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cenozoic/cenozoic.html]]|bgcolor:#ffc;<<tiddler [[./quaternary]]>> |
|~|bgcolor:#cfc;[[Mesozoic Era(248 to 65 mya)|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/mesozoic.html]]|bgcolor:#cfc;<<tiddler [[./Cretaceous]]>> |
|~|bgcolor:#fcc;[[Paleozoic Era(543 to 248 mya)|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/paleozoic/paleozoic.html]]|bgcolor:#fcc;<<tiddler [[./Permian]]>>|
|bgcolor:#fff;vertical-align:top;padding:5px;text-align:left;Precambrian Time(4,500 to 543 mya)|bgcolor:#ccc;[[Proterozoic Era(2500 to 543 mya)|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/precambrian/proterozoic.html]]|bgcolor:#ccc;<<tiddler [[./Neoproterozoic]]>> |
|~|>|bgcolor:#fca;[[Archaean(3800 to 2500 mya)|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/precambrian/archaean.html]] |
|~|>|bgcolor:#faa;[[Hadean(4500 to 3800 mya)|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/precambrian/hadean.html]] |
}}}


<part quaternary hidden>
''Quaternary'' (1.8 mya to today)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [[Holocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/quaternary/hol.html]] (10k years to today)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [[Pleistocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/quaternary/ple.html]] (1.8 mya to 10k yrs)
''Tertiary'' (65 to 1.8 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;        [[Pliocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/pli.html]] (5.3 to 1.8 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;        [[Miocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/mio.html]] (23.8 to 5.3 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;       [[Oligocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/oli.html]] (33.7 to 23.8 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;        [[Eocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/eoc.html]] (54.8 to 33.7 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;        [[Paleocene|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/pal.html]] (65 to 54.8 mya)
</part>

<part Cretaceous hidden>
[[Cretaceous|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/cretaceous/cretaceous.html]] (144 to 65 mya)
[[Jurassic|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/jurassic/jurassintro.html]] (206 to 144 mya)
[[Triassic|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/triassic/triassic.html]] (248 to 206 mya)
</part>

<part Permian hidden>
[[Permian|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/permian/permian.html]] (290 to 248 mya)
[[Carboniferous|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.html]] (354 to 290 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;      Pennsylvanian (323 to 290 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;       Mississippian (354 to 323 mya)
[[Devonian|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/devonian/devonian.html]] (417 to 354 mya)
[[Silurian|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/silurian/silurian.html]] (443 to 417 mya)
[[Ordovician|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ordovician/ordovician.html]] (490 to 443 mya)
[[Cambrian|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html]] (543 to 490 mya)
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Tommotian|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/tommotian.html]] (530 to 527 mya) 
</part>

<part Neoproterozoic hidden>
Neoproterozoic (900 to 543 mya)
       [[Vendian|http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vendian/vendian.html]] (650 to 543 mya)
Mesoproterozoic (1600 to 900 mya)
Paleoproterozoic (2500 to 1600 mya)
</part>
Learn your COs from your XOs with our handy glossary.
Glossary of Navy titles

CO - Commanding Officer, Captain of the Ship
XO - Executive Officer, 2nd in Command
NAV/NO - Navigator
LEUT - Lieutenant
SBLT - Sub Lieutenant
LCDR - Lieutenant Commander
JNR - Junior Officer Under Training
CHIEF/CHARGE - Chief Engineer (Chief Petty Officer) with Charge Qualification
CHIEF TIFF - (Engineering) in either MT (Marine Technicians) or
ET - (Electronics Technician)
CPO - Chief Petty Officer
CPOMT - Chief Petty Officer Marine Technician
POMT - Assistant to Charge (training)
STOKER - Engineers
LSET - Leading Seaman Electronics Technician
BUFFER/BUFF - Chief Bosun's Mate, Petty Officer (XO's right hand man) or
POB - Petty Officer Bosun
ABBM - Able Seaman Bosuns Mate
CPOB - Chief Petty Officer Bosun
COX - Coxswain or Swain (Police Officer/Doctor) also a Petty Officer
NPC - Naval Police Coxswain
CHEF/CHEFO - Able or Leading Seaman
LSCK - Leading Seaman Cook
ABCK - Able Seaman Cook
JUNIOR SAILORS - Leading Seamen and Able Seamen
LSCIS - Leading Seaman Communication Information System (Communicator)
ABCIS - Able Seaman Communication Information Sydney (Communicator)
YEOMAN - Communicator (on bridge)
RO - Communicator (in communications room)
merge(config.commands.jump,{
	text: "goto",
	tooltip: "Go to another open tiddler"});
<html><!-- Google CSE Search Box Begins -->
A Personal Search engine using Google's search engine.

<form id="searchbox_009953271955546518926:sihzqd-xyr0" action="http://www.google.com/cse"><input type="hidden" name="cx" value="009953271955546518926:sihzqd-xyr0" /><input name="q" type="text" size="30" />  <input type="submit" name="sa" value="Search" /><input type="hidden" name="cof" value="FORID:0" />
</form>
<script><src="http://www.google.com/coop/cse/brand?form=searchbox_009953271955546518926%3Asihzqd-xyr0" target="_blank"></script>
<!-- Google CSE Search Box Ends --></html>
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://scholar.google.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="left"><iframe src ="http://scholar.google.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="550"></iframe></div></html>
{{headline{The Heaviest Element Known To Science}}}

Lawrence Livermore Laboratories has discovered the heaviest element yet 
known to science. The new element, Governmentium (GV), has one neutron, 
25 assistant neutrons, 88 deputy neutrons, and 198 assistant deputy 
neutrons, giving it an atomic mass of 312.

Forces called morons hold these 312 particles together, and the morons 
are surrounded by vast quantities of lepton-like particles called peons.

Since Governmentium has no electrons, it is inert; however, it can be 
detected because it impedes every reaction with which it comes into 
contact. A tiny amount of Governmentium can cause a reaction, which 
would normally take less than a second, to take 4 days to 4 years to 
complete.

Governmentium has a normal half-life of 2-6 years. It does not decay, 
but instead undergoes a reorganization in which a portion of the 
assistant neutrons and deputy neutrons exchange places.

In fact, Governmentium's mass will actually increase over time, since 
each reorganization will cause more morons to become neutrons, forming 
isodopes.

This characteristic of moron promotion leads some scientists to believe 
that Governmentium is formed whenever morons reach a critical 
concentration. This hypothetical quantity is referred to as critical morass.

When catalyzed with money, Governmentium becomes Administratium, an 
element that radiates just as much energy as Governmentium since it has 
half as many peons but twice as many morons.

http://www.janethull.com/newsletter/1208/the_heaviest_element_known_to_science.php
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://grammar.uoregon.edu/toc.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://grammar.uoregon.edu/toc.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
/***
''GrayTestEverSearch'' for TiddlyWiki 2.0
^^author: Morris S. Gray
source: http://tiddlyspot.com/twhelp/
license: [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]^^
|>|bgcolor(#8cf):<<search>> ver: <<version>>|
|bgcolor(#E3FFE3):<<option chkSearchTitles>> Titles <<option chkSearchText>> Text <<option chkSearchTags>>Tag<<option chkHoldSearches>> Hold|

''A Plugin Tweak for: SearchOptionsPlugin''
!!!!!Description
<<<
This plugin defines an alternative format for the SearchResults tiddler that is generated by the SearchOptionsPlugin  Ver: ''2006.01.20 [2.1.7]'' or greater.
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
Import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''GrayTestEverSearch'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>) 
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2006.02.03  [1.0.5]''
Added facility for holding the results of multiple searches with tick box on dashboard.
''2006.02.02  [1.0.4]''
Added several options, cleaned up design.Planning one version basic and one with added options this is the added options version.
''2006.01.27  [1.0.3''
Added a column for the size of the text in each tiddler, this does not include the size of the title or tags.  Added overall TW statistics button requires TiddlerStatsPlugin.
''2006.01.23 [1.0.2 ]''
''a)''Changed function reportSearchResults(text,matches) to  window.reportSearchResults=function(text,matches)
''b)''Added a line so that Incremental Search is automatically disabled config.options.chkSearchIncremental=false; turn off key-by-key searching
''c)''Removed space inside parens. bgcolor(#fe8 )" to "bgcolor(#fe8)".  This
is what was causing IE to 'crap out' halfway through drawing the table
headings.
''d)''Added {{{config.options.chkSearchList=true;}}}
''2006.01.20 [1.0.1]''
ELS: reportSearchResults() definition moved to this Plugin Tweak tiddler and removed extranous code
''2006.01.19 [1.0.0]''
This is an adaptation of Eric Shulman's SearchOptionsPlugin. Adapted by MorrisGray to provide search results in table form. All the necessary controls for refining the search is provided within the table including slide-down access to AdvancedOptions.
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{


//{{{
if (config.options.chkSinglePageMode==undefined) config.options.chkSinglePageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkRegExpSearch==undefined) config.options.chkRegExpSearch=true;
if (config.options.chkSearchTitles==undefined) config.options.chkSearchTitles=false;
if (config.options.chkSearchText==undefined) config.options.chkSearchText=true;
if (config.options.chkSearchTags==undefined) config.options.chkSearchTags=false;
if (config.options.chkSearchTitlesFirst==undefined) config.options.chkSearchTitlesFirst=true;
if (config.options.chkSearchList==undefined) config.options.chkSearchList=true;
if (config.options.chkSearchIncremental==undefined) config.options.chkSearchIncremental=false;
if (config.options.chkToggleLinks==true) config.options.chkToggleLinks=false;
if (config.options.chkHoldSearches==undefined) config.options.chkHoldSearches=false;
if (config.options.chkSortTags==undefined) config.options.chkSortTags=false;

config.options.chkToggleLinks=false;
config.options.chkSinglePageMode=false;
config.options.chkHoldSearches=false;
config.options.chkSearchIncremental=false;
config.options.chkHttpReadOnly = false;
config.options.chkRegExpSearch=true;
config.options.chkSearchList=true;
config.options.chkToggleLinks=true;

config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSortTags>> Sort byTags";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkHoldSearches>> Hold search results";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSearchTitles>> Search in tiddler titles";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSearchText>> Search in tiddler text";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSearchTags>> Search in tiddler tags";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSearchTitlesFirst>> Search results show title matches first";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSearchList>> Search results show list of matching tiddlers";
config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions += "\n<<option chkSearchIncremental>> Incremental searching";
//}}}


// Give the report a custom name
config.macros.search.reportTitle="TWHelp-SearchResults";

// Override default SearchOptionsPlugin formatting for SearchResults tiddler
window.reportSearchResults=function(text,matches)

{
        var title=config.macros.search.reportTitle
	config.macros.search.reportTitle;
	var q = config.options.chkRegExpSearch ? "/" : "'";
        if (!config.options.chkHoldSearches)  body="";

body+="\n|>|bgcolor(#8af):@@color(#000080):''"+config.macros.search.successMsg.format([matches.length,q+"{{{"+text+"}}}"+q])+"''@@|bgcolor(#8af):  @@color(#A00000): SearchHelp@@ "+"|"+"\n";
        body+="|>|>|bgcolor(#E3FFE3):<<search>> <<option chkSearchTitles>> Titles <<option chkSearchText>> Text <<option chkSearchTags>>Tags <<option chkHoldSearches>> Hold |"+"\n";
        body+="\n|&nbsp;|bgcolor(#8af): @@color(#000080):sort by: ''Titles''@@ |bgcolor(#8af):@@color(#000080): '' Size''@@|bgcolor(#8af): @@color(#000080): ''Tags''@@ |h";
	for(var t=0;t<matches.length;t++) 
        body+="\n"+"| "+(t+1)+"|[["+matches[t].title+"]]| "+matches[t].text.length+"|"+"@@"+matches[t].tags+"@@"+"|";
        body+="\n";
       


	// create/update the tiddler
	var tiddler=store.getTiddler(title); if (!tiddler) tiddler=new Tiddler();
	tiddler.set(title,body,config.options.txtUserName,(new Date()),"excludeLists excludeSearch");
	store.addTiddler(tiddler); story.closeTiddler(title);


	// render tiddler
	var oldprompt=config.macros.search.label;
	config.macros.search.label="search again"; // use alternate "search again" label
        story.displayTiddler(null,title,1); // force refresh
	config.macros.search.label=oldprompt;	// restore standard search label
}

//}}}

/*
config.macros.lastSearchText = "";
config.lastSearchText = "";
*/
|>|bgcolor(#8cf):@@color(#000080):''125 tiddlers found matching '{{{}}}'''@@|bgcolor(#8cf): @@color(#0000ff): ''Detected'':@@ @@color(#A00000): TW Version <<version>>@@|
|>|>|bgcolor(#E3FFE3):<<search>> <<option chkSearchTitles>> Titles <<option chkSearchText>> Text <<option chkSearchTags>>Tags <<option chkHoldSearches>> Hold <<slider 1 [[OtherOptions]] '+options'>>|
|bgcolor(#8cf): @@color(#000080): ''Titles'' @@ |bgcolor(#8cf): @@color(#000080):  ''Size'' (bytes)@@ |bgcolor(#8cf): @@color(#000080): ''Tags''@@ |
|[[500 MATHS and SCIENCE]]| 231||
|[[510 Mathematics]]| 17587|science|
|[[520 Astronomy]]| 7673|science|
|[[530 Physics]]| 2827|science|
|[[540 Chemistry]]| 10107|science|
|[[550 Earth Sciences]]| 3188|science|
|[[560 Paleontology]]| 3700|science|
|[[570 Life Sciences]]| 91|science|
|[[573 Anthropology]]| 3294|science|
|[[574 Biology]]| 3339|science|
|[[580 Botany]]| 1651|science|
|[[590 Zoology]]| 896|science|
|[[ABC Radio]]| 635||
|[[ABC Science Online]]| 290||
|[[ABC Science Updates, December 14, 2006 ]]| 11640||
|[[AboutTiddlySpot]]| 1833||
|[[AdvancedOptions]]| 1164||
|[[Anthropology Links]]| 622|sciencelinks,Chinese|
|[[Astronomy Links]]| 1359|sciencelinks|
|[[BBQGroup1]]| 2085||
|[[Biology Links]]| 70|sciencelinks|
|[[BoldSlider]]| 59||
|[[Botany Links]]| 70|sciencelinks|
|[[BranchesOfKnowledge]]| 1302||
|[[Chemistry Links]]| 70|sciencelinks|
|[[Chinese Phrases]]| 337|Chinese|
|[[CloseAllMacro]]| 170|systemConfig|
|[[Commas and Semicolons]]| 5285|words|
|[[DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM Obsolete]]| 2114||
|[[DefaultHome]]| 483|systemConfig|
|[[DefaultTiddlers]]| 19|quickedit|
|[[Dewey Decimal System]]| 32846||
|[[DisableAnimationMacro]]| 33|systemConfig|
|[[DoNotEditScience]]| 1140||
|[[Earth Sciences Links]]| 397|sciencelinks|
|[[EditTemplate]]| 425||
|[[EditTemplateOld]]| 388||
|[[Elements]]| 8111||
|[[Entities]]| 322||
|[[FileDropPlugin]]| 2987|systemConfig|
|[[Flag Burning]]| 2722||
|[[FontSizePlugin]]| 4154|systemConfig|
|[[ForEachTiddlerMacro]]| 3038||
|[[ForEachTiddlerPlugin]]| 27669|systemConfig|
|[[Formatting Text]]| 1419||
|[[Formatting Text in TiddlyWiki]]| 1222||
|[[FormattingText2]]| 510||
|[[From Tourist To Terrorist]]| 8449||
|[[GeologicalAges]]| 3149||
|[[GoToMacro]]| 85|systemConfig|
|[[Google]]| 586||
|[[GrayTestEverSearch]]| 4396|systemConfig|
|[[GreekHtmlEntities]]| 816||
|[[HTMLFormattingPlugin]]| 6539|systemConfig|
|[[HelpOnOffLine]]| 64||
|[[HtmlEntities]]| 2975||
|[[InlineJavascriptPlugin]]| 9827|systemConfig|
|[[JumpToTopMacro]]| 144|systemConfig|
|[[LatinHtmlEntities]]| 1104||
|[[Linking in TiddlyWiki]]| 2162|TiddlyDoc|
|[[MainMenu]]| 1144|quickedit|
|[[MandarinTones]]| 601|Chinese|
|[[Margaret L Ruwoldt]]| 1486||
|[[MarkupPreHead]]| 578||
|[[Math Links]]| 6272|sciencelinks|
|[[MathHtmlEntities]]| 2345||
|[[MediaCenter]]| 7577||
|[[MembersWebSites]]| 444|sciencelinks|
|[[MoonPhase]]| 879||
|[[MoonPhaseBonus]]| 316||
|[[More Astronomy Links]]| 23861|sciencelinks|
|[[NestedBold]]| 63||
|[[NestedSlidersPlugin]]| 12774|systemConfig|
|[[NewEmptyTiddlerMacro]]| 37|systemConfig|
|[[Offline Help]]| 28||
|[[Online Help]]| 45||
|[[OpenTopPlugin]]| 662|systemConfig|
|[[PageTemplate]]| 772||
|[[Paleontology Links]]| 541|sciencelinks|
|[[PartTiddlerPlugin]]| 20470|systemConfig|
|[[Periodic Table Slider]]| 74||
|[[PeriodicTable]]| 3972||
|[[Pharlap]]| 4826||
|[[Physics Links]]| 6948|sciencelinks|
|[[PlayerPlugin]]| 15961|systemConfig|
|[[PoliticalLinks]]| 69||
|[[PopupMacro]]| 2556|systemConfig|
|[[QuotePages]]| 33||
|[[Science Links]]| 73||
|[[Science and Morality]]| 4535||
|[[ScienceKnowledge]]| 1786||
|[[ScienceLinks]]| 2705||
|[[ScienceNotes]]| 173||
|[[SciencePopup]]| 200||
|[[ScienceSubjects]]| 378||
|[[SearchOptionsPlugin 2006.02.02-2.2.0]]| 14382|systemConfig|
|[[SettingsPlugin]]| 7381|systemConfig|
|[[SettingsPlugin Documentation]]| 2376||
|[[SideBarOptions]]| 1042|quickedit|
|[[SinglePageModePlugin]]| 6035|systemConfig|
|[[SiteSubtitle]]| 39|quickedit|
|[[SiteTitle]]| 16|quickedit|
|[[Snoopy]]| 241||
|[[SplashScreenPlugin]]| 2382|systemConfig|
|[[StarDust]]| 2474||
|[[StartHere]]| 1768||
|[[StyleSheet]]| 6963|quickedit|
|[[StyleSheetColors]]| 6414|quickedit|
|[[StyleSheetColorsOriginal]]| 5371||
|[[StyleSheetLayout]]| 7101|quickedit|
|[[StyleSheetLayoutOriginal]]| 6997||
|[[StyleSheetOriginal]]| 3389||
|[[Subscribe to Science-Matters]]| 668||
|[[TabsDemo]]| 128||
|[[Trilobite-Modocia typicalis]]| 554|Paleontology|
|[[Unsubscribe to Science-Matters]]| 1035||
|[[UploadPlugin]]| 19366|systemConfig,Upload|
|[[UploadPluginTweak]]| 319|systemConfig|
|[[ViewTemplate]]| 288|quickedit|
|[[WeatherSydney]]| 112|quickedit|
|[[WordPlay]]| 2203||
|[[WordPower]]| 706||
|[[Zoology Links]]| 70|sciencelinks|
|[[iframe]]| 142||
|[[list shadowed]]| 17|quickedit|
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.bartleby.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.bartleby.com/110/","GreatBooksOnline")'>Thesaurus</a></div></html>
<html><div align="center"><iframe  background:#000; id="GreatBooksOnline" name="GreatBooksOnline" src ="http://www.bartleby.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.pantheon.org/miscellaneous/pronunciations.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.pantheon.org/","plagiarism")'>Home Encyclopedia Mythica</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.pantheon.org/miscellaneous/pronunciations.html" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
|>|>| !Greek Letters [[^|GreekHtmlEntities]] |
| !Symbol | !upper-case | !lower-case |
| Alpha | &Alpha; | &alpha; |
| Beta | &Beta; | &beta; |
| Gamma | &Gamma; | &gamma; |
| Delta | &Delta; | &delta; |
| Epsilon | &Epsilon; | &epsilon; |
| Zeta | &Zeta; | &zeta; |
| Eta | &Eta; | &eta; |
| Theta | &Theta; | &theta; |
| Thetasym | &thetasym; | |
| Iota | &Iota; | &iota; |
| Kappa | &Kappa; | &kappa; |
| Lambda | &Lambda; | &lambda; |
| Mu | &Mu; | &mu; |
| Nu | &Nu; | &nu; |
| Xi | &Xi; | &xi; |
| Omicron | &Omicron; | &omicron; |
| Pi | &Pi; | &pi; |
| Pi | &pi; | |
| Rho | &Rho; | &rho; |
| Sigma | &Sigma; | &sigma; |
| Tau | &Tau; | &tau; |
| Upsilon | &Upsilon; | &upsilon; |
| Upsilon | &upsih; | |
| Phi | &Phi; | &phi; |
| Chi | &Chi; | &chi; |
| Psi | &Psi; | &psi; |
| Omega | &Omega; | &omega; |

<html><div align="center"> <object width="425" height="350"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/vGHBPpxYZY0"></param><param name="wmode" value="transparent"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/vGHBPpxYZY0" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" wmode="transparent" width="425" height="350"></embed></object></div></html>


/***
|Name|HTMLFormattingPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HTMLFormattingPlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HTMLFormattingPluginInfo|
|Version|2.2.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|'HTML' formatter|
|Description|embed wiki syntax formatting inside of HTML content|
The ~HTMLFormatting plugin allows you to ''mix wiki-style formatting syntax within HTML formatted content'' by extending the action of the standard TiddlyWiki formatting handler.
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[HTMLFormattingPluginInfo]]
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2008.09.19 [2.2.0] in wikifyTextNodes(), don't wikify the contents of STYLE nodes (thanks to MorrisGray for bug report)
| see [[HTMLFormattingPluginInfo]] for additional revision details |
2005.06.26 [1.0.0] Initial Release (as code adaptation - pre-dates TiddlyWiki plugin architecture!!)
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.HTMLFormattingPlugin= {major: 2, minor: 2, revision: 0, date: new Date(2008,9,19)};

// find the formatter for HTML and replace the handler
initHTMLFormatter();
function initHTMLFormatter()
{
	for (var i=0; i<config.formatters.length && config.formatters[i].name!="html"; i++);
	if (i<config.formatters.length)	config.formatters[i].handler=function(w) {
		if (!this.lookaheadRegExp)  // fixup for TW2.0.x
			this.lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
		this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
		var lookaheadMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
		if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
			var html=lookaheadMatch[1];
			// if <hide linebreaks> is present, suppress wiki-style literal handling of newlines
			if (html.indexOf('<hide linebreaks>')!=-1) html=html.replace(/\n/g,' ');
			// remove all \r's added by IE textarea and mask newlines and macro brackets
			html=html.replace(/\r/g,'').replace(/\n/g,'\\n').replace(/<</g,'%%(').replace(/>>/g,')%%');
			// create span, let browser parse HTML
			var e=createTiddlyElement(w.output,"span"); e.innerHTML=html;
			// re-render text nodes as wiki-formatted content
			wikifyTextNodes(e);
			// continue parsing
			w.nextMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex;
		}
	}
}

// wikify text nodes remaining after HTML content is processed (pre-order recursion)
function wikifyTextNodes(theNode)
{
	function unmask(s) { return s.replace(/\%%\(/g,'<<').replace(/\)\%%/g,'>>').replace(/\\n/g,'\n'); }
	switch (theNode.nodeName.toLowerCase()) {
		case 'style': case 'option': case 'select':
			theNode.innerHTML=unmask(theNode.innerHTML);
			break;
		case 'textarea':
			theNode.value=unmask(theNode.value);
			break;
		case '#text':
			var txt=unmask(theNode.nodeValue);
			var newNode=createTiddlyElement(null,"span");
			theNode.parentNode.replaceChild(newNode,theNode);
			wikify(txt,newNode);
			break;
		default:
			for (var i=0;i<theNode.childNodes.length;i++)
				wikifyTextNodes(theNode.childNodes.item(i)); // recursion
			break;
	}
}
//}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.handwritingforkids.com/handwrite/index.htm]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www.handwritingforkids.com/handwrite/index.htm" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.japanfocus.org/products/details/1900]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.anime.com/Hayao_Miyazaki/","plagiarism")'>Hayao Miyazaki Films</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.japanfocus.org/products/details/1900" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.anime.com/Hayao_Miyazaki/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.anime.com/Hayao_Miyazaki/" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{borderless{
|<<search>> | titles<<option chkSearchTitles>> |  text<<option chkSearchText>> | tags<<option chkSearchTags>> |
<<toolbar closeTiddler>>
}}}
!''Velocity Units Converting Table''
!!''Velocity Units Converting Table''
!!!''Velocity Units Converting Table''
!!!!''Velocity Units Converting Table''
!!!!!''Velocity Units Converting Table''
!!!<<gradient horiz #adf #ffffff>>[[Health&Medical]]&nbsp;^^<<tiddler CloseThisOpen with: AllOfMyLinks '« back'>>|<<toolbar editTiddler>>» ^^>>
<<<
[[Food Additives Code|http://www.drsref.com.au/foodaddcodes.html]]
[[Clinical Trials Listing Service|http://www.centerwatch.com/patient/drugs/dru868.html]]
[[Diverticulardis|http://www.medic8.com/healthguide/articles/diverticulardis.html]]
[[Medline|http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/medlineplus.html]]
[[Medline Drugs |http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html]]
[[World Sexual Health Organization|http://www.worldsexualhealth.org/index.asp]]
;@@color:#c06;&bull;@@[[ABC Health Report - Science of Orgasm |http://www.abc.net.au/rn/healthreport/default.htm]]
:@@color:#c06;&bull;@@[[(PodCast)|http://tinyurl.com/yqzkob]]
<<<
<html><div id="myHeart" style="background:black;color:#999;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img169.imageshack.us/img169/2593/heartrussellsj7.jpg" width="640" height="480"><br><div align="left"> ''Inside the Heart Nebula'' <br> <br><p>Explanation: What powers the Heart Nebula? The large emission nebula dubbed IC 1805 looks, in whole, like a human heart. The nebula glows brightly in red light emitted by its most prominent element: hydrogen. The red glow and the larger shape are all created by a small group of stars near the nebula's center. A close up spanning about 30 light years contains many of these stars is shown above . This open cluster of stars contains a few bright stars nearly 50 times the mass of our Sun, many dim stars only a fraction of the mass of our Sun, and an absent microquasar that was expelled millions of years ago. The Heart Nebula is located about 7,500 light years away toward the constellation of Cassiopeia</p>.</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myHeart')">Heart Nebula</a></html>
[[He|twhelp.html]][[lp|http://tiddlyspot.com/twhelp/index.html]]
config.options.chkHttpReadOnly = true;
/%
|Name|HideTiddlerBackground|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HideTiddlerBackground|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|hide a tiddler's background and border (if any)|

Usage: <<tiddler HideTiddlerBackground>>

%/<script>
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	if (!t || t.id=="HideTiddlerBackground") return;
	var nodes=t.getElementsByTagName("*");
	for (var i=0; i<nodes.length; i++) if (hasClass(nodes[i],"viewer")) {
		var s=nodes[i].style;
		s.backgroundImage="none";
		s.backgroundColor="transparent"
		s.borderColor="transparent";
		s.borderWidth=0;
		s.margin=0;
		s.padding=0;
		break;
	}
</script>
/%
|Name|HideTiddlerTags|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HideTiddlerTags|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|hide a tiddler's tagged/tagging display elements|

Usage: <<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>>

%/<script>
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	if (!t || t.id=="tiddlerHideTiddlerTags") return;
	var nodes=t.getElementsByTagName("div");
	for (var i=0; i<nodes.length; i++)
		if (hasClass(nodes[i],"tagged"))
			nodes[i].style.display="none";
</script>
<html><div align="center"><object width='448' height='336'><param name='movie' value='http://www.glumbert.com/embed/highpower'></param><param name='wmode' value='transparent'></param><embed src='http://www.glumbert.com/embed/highpower' type='application/x-shockwave-flash' wmode='transparent' width='448' height='336'></embed></object><div><a href='http://www.glumbert.com/media/highpower'>glumbert.com - High Power Job</a></div></div></html>
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.shorpy.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("Thttp://www.shorpy.com/","plagiarism")'>URL to target at iframe</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.shorpy.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://members.aol.com/jeff570/mathword.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://members.aol.com/jeff570/mathword.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;></iframe></div></html>}}}
/***
|''Name:''|HistoryPlugin|
|''Description:''|Limits to only one tiddler open. Manages an history stack and provides macro to navigate in this history (<<history>><<back>><<forward>>).|
|''Version:''|1.0.0|
|''Date:''|2008-03-23|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#HistoryPlugin|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''[[License]]:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.3.0|
***/
//{{{
	Story.prototype.tiddlerHistory = [];
	Story.prototype.historyCurrentPos = -1;
	Story.prototype.currentTiddler = null;
	Story.prototype.maxPos = 11;

	Story.prototype.old_history_displayTiddler = Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
	Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,title,template,animate,slowly)
	{
		title = ((typeof title === "string") ? title : title.title);
		//SinglePageMode
		if (this.currentTiddler) this.closeTiddler(this.currentTiddler);
		if (template == 2) {
			//switch to Edit mode : don't manage
			story.old_history_displayTiddler(null,title,template,animate,slowly);
			return; 
		}
		// if same tiddler no change
		if (this.tiddlerHistory[this.historyCurrentPos] == title) {
			this.currentTiddler = title;
			story.old_history_displayTiddler(null,title,template,animate,slowly);
			return;
		}
		if (this.historyCurrentPos == this.tiddlerHistory.length -1) {
			// bottom of stack
	    	this.tiddlerHistory.push(title);
		   	if (this.tiddlerHistory.length > 11) {
	                 this.tiddlerHistory.shift();
	       	} else {
		    this.historyCurrentPos += 1;
	            }

		} else {
			// middle of stack
		    this.historyCurrentPos += 1;
			if (this.tiddlerHistory[this.historyCurrentPos] != title) {
				// path change => cut history
				this.tiddlerHistory[this.historyCurrentPos] = title;
				var a = [];
				for(var i = 0; i <= this.historyCurrentPos;i++) {
					a[i] = this.tiddlerHistory[i];
				}
				this.tiddlerHistory = a;
			}
		}
		this.currentTiddler = title;
		story.old_history_displayTiddler(null,title,template,animate,true);
	        scrollTo(0, 1);
	}

	Story.prototype.old_history_closeTiddler = Story.prototype.closeTiddler;
	Story.prototype.closeTiddler = function(title,animate,slowly)
	{
		this.currentTiddler = null;
	    story.old_history_closeTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	}

	config.macros.history = {};
	config.macros.history.action = function(event) {
	var popup = Popup.create(this);
		if(popup)
			{
	        if (!story.tiddlerHistory.length)
	            createTiddlyText(popup,"No history");
	        else
	           {
	           var c = story.tiddlerHistory.length;
			   for (i=0; i<c;i++ )
	               {
					var elmt = createTiddlyElement(popup,"li");
				   	var btn = createTiddlyButton(elmt,story.tiddlerHistory[i],story.tiddlerHistory[i],config.macros.history.onClick);
					btn.setAttribute("historyPos",i);
			       }
	           }
	        }
		Popup.show(popup,false);
		event.cancelBubble = true;
		if (event.stopPropagation) event.stopPropagation();
		return false;
	}
	config.macros.history.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
	{
		createTiddlyButton(place, 'history', 'history', config.macros.history.action);
	}

	config.macros.history.onClick = function(ev)
	{
		var e = ev ? ev : window.event;
		var historyPos = this.getAttribute("historyPos");
		story.historyCurrentPos = historyPos -1;
		story.displayTiddler(null,story.tiddlerHistory[historyPos]);
		return false;
	};

	config.macros.back = {};
	config.macros.back.action = function() {
	       if (story.historyCurrentPos > 0) {
				if (story.currentTiddler) story.closeTiddler(story.currentTiddler);
				story.historyCurrentPos = story.historyCurrentPos -2;
				story.displayTiddler(null,story.tiddlerHistory[story.historyCurrentPos+1]);
			} else {
				//if (story.currentTiddler) story.old_history_displayTiddler(null,story.currentTiddler);
				};
		return false;
	}
	config.macros.back.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
	{
		createTiddlyButton(place, '«', 'back', config.macros.back.action,"backButton");
	}

	config.macros.forward = {};
	config.macros.forward.action = function() {
	       if (story.historyCurrentPos < story.tiddlerHistory.length -1) {
				if (story.currentTiddler) story.closeTiddler(story.currentTiddler);
				//story.historyCurrentPos = story.historyCurrentPos;
				story.displayTiddler(null,story.tiddlerHistory[story.historyCurrentPos+1]);
			} else {
				//if (story.currentTiddler) story.old_history_displayTiddler(null,story.currentTiddler);
			}
		return false;
	}
	config.macros.forward.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
	{
		createTiddlyButton(place, '»', 'forward', config.macros.forward.action, "ibutton");
	}
//}}}
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #ffffff>>&nbsp;[[How]] ^^<<tiddler CloseThisOpen with: General_Links '« back'>>|<<toolbar editTiddler>>» ^^>>
<<<
[[Abacus Applet|JavaAbacus]]
[[Abacus/Soroban Manual|http://webhome.idirect.com/~totton/soroban/THE%20ABACUS%20HANDBOOK.pdf]]
[[Diets for Idiots|http://www.dietaccess.com/]]
[[43 Folders|Procrastination]]
[[A List Apart|http://alistapart.com/]]
[[A List Apart columns|http://alistapart.com/articles/multicolumnlists]]
@@position:relative;+++^10em^[+Computer Code]
{{moveovermainmenu{
[[CSS w3schools|http://www.w3schools.com/css/]]
[[HTML w3schools|http://www.w3schools.com/html/default.asp]]
[[JavaScript w3schools|http://www.w3schools.com/js/default.asp]]
[[Quirks Mode|http://www.quirksmode.org/resources.html]]

[[Tutorial HTML|http://www.htmlcodetutorial.com/]]
}}}
===@@
@@position:relative;+++^10em^[+Conversions]
{{moveovermainmenu{
[[dec to hex|http://www.permadi.com/tutorial/numDecToHex/]]
[[hex to dec|http://www.permadi.com/tutorial/numHexToDec/index.html]]
{{locLink{[[Convert Units|ConvertUnits]]}}}
{{locLink{[[OnlineConversions]]}}}
[[UK metric association|http://www.metric.org.uk/home.htm]]
[[Online Conversions|http://www.onlineconversion.com]]
[[Conversions sciencemadesimple|http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/conversions.html]]
[[Conversions Energy|http://www.energy.iastate.edu/renewable/wind/wem/wem-18_apen_a.html]]
}}}
===@@
@@position:relative;+++^10em^[+Cyphers]
[[Playfair Cypher|http://www.simonsingh.net/The_Black_Chamber/playfaircipher.htm]]
===@@
[[Dutch Grammar|http://tinyurl.com/yuytl7]]
[[DynamicDriveForums|http://www.dynamicdrive.com/forums/index.php]]
@@position:relative;+++^10em^[+Encryption]
{{moveovermainmenu{
''[[TrueCrypt|http://www.truecrypt.org/]]''
[[Encrypt Email Address|http://www.dynamicdrive.com/emailriddler/]]
[[Encrypt HTML|http://www.iwebtool.com/html_encrypter]]
[[eMail-Hivelogic|http://hivelogic.com/enkoder/form]]
[[Clipperz (OnlineSafe)|http://www.clipperz.com/]]
''[[Password Safe|http://passwordsafe.sourceforge.net/]]''
[[Tiddler Encrypt|http://www.remotely-helpful.com/TiddlyWiki/TiddlerEncryptionPlugin.html]]
[[TiddlyWiki Encrypt|http://visualtw.ouvaton.org/VisualTW.html#EncryptedVaultPlugin]]
}}}
===@@
[[Fonts|http://www.urbanfonts.com/fonts/calligraphy-fonts.htm]]
{{locLink{[[FreshPatents.com]]}}}
[[HowStuffWorks|http://www.howstuffworks.com/]]
[[How to do everything|http://www.ehow.com/]]
[[How to fold a shirt|http://www.howtofoldashirt.net/]]
[[How to Improve Your Memory|http://www.thememorypage.net/tut.htm]]
[[How-to-learn-any-language|http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/e/guide/index.html]]
[[Instructables|http://www.instructables.com]]
[[JavaScript Tutorial|http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/tutorials/javascript/javascript_basics_creating_first_javascript.php3]]
@@position:relative;+++^15em^[+Publishing]...
{{moveovermainmenu{
[[University Readers|http://www.universityreaders.com/]]
[[Lulu Publishing|http://www.lulu.com/]]
[[Publishing Agent|http://www.cameronsmanagement.com.au/]]
}}}
===@@
[[Memorize Things|http://memorizable.com/]]
[[Pegasus Manual|file:///D:\Zip\PegasusProg\Manual441\WinPMailManual-441\WinPMailManual-441.pdf]]
@@position:relative;+++^15em^[+Penmanship]
{{moveovermainmenu{
[[Palmer Method|http://www.iampeth.com/books/palmer_method_1935/palmerMethod_1935_index.php]]
<<tiddler PenmanshipClass>>
[[Pendemonium|http://www.pendemonium.com/ink_sheaffer.htm]]
[[Penmanship|http://www.iampeth.com/lessons.htm#cursive_handwriting]]
[[Sheaffer|http://www.sheaffer.com/]]
[[The Penbox|http://www.penbox.co.uk/new.pens.htm]]
{{locLink{[[WritingInstruments]]}}}
}}}
===@@
@@position:relative;+++^15em^[+Recipes]
{{moveovermainmenu{
[[Kitchen Collection (bread)|http://kitchencollection.com.au/home_faqs.htm]]
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[[TranslateBabelfish|http://babelfish.altavista.com/]]
[[TranslateLatin|http://www.translation-guide.com/free_online_translators.php?from=English&to=Latin]]
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[[3D Web Design|http://templates.sitemixer.com/en/3dsyle_template.htm]]
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<<<
{{textjustify{
The Medical Journal of Australia @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ [[Phone use and crashes while driving|http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/185_11_041206/mce10252_fm.html]] 
Department of Transport and Urban Planning @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@[[Mobile Phones and Driving campaign |http://www.transport.sa.gov.au/rss/content/safer_people/road_users/mobile_phone_campaign.htm]]


{{firstletter{
@@color:#c06;O@@
}}}N HER morning drive to work, Debbie drinks her coffee, eats her breakfast, checks her email and chats with her mum, often all at once. She hates wasting time. This isn't just a female talent: Alun can conduct a job interview on top of answering emails and surfing the web. These people are examples of an elite species of human: multitaskers. They can juggle more activities in 5 minutes than our ancestors did in a day. Or so they like to think.{{imgfloatright{[img[http://img217.imageshack.us/img217/4766/mobilephonecampaignih5.jpg]]}}}

The debate about multitasking has lately come to a head worldwide over the cellphone-while-driving issue. If Alun hires a dud, the consequences are unlikely to be fatal. But if Debbie fails to see something in the road or is too slow to react to it, they could be. Examples abound in the real world: accidents caused by drivers talking on their phones killed 13 people and seriously injured 400 in the UK in 2005. That same year there were an estimated 2600 deaths and 330,000 injuries due to cellphone use while driving in the US, according to the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, based in Santa Monica, California.

Talking on the phone while driving isn't the only situation where we're worse at multitasking than we might like to think we are. New studies have identified a bottleneck in our brains that some say means we are fundamentally incapable of true multitasking. If experimental findings reflect real-world performance, people who think they are multitasking are probably just underperforming in all - or at best, all but one - of their parallel pursuits. Practice might improve your performance, but you will never be as good as when focusing on one task at a time.

{{imgfloatleft{[img[http://img245.imageshack.us/img245/5870/pn1bamsterdambicyclecelqa9.jpg]]}}}The problem, according to René Marois, a psychologist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, is that there's a sticking point in the brain. To demonstrate this, Marois devised an experiment to locate it. Volunteers watch a screen and when a particular image appears, a red circle, say, they have to press a key with their index finger. Different coloured circles require presses from different fingers. Typical response time is about half a second, and the volunteers quickly reach their peak performance. Then they learn to listen to different recordings and respond by making a specific sound. For instance, when they hear a bird chirp, they have to say "ba"; an electronic sound should elicit a "ko", and so on. Again, no problem. A normal person can do that in about half a second, with almost no effort.

{{imgfloatright{<html><a href="http://img247.imageshack.us/my.php?image=25981201gp1.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://img247.imageshack.us/img247/1159/25981201gp1.th.jpg" border="0" alt="Free Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.us" /></a></html>}}} The trouble comes when Marois shows the volunteers an image, then almost immediately plays them a sound. Now they're flummoxed. "If you show an image and play a sound at the same time, one task is postponed," he says. In fact, if the second task is introduced within the half-second or so it takes to process and react to the first, it will simply be delayed until the first one is done. The largest dual-task delays occur when the two tasks are presented simultaneously; delays progressively shorten as the interval between presenting the tasks lengthens (See Diagram).

There are at least three points where we seem to get stuck, says Marois. The first is in simply identifying what we're looking at. This can take a few tenths of a second, during which time we are not able to see and recognise a second item. This limitation is known as the "attentional blink":experiments have shown that if you're watching out for a particular event and a second one shows up unexpectedly any time within this crucial window of concentration, it may register in your visual cortex but you will be unable to act upon it. Interestingly, if you don't expect the first event, you have no trouble responding to the second. What exactly causes the attentional blink is still a matter for debate.

A second limitation is in our short-term visual memory. It's estimated that we can keep track of about four items at a time, fewer if they are complex. This capacity shortage is thought to explain, in part, our astonishing inability to detect even huge changes in scenes that are otherwise identical, so-called "change blindness". Show people pairs of near-identical photos - say, aircraft engines in one picture have disappeared in the other - and they will fail to spot the differences Here again, though, there is disagreement about what the essential limiting factor really is. Does it come down to a dearth of storage capacity, or is it about how much attention a viewer is paying?

A third limitation is that choosing a response to a stimulus - braking when you see a child in the road, for instance, or replying when your mother tells you over the phone that she's thinking of leaving your dad - also takes brainpower. Selecting a response to one of these things will delay by some tenths of a second your ability to respond to the other. This is called the "response selection bottleneck" theory, first proposed in 1952.

Last December, Marois and his colleagues published a paper arguing that this bottleneck is in fact created in two different areas of the brain: one in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex and another in the superior medial frontal cortex (Neuron, vol 52, p 1109). They found this by scanning people's brains with functional MRI while the subjects struggled to choose among eight possible responses to each of two closely timed tasks. They discovered that these brain areas are not tied to any particular sense but are generally involved in selecting responses, and they seemed to queue these responses when presented with multiple tasks concurrently.
Bottleneck? What bottleneck?

But David Meyer, a psychologist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, doesn't buy the bottleneck idea. He thinks dual-task interference is just evidence of a strategy used by the brain to prioritise multiple activities. Meyer is known as something of an optimist by his peers. He has written papers with titles like "Virtually perfect time-sharing in dual-task performance: Uncorking the central cognitive bottleneck" (Psychological Science, vol 12, p 101). His experiments have shown that with enough practice - at least 2000 tries - some people can execute two tasks simultaneously as competently as if they were doing them one after the other. He suggests that there is a central cognitive processor that coordinates all this and, what's more, he thinks it uses discretion: sometimes it chooses to delay one task while completing another.

Even with practice, not all people manage to achieve this harmonious time-share, however. Meyer argues that individual differences come down to variations in the character of the processor - some brains are just more "cautious", some more "daring". And despite urban legend, there are no noticeable differences between men and women. So, according to him, it's not a central bottleneck that causes dual-task interference, but rather "adaptive executive control", which "schedules task processes appropriately to obey instructions about their relative priorities and serial order".{{imgfloatright{[img[http://img353.imageshack.us/img353/5687/multitasking2xc7.jpg]]}}}

Marois agrees that practice can sometimes erase interference effects. He has found that with just 1 hour of practice each day for two weeks, volunteers show a huge improvement at managing both his tasks at once. Where he disagrees with Meyer is in what the brain is doing to achieve this. Marois speculates that practice might give us the chance to find less congested circuits to execute a task - rather like finding trusty back streets to avoid heavy traffic on main roads - effectively making our response to the task subconscious. After all, there are plenty of examples of subconscious multitasking that most of us routinely manage: walking and talking, eating and reading, watching TV and folding the laundry.

But while some dual tasks benefit from practice, others simply do not. "Certain kinds of tasks are really hard to do two at once," says Pierre Jolicoeur at the University of Montreal, Canada, who also studies multitasking. Dual tasks involving a visual stimulus and skeletal-motor response (which he dubs "in the eye and out the hand") and an auditory stimulus with a verbal response ("in the ear and out the mouth") do seem to be amenable to practice, he says. Jolicoeur has found that with enough training such tasks can be performed as well together as apart. He speculates that the brain connections that they use may be somehow special, because we learn to speak by hearing and learn to move by looking. But pair visual input with a verbal response, or sound to motor, and there's no dramatic improvement. "It looks like no amount of practice will allow you to combine these," he says.

For research purposes, these experiments have to be kept simple. Real-world multitasking poses much greater challenges. Even the upbeat Meyer is sceptical about how a lot of us live our lives. Instant-messaging and trying to do your homework? "It can't be done," he says. Conducting a job interview while answering emails? "There's no way you wind up being as good." Needless to say, there appear to be no researchers in the area of multitasking who believe that you can safely drive a car and carry on a phone conversation. In fact, last year David Strayer at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City reported that people using cellphones drive no better than drunks (Human Factors, vol 48, p 381). In another study, Strayer found that using a hands-free kit did not improve a driver's response time. He concluded that what distracts a driver so badly is the very act of talking to someone who isn't present in the car and therefore is unaware of the hazards facing the driver.
“No researchers believe it's safe to drive a car and carry on a phone conversation”

It probably comes as no surprise that, generally speaking, we get worse at multitasking as we age. According to Art Kramer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who studies how ageing affects our cognitive abilities, we peak in our 20s. Though the decline is slow through our 30s and on into our 50s, it is there; and after 55, it becomes more precipitous. In one study, he and his colleagues had both young and old participants do a simulated driving task while carrying on a conversation. He found that while young drivers tended to miss background changes, older drivers failed to notice things that were highly relevant. Likewise, older subjects had more trouble paying attention to the more important parts of a scene than young drivers.

It's not all bad news for over-55s, though. Kramer also found that older people can benefit from practice. Not only did they learn to perform better, brain scans showed that underlying that improvement was a change in the way their brains become active.

While it's clear that practice can often make a difference, especially as we age, the basic facts remain sobering. "We have this impression of an almighty complex brain," says Marois, "and yet we have very humbling and crippling limits." For most of our history, we probably never needed to do more than one thing at a time, he says, and so we haven't evolved to be able to. Perhaps we will in future, though. We might yet look back one day on people like Debbie and Alun as ancestors of a new breed of true multitaskers.
From issue 2598 of New Scientist magazine, 07 April 2007, page 28-31
Supersoldier

Find it hard to do two things at once? Just imagine that one of those tasks is dodging someone who wants to kill you. That's where the US military's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) comes in with its $70 million project dubbed "augmented cognition" or AugCog.

It's not hard to see how soldiers could benefit from a boost to their multitasking abilities. On active service they are constantly on alert for danger from every quarter; sometimes they may be avoiding gunfire or fighting hand-to-hand. That's probably the last moment they need a commander feeding irrelevant information into a radio earpiece. So knowing how mentally loaded a soldier is can help commanders avoid giving excessive orders that stress the soldier beyond his or her innate multitasking abilities.

"I'm a simple guy," jokes Dylan Schmorrow, who until recently headed the AugCog project. "Sometimes I just want to know: is the brain full or empty?" Specifically, he wants to know what parts are full - verbal areas? spatial? - and which can take in more. If the verbal areas are fully loaded, for instance, there might still be room if information is presented graphically. Alternatively, if a person is really at the limit, non-essential stuff could be filtered out altogether.

But how do you tell what's going on inside someone's head? Schmorrow and his team developed a real-time sensing system that measures electrical activity in the brain, heart rate, sweat levels, pupil dilation and posture, then wrote a computer program that automatically analyses these variables to work out the subject's cognitive load.

Schmorrow says it works. In one trial, teams of soldiers had to avoid being ambushed. Some teams were equipped with sensors, and when they indicated visual overload, information was conveyed through vibrating belts rather than visually through a visor, or via a headset. These teams fared best, says Schmorrow. In another study, pilots were placed either in a normal cockpit or one that could adapt to readings from the pilot's brain and body; again, the "augmented" pilots tended to do better.

AugCog has also investigated the possibility of using a new type of wearable real-time brain imaging system called functional near-infrared imaging. Infrared emitters shine the radiation through scalp and skull into the brain, and receivers measure what is reflected back, revealing the activity of different brain areas. All the equipment can be housed in a helmet or a strap. It's a very crude measurement but it does the trick, says Dennis Proffitt at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, who also studies augmented cognition. It is now being tested for use.

The military isn't the only group interested in augmented cognition. Carmakers like DaimlerChrysler are investigating whether such systems can help make drivers safer - for example, deciding whether to allow a driver to take a cellphone call or to send it to voicemail. Games companies are also interested in using the method to affect the progress of a game, says Schmorrow.
}}}
Source: [[How many things can you do at once? - being-human - 07 April 2007 - New Scientist|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/mg19425981.200-how-many-things-can-you-do-at-once.html;jsessionid=CMMDFECFBPIF]]
How to talk like a kiwi (New Zealander)?
I mean no disrespect. Thought this was funny though

(Say out loud for full effect)

Milburn- Capital of Victoria
Peck - to fill a suitcase
Pissed aside - Chemical which kills insects
Pigs - for hanging out washing with
Pump - to act as agent for prostitute
Pug - large animal with a curly tail
Nin tin dough - computer game
Munner stroney - soup
Min - male
Mess Kara - Eye makeup
McKennock - person who fixes cars
Mere - mayor
Leather _ foam produced from soap
Lift - departed
Kiri Pecker - famous aussie businessman
Kittle crusps - Potato chips
Ken's - Cairns
Jumbo - pet name for someone called jim
Jungle bills - Christmas carol
Inner me - enemy
Guess - Vapour
Fush - Marine creatures
Duffy cult - not easy
Bug hut - popular recording
Ear New Zulland - an extinct airline
[[What Is|http://www.wisegeek.com/]]
[[Knots]]
[[FirePiston]]
[[Knives-Sharpening]]
:~~[[Detach this|HowTo]] @@color:#ffc;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@~~
<html><div id="myhowtodie" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none"><img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" /><div><img src="http://img139.imageshack.us/img139/4927/25601201of4.jpg"><br><div align="center">How to Die</div></div></div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myhowtodie')">How to Die</a></html>
|>|>| !Whitespace |
| !Symbol | !Character | !Description |
| nbsp | &nbsp; |non-breaking space |
| ensp | &ensp; |en space |
| emsp | &emsp; |em space |
| thinsp | &thinsp; |thin space |
| zwnj | &zwnj; |zero width non-joiner |
| zwj | &zwj; |zero width joiner |
| lrm | &lrm; |left-to-right mark |
| rlm | &rlm; |right-to-left mark |
| shy | &shy; |soft hyphen |
|>|>| !Money |
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| cent | &cent; |cent sign |
| pound | &pound; |pound sign |
| curren | &curren; |currency sign |
| yen | &yen; |yen sign |
| euro | &euro; |euro sign |
|>|>| !Symbols |
| !Symbol | !Character | !Description |
| copy | &copy; |copyright sign |
| reg | &reg; |registered trade mark |
| trade | &trade; |trade mark sign |
| ordm | &ordm; |masculine ordinal indicator |
| ordf | &ordf; |feminine ordinal indicator |
| dagger | &dagger; |dagger |
| Dagger | &Dagger; |double dagger |
| bull | &bull; |bullet |
| spades | &spades; |spade |
| clubs | &clubs; |club |
| hearts | &hearts; |heart |
| diams | &diams; |diamond |
|>|>| !Lines |
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| macr | &macr; |overline |
| brvbar | &brvbar; |broken vertical bar |
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| oline | &oline; |overline |
| lceil | &lceil; |left ceiling |
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| lfloor | &lfloor; |left floor |
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|>|>| !Arrows |
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| harr | &harr; |left right arrow |
| crarr | &crarr; |down arrow with corner leftwards / carriage return |
| lArr | &lArr; |left double arrow |
| uArr | &uArr; |up double arrow |
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| dArr | &dArr; |down double arrow |
| hArr | &hArr; |left right double arrow |
|>|>| !Punctuation |
| !Symbol | !Character | !Description |
| iexcl | &iexcl; |inverted exclamation mark |
| iquest | &iquest; |inverted question mark |
| uml | &uml; |diaeresis |
| acute | &acute; |acute accent |
| para | &para; |paragraph sign |
| sect | &sect; |section sign |
| cedil | &cedil; |cedilla |
| amp | &amp; |ampersand |
| apos | &apos; |apostrophe mark |
| circ | &circ; |circumflex accent |
| tilde | &tilde; |small tilde |
| hellip | &hellip; |horizontal ellipsis |
|>|>| !Quotations |
| !Symbol | !Character | !Description |
| quot | &quot; |quotation mark |
| raquo | &raquo; |right double angle quotation mark |
| laquo | &laquo; |left double angle quotation mark |
| lsquo | &lsquo; |left single quotation mark |
| rsquo | &rsquo; |right single quotation mark |
| sbquo | &sbquo; |single low-9 quotation mark |
| ldquo | &ldquo; |left double quotation mark |
| rdquo | &rdquo; |right double quotation mark |
| bdquo | &bdquo; |double low-9 quotation mark |
| lsaquo | &lsaquo; |single left-pointing angle quotation mark |
| rsaquo | &rsaquo; |single right-pointing angle quotation mark |
!!!Dewey Decimal System Ten Categories
* 000 – Computer science, information, and general works
* 100 – Philosophy and psychology
* 200 – Religion
* 300 – Social sciences
* 400 – Language
* 500 – Science
* 600 – Technology
* 700 – Arts and recreation
* 800 – Literature
* 900 – History and geography
!!!Encyclopaedia  Britannica Ten Categories
1. Matter and Energy
2. The Earth
3. Life on Earth
4. Human Life
5. Human Society
6. Art
7. Technology
8. Religion
9. History of Mankind
10. Branches of Knowledge 
!!!Rogets Six Categories
1. abstract relations
2. space
3. matter 
4. intellect
5. volition
6. emotion
!!!Science
*510 Mathematics
*520 Astronomy & allied sciences
*530 Physics
*540 Chemistry & allied sciences
*550 Earth sciences
*560 Paleontology Paleozoology
*570 Life sciences
*580 Botanical sciences
*590 Zoological sciences
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Question

I have been with my boyfriend for more than nine months now. We love each other very much. Yet, I have a recurring problem -- paranoia that he is going to cheat on me. Whenever he goes out with his friends, I tell him that it's okay with me, but he knows that it's not. This usually leads to a half hour-long discussion that includes him trying to calm my nerves. One night, just a few weeks ago, he went out with his best friend. We were talking on the phone and he asked me to call him in the morning, because he didn't know when he was going to get home. I froze and didn't say anything for a moment. Right away he knew that I was thinking that he was going to do something questionable, so we talked about it. His friend was in the car and heard everything. I felt horrible. I'm paranoid and I can't help it. I have problems with anxiety attacks, and I'm going to see a professional soon to get help. I feel that if I keep acting like this, I'm going to eventually drive him away. I have had boyfriends cheat on me before. I know my current boyfriend would never have an affair, but I can't help but be suspicious. I don't want to lose him. --iVillager bellaitalia3


Answer

When "paranoia," or extreme distrust, arises in a relationship there are many factors that could be causing it, including leftover hurt from past relationships or a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. You need to find out where your feelings are coming from, or you might fall into the trap of blaming your partner, putting all kinds of unhealthy demands on him and even accusing him of cheating when he is not. Not only does this destroy his trust in himself and his self-esteem, but he can easily grow to feel as though there is no way he can please you, or make you secure and happy.
When you give into these feelings of paranoia, (or extreme fear, suspiciousness and jealousy) and begin to create more restrictions on your boyfriend, or demand more information about what he is doing, you are risking the relationship. Loving another person does not mean possessing them, or relying on them to help you feel better about yourself. In that case, you are using another person and not loving or respecting him.

Individuals need time alone, time with friends and, of course, time together. When you take away your significant other's freedom to enjoy the other aspects of his life, you are being unfair and you are stunting his emotional growth. Sooner or later he may begin to feel resentment, trapped, misunderstood and falsely accused. Naturally, a person in this position will start to think of ways to get out of the relationship.

You have had a boyfriend cheat on you before. Clearly, you never resolved your feelings about this, or worked through the hurt and loss you felt. Now you are projecting these same feelings onto your current boyfriend, who has done nothing to deserve this attitude. You have lost sight of the fact that this person is different and that you are in a new situation. The past has flooded you, and unconsciously you are seeking to correct what happened before.

You have deep feelings of inadequacy, insecurity and you seem to believe that you cannot hold onto your new boyfriend's love -- a result of many factors including your previous relationships and events from your childhood that might have made you feel unloved. These feelings have nothing to do with your new boyfriend. They are internal. You must realize what is going on, and get assistance working out these feelings. If you rely on your boyfriend to take away the pain you feel from the past, you will be disappointed sooner or later. You are looking in the wrong direction. No matter how loving a boyfriend is, he cannot take away pain and confusion that exists within you. We each have to take responsibility for our own feelings and take action to make things right.
Just as we work out in a gym each day, we need to work on ourselves emotionally to build the strength to combat fear and negativity. One exercise (taken from my book, Zen and the Art of Falling in Love) that can be used is to consciously look for the positive in yourself and your boyfriend. When you find yourself dwelling on the negative, step back, take a deep breath and consciously choose to focus upon what is good and right. Counseling and daily exercises can help turn things around if you are battling paranoia. Here is another exercise from the book that may be helpful:

Exercise: Stepping-Stones to Love - (From Zen and the Art of Falling in Love)
Relinquishing Blame
Whom or what do you blame for the difficulties you are facing? In what ways do you blame yourself? Make a list. Now, notice how blaming simply serves as a screen, preventing you from seeking the full picture of what is going on. See how you may think it may even be protecting you. Give up some blame today. Go to the top of your list and completely let go of blaming that person or circumstance. Breathe deeply as you do this. Send the person good wishes. View the situation much as you would view a thunderstorm: intense, with much rain, noise, lightening and commotion. Like intense anger or difficulty, even the most frightening thunderstorm passes. The trick is not holding onto it and making it more than it is.

Source: [[I'm Paranoid That He's Going to Cheat|http://love.ivillage.com/lnsproblems/lnscheating/0,,saver_pgmh,00.html]]
[[IMDB: Australia|http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Countries/Australia/]]
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[img(w+,h+)[...][...]]
}}}
where ''(w,h)'' indicates the desired width and height (in CSS units, e.g., px, em, cm, in, or %). Use ''auto'' (or a blank value) for either dimension to scale that dimension proportionally (i.e., maintain the aspect ratio). You can also calculate a CSS value 'on-the-fly' by using a //javascript expression// enclosed between """{{""" and """}}""". Appending a plus sign (+) to a dimension enables interactive resizing in that dimension (by dragging the mouse inside the image). Use ~SHIFT-click to show the full-sized (un-scaled) image. Use ~CTRL-click to restore the starting size (either scaled or full-sized).
<<<
!!!!!Examples
<<<
{{{
[img(100px+,75px+)[images/meow2.jpg]]
}}}
[img(100px+,75px+)[images/meow2.jpg]]
{{{
[<img(34%+,+)[images/meow.gif]]
[<img(21% ,+)[images/meow.gif]]
[<img(13%+, )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 8%+, )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 5% , )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 3% , )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 2% , )[images/meow.gif]]
[img(  1%+,+)[images/meow.gif]]
}}}
[<img(34%+,+)[images/meow.gif]]
[<img(21% ,+)[images/meow.gif]]
[<img(13%+, )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 8%+, )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 5% , )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 3% , )[images/meow.gif]]
[<img( 2% , )[images/meow.gif]]
[img(  1%+,+)[images/meow.gif]]
{{tagClear{
}}}
<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2009.02.24 [1.2.1] cleanup width/height regexp, use '+' suffix for resizing
2009.02.22 [1.2.0] added stretchable images
2008.01.19 [1.1.0] added evaluated width/height values
2008.01.18 [1.0.1] regexp for "(width,height)" now passes all CSS values to browser for validation
2008.01.17 [1.0.0] initial release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.ImageSizePlugin= {major: 1, minor: 2, revision: 1, date: new Date(2009,2,24)};
//}}}
//{{{
var f=config.formatters[config.formatters.findByField("name","image")];
f.match="\\[[<>]?[Ii][Mm][Gg](?:\\([^,]*,[^\\)]*\\))?\\[";
f.lookaheadRegExp=/\[([<]?)(>?)[Ii][Mm][Gg](?:\(([^,]*),([^\)]*)\))?\[(?:([^\|\]]+)\|)?([^\[\]\|]+)\](?:\[([^\]]*)\])?\]/mg;
f.handler=function(w) {
	this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
	var lookaheadMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
	if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
		var floatLeft=lookaheadMatch[1];
		var floatRight=lookaheadMatch[2];
		var width=lookaheadMatch[3];
		var height=lookaheadMatch[4];
		var tooltip=lookaheadMatch[5];
		var src=lookaheadMatch[6];
		var link=lookaheadMatch[7];

		// Simple bracketted link
		var e = w.output;
		if(link) { // LINKED IMAGE
			if (config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink(link)) {
				if (config.macros.attach && config.macros.attach.isAttachment(link)) {
					// see [[AttachFilePluginFormatters]]
					e = createExternalLink(w.output,link);
					e.href=config.macros.attach.getAttachment(link);
					e.title = config.macros.attach.linkTooltip + link;
				} else
					e = createExternalLink(w.output,link);
			} else 
				e = createTiddlyLink(w.output,link,false,null,w.isStatic);
			addClass(e,"imageLink");
		}

		var img = createTiddlyElement(e,"img");
		if(floatLeft) img.align="left"; else if(floatRight) img.align="right";
		if(width||height) {
			var x=width.trim(); var y=height.trim();
			var stretchW=(x.substr(x.length-1,1)=='+'); if (stretchW) x=x.substr(0,x.length-1);
			var stretchH=(y.substr(y.length-1,1)=='+'); if (stretchH) y=y.substr(0,y.length-1);
			if (x.substr(0,2)=="{{")
				{ try{x=eval(x.substr(2,x.length-4))} catch(e){displayMessage(e.description||e.toString())} }
			if (y.substr(0,2)=="{{")
				{ try{y=eval(y.substr(2,y.length-4))} catch(e){displayMessage(e.description||e.toString())} }
			img.style.width=x.trim(); img.style.height=y.trim();
			config.formatterHelpers.addStretchHandlers(img,stretchW,stretchH);
		}
		if(tooltip) img.title = tooltip;

		// GET IMAGE SOURCE
		if (config.macros.attach && config.macros.attach.isAttachment(src))
			src=config.macros.attach.getAttachment(src); // see [[AttachFilePluginFormatters]]
		else if (config.formatterHelpers.resolvePath) { // see [[ImagePathPlugin]]
			if (config.browser.isIE || config.browser.isSafari) {
				img.onerror=(function(){
					this.src=config.formatterHelpers.resolvePath(this.src,false);
					return false;
				});
			} else
				src=config.formatterHelpers.resolvePath(src,true);
		}
		img.src=src;
		w.nextMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex;
	}
}

config.formatterHelpers.addStretchHandlers=function(e,stretchW,stretchH) {
	e.title=((stretchW||stretchH)?'DRAG=stretch/shrink, ':'')
		+'SHIFT-CLICK=show full size, CTRL-CLICK=restore initial size';
	e.statusMsg='width=%0, height=%1';
	e.style.cursor='move';
	e.originalW=e.style.width;
	e.originalH=e.style.height;
	e.minW=Math.max(e.offsetWidth/20,10);
	e.minH=Math.max(e.offsetHeight/20,10);
	e.stretchW=stretchW;
	e.stretchH=stretchH;
	e.onmousedown=function(ev) { var ev=ev||window.event;
		this.sizing=true;
		this.startX=!config.browser.isIE?ev.pageX:(ev.clientX+findScrollX());
		this.startY=!config.browser.isIE?ev.pageY:(ev.clientY+findScrollY());
		this.startW=this.offsetWidth;
		this.startH=this.offsetHeight;
		return false;
	};
	e.onmousemove=function(ev) { var ev=ev||window.event;
		if (this.sizing) {
			var s=this.style;
			var currX=!config.browser.isIE?ev.pageX:(ev.clientX+findScrollX());
			var currY=!config.browser.isIE?ev.pageY:(ev.clientY+findScrollY());
			var newW=(currX-this.offsetLeft)/(this.startX-this.offsetLeft)*this.startW;
			var newH=(currY-this.offsetTop )/(this.startY-this.offsetTop )*this.startH;
			if (this.stretchW) s.width =Math.floor(Math.max(newW,this.minW))+'px';
			if (this.stretchH) s.height=Math.floor(Math.max(newH,this.minH))+'px';
			clearMessage(); displayMessage(this.statusMsg.format([s.width,s.height]));
		}
		return false;
	};
	e.onmouseup=function(ev) { var ev=ev||window.event;
		if (ev.shiftKey) { this.style.width=this.style.height=''; }
		if (ev.ctrlKey)  { this.style.width=this.originalW; this.style.height=this.originalH; }
		this.sizing=false;
		clearMessage();
		return false;
	};
	e.onmouseout=function(ev) { var ev=ev||window.event;
		this.sizing=false;
		clearMessage();
		return false;
	};
}
//}}}
<<tiddler ViennaRose>>
<<tiddler [[Trilobite-Modocia]]>>
<<tiddler HeartNebula>>
[[Ice Storm|IceStorm]]
<<tiddler M81>>
<<tiddler Joanna>>
<<tiddler CatsEyeNebula>>
<<tiddler SunSpot>>
<<tiddler Diamond>>
<<tiddler IsolaBella>>
<<tiddler IsolaBella-II>>
<<tiddler ScienceVsReligion>>
[[HistoricPhotos]]
<<tiddler HowToDie>>
<<tiddler Lightning>>
<<tiddler NovaNGC244>>
<<tiddler Airplane>>
<<tiddler ManlyBeach>>
<<tiddler EagleNebula>>
<<tiddler View>>
<<tiddler Bahai>>
<<tiddler NewComet>>
----
:{{locLink{~~[[Detach this|Images]] @@color:#c06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@~~}}}
<<importTiddlers inline>>
On Tuesday, 22 June 2010 8:26:56 AM, MsgRay imported 1 tiddler from
[[F:\TiddlyWiki\TWExperiments\TiddlyTools\www.tiddlytools.com_index22June2010.htm|F:\TiddlyWiki\TWExperiments\TiddlyTools\www.tiddlytools.com_index22June2010.htm]]:
<<<
#[[SearchOptionsPlugin]] - replaces SearchOptionsPlugin - 1/31/2009 10:16:00 by MsgRay
<<<

----
On Tuesday, 22 June 2010 8:22:44 AM, MsgRay imported 1 tiddler from
[[F:\TiddlyWiki\TW Help\twhelp.html|F:\TiddlyWiki\TW Help\twhelp.html]]:
<<<
#[[TwHelpSearchPlugin]] - added
<<<

----
On Thursday, 14 May 2009 8:51:14 AM, MsgRay imported 2 tiddlers from
[[F:\TiddlyWiki\TW Help\twhelp.html|F:\TiddlyWiki\TW Help\twhelp.html]]:
<<<
#[[HideTiddlerTags]] - added
#[[HideTiddler Background]] - added
<<<

----
On Friday, 8 August 2008 8:00:11 AM, YourName imported 22 tiddlers from
[[F:\TiddlyWiki2.4\Soroban\soroban.html|F:\TiddlyWiki2.4\Soroban\soroban.html]]:
<<<
#[[BlankExample]] - added
#[[BlankHTML]] - added
#[[BlankIframe]] - replaces BlankIframe - 12/16/2007 09:04:00 by YourName
#[[BlankObject]] - replaces BlankObject - 6/22/2007 18:18:00 by YourName
#[[BlankTable]] - replaces BlankTable - 6/14/2007 20:40:00 by YourName
#[[BlankTabs]] - replaces BlankTabs - 7/30/2007 09:35:00 by MorrisGray
#[[BlankTweak]] - added
#[[JournalTemplate]] - added
#[[MakeTiddlers]] - replaces MakeTiddlers - 12/10/2007 15:51:00 by YourName
#[[NavButtons]] - replaces NavButtons - 1/10/2008 12:42:00 by MorrisGray
#[[NewExampleFromTemplate]] - added
#[[NewHTMLFromTemplate]] - added
#[[NewIframeFromTemplate]] - replaces NewIframeFromTemplate - 11/26/2007 20:18:00 by YourName
#[[NewJournalFromTemplate]] - added
#[[NewObjectFromTemplate]] - replaces NewObjectFromTemplate - 6/22/2007 18:20:00 by YourName
#[[NewSliderFromTemplate]] - added
#[[NewSystemConfigTiddler]] - replaces NewSystemConfigTiddler - 9/5/2007 13:38:00 by MorrisGray
#[[NewTableFromTemplate]] - replaces NewTableFromTemplate - 6/22/2007 18:22:00 by YourName
#[[NewTabsFromTemplate]] - replaces NewTabsFromTemplate - 6/16/2007 08:19:00 by YourName
#[[NewTweakFromTemplate]] - added
#[[NewTweakTemplate]] - added
#[[SimonsNiceTable]] - replaces SimonsNiceTable - 9/5/2007 13:41:00 by MorrisGray
<<<

----
On Monday, 22 January, 2007 13:57:34, MorrisGray imported 1 tiddler from
[[I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\RadioTiddlers\radiotiddlers.htm|I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\RadioTiddlers\radiotiddlers.htm]]:
<<<
#[[RadioOnline]] - added
<<<

----
On Monday, 22 January, 2007 13:56:28, MorrisGray imported 1 tiddler from
[[I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\RadioTiddlers\radiotiddlers.htm|I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\RadioTiddlers\radiotiddlers.htm]]:
<<<
#[[Radio Lovers]] - added
<<<

----
On Monday, 22 January, 2007 13:56:09, MorrisGray imported 6 tiddlers from
[[I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\RadioTiddlers\radiotiddlers.htm|I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\RadioTiddlers\radiotiddlers.htm]]:
<<<
#[[2BL 702AM]] - added
#[[2CBA]] - added
#[[2CH]] - added
#[[2PB 630AM]] - added
#[[2RN 576AM]] - added
#[[OldTimeRadio]] - added
<<<
CHRIS ISHAM has a problem with truth. And he suspects his fellow physicists do too. It is not their honesty he doubts, but their approach to understanding the nature of the universe, the laws that govern it and reality itself. Together with a small band of allies, Isham is wrestling with questions that lie at the very core of physics. Indeed they run even deeper, to such basic concepts as logic, existence and truth. What do they mean? Are they immutable? What lies beyond them?

After years of effort, Isham and his colleagues at Imperial College London and elsewhere believe they can glimpse the answers to these profound questions. They didn't set out to rethink such weighty issues. When they started nearly a decade ago, the researchers hoped to arrive at a quantum theory of the universe, an ambitious enough task in itself. Yet in the process they might have bagged something bigger.

For if their results stand up, Isham and his colleagues appear to have found a new way of making sense of reality using concepts even more fundamental than mathematics and logic. Not only could their insights be good news for quantum theory, they could lead to a whole new way of constructing theories of reality.

Since its emergence around a century ago, quantum theory has become one of the cornerstones of modern science. It underpins everything from the behaviour of quarks and semiconductors to the power of medical scanners. And it has passed virtually every test thrown at it, its predictions agreeing with experiment to many decimal places.

With a track record like that, quantum theory might seem ideal for casting light on the ultimate questions about the universe, such as why it exists at all. Not so. In fact, it runs into very big trouble very quickly, because quantum theory has a problem with truth.

With hindsight, perhaps this shouldn't be so surprising. Right from the start, quantum theory has had a reputation for giving odd answers to even seemingly simple questions. In the everyday world, everything has nice, clear-cut properties: people are either dead or alive, electrons either spin up or down. Yet according to quantum theory, what we're seeing is just one manifestation of a whole panoply of possibilities, all mixed together.

How all those possibilities turn into just the one reality we see has caused endless debate among theorists. Their efforts have produced various interpretations of quantum theory, the most famous of which is the Copenhagen interpretation, named in recognition of its inventor, the Danish quantum pioneer Niels Bohr. According to this view, it is the act of observing that triggers the panoply of possibilities to collapse down to the single reality we experience.

Quite how this collapse process works isn't exactly clear. What is plain is that it raises profound questions about the whole notion of truth in quantum theory. For it implies that it is impossible to know the truth of any statement about, say, an electron until it has been observed. Unless that happens, it doesn't really make sense to talk of the electron - or anything else for that matter - as being real.

Things get much worse when quantum theory is applied to the entire universe. If the universe is as real as we believe, then it must have been cast into that state by an observer able to view it all. Yet since the universe includes everything, there can be no external observer.

Theorists have come up with all kinds of alternative interpretations to avoid the problem, which others have in turn torn apart. Small wonder, perhaps, that most workaday physicists are happy to leave them to it. Alas that's just not an option for quantum cosmologists, who have to find some way of turning the cosmic cornucopia into the one real universe we actually inhabit.

But who says they have to? Perhaps we're reading quantum theory all wrong, and there is no need to force the universe or anything else into rude reality. Rethinking quantum theory is an appealing thought, not least because it would pull the quantum world into line with common sense. Yet there is a problem with this vision. It is ruled out by an elegant result published in 1967 by mathematicians Simon Kochen and Ernst Specker.

Kochen and Specker's theorem puts some pretty severe constraints on anyone hoping to rid quantum theory of its weirdness. Put simply, the theorem shows that it is pointless expecting to get simple true and false answers from quantum theory. Every statement about a quantum system must either depend on a host of assumptions, or refuse to obey the standard rules of logic - and possibly both.

For quantum cosmologists, Kochen and Specker's theorem is particularly bad news. It rules out all hope of squaring quantum theory with the common-sense view that the universe is real and has simple, clear-cut properties. Or at least it does for those who believe the laws of logic are set in stone. What if they aren't? Could the problem lie not in quantum theory, but in our notion of truth? That is the question that Isham and his colleagues have dared to ask, with intriguing results.

Abandoning the standard laws of logic in order to make the universe real seems like a hefty price to pay. Yet some theorists have believed it is worth it, says Steven French, a philosopher and quantum physicist at the University of Leeds in the UK. That's one reason why mathematicians over the years have developed other systems of logic. "Along with standard true/false logic there are so-called non-classical logics out there which include true, false and indeterminate values," says French. "People looked at them as a way of dealing with problems in quantum theory, but it died out in the 1970s and 1980s because it wasn't really illuminating very much."

A big sticking-point lay in finding the alternatives to "AND", "OR" and "NOT", the logical operators of the standard or Boolean algebra that are routinely used by everyone from philosophers to computer programmers to make logical deductions. While this familiar form of logic works well enough in everyday situations, it fails to describe the behaviour of quantum systems.

Isham illustrates this using the example of ordering breakfast in a cafe. Imagine looking through the menu and finding that eggs, bacon and sausage are on offer. It states the choice as "eggs AND bacon, OR eggs AND sausage", but the chef could equally offer the same breakfast choice in a shorthand version: "eggs AND (bacon OR sausage)". That's because the operator AND possesses a mathematical property called distributivity, which links eggs with whatever is inside the brackets. Distributivity is vital for making common-sense deductions. Lose it - as you do in quantum theory - and you can expect some unusual results.

Take that cafe menu, for instance. If you ask for eggs AND bacon in the quantum world, you could get nothing at all says Isham. Ask for eggs, and bacon or sausage, and you'll get eggs plus some weird quantum mix of bacon and sausage. Clearly, relying on quantum logic to reason your way to a decent breakfast is likely to lead to disappointment.

There is a serious point lurking behind all this. Systems of logic lacking distributivity are very hard to reason with and quantum logic is one of them. Worse still, Kochen and Specker's theorem rules out any hope of tinkering with quantum logic to force it to give us simple true/false answers to statements about physical systems. Yet without those simple answers, it doesn't make sense to say a physical system has certain properties and is thus "real". Why does quantum logic have to be so frustrating?

Isham and Jeremy Butterfield at the University of Oxford decided to dig deeper into the problem. They dug so deep, in fact, that they found themselves under the foundations of standard mathematics and staring at something far more fundamental. That something is a concept called a topos, and it could be the basis of a whole new way of constructing theories of reality.

The idea of a concept even more general than mathematics and logic may seem mind-bending, yet mathematicians have happily contemplated such things for years. They have long known that the whole of standard mathematics and logic can be constructed from entities called sets. A set is just a collection of objects - anything from the infinite set of prime numbers to the set of all mammals or even the set of all universes. Crucially, sets obey the laws of standard logic and Boolean algebra.

Mathematicians have since discovered that sets themselves are merely the most familiar example of the even more general concept of a topos. The precise definition of a topos is highly technical, but all topoi share one key feature: each gives rise to its very own variety of logic. Suddenly an astonishing possibility opens up: we can break away from the familiar set-based variety of logic and describe the world via other topoi.

Isham and his colleagues saw topoi might offer a way to break the shackles of Kochen and Specker's theorem. The trick was to find topoi whose associated logic would reconcile quantum theory with the notion of a real universe. That meant searching for new definitions of the logical operators AND, OR and NOT. Others have tried this before, and it is far from trivial, says Isham. "In practice, the procedures have been rather hit and miss."

To pin them down precisely, he and his colleagues turned to the bigger mathematical palette offered by topos theory. Now they could see Boolean algebra for what it is: merely the most familiar of many possible types of algebra, each of which could act as the basis of entire new forms of logic.

Armed with these, Isham and his colleagues have identified the topoi for quantum theory. Not surprisingly, they are very different from anything we're familiar with, and of course come with their very own form of logic. That logic does at least have one familiar feature: it is distributive. At a stroke, this removes one of the most perplexing aspects of quantum theory. It allows us once more to make common-sense deductions about quantum systems. Finally, the universe can be real without having to fret about "outside" observers.
Another reality

But there is a price to pay, and it is precisely what the Kochen-Specker theorem warned of: the demise of simple truth and falsity. For all its drawbacks, Boolean algebra does at least allow every statement about our universe to be either true or false. Yet this turns out to be the exception among all the different types of algebras - including the one underpinning quantum theory. The logic associated with quantum topoi encompasses true, false and many shades of grey in between.

Does that mean we must accept a universe that is real, but about which any question will receive myriad answers, all of them true? According to Isham and his colleagues, the answer - appropriately enough - is both yes and no. If we are content to view reality through the window of classical physics, then we can enjoy straightforward true/false answers to our questions - as long as we avoid the realm of atoms. But if we insist on making statements about atoms, we must use the logic of quantum topoi and accept the existence of a whole host of realities, all as valid as each other.

And that might just be the start; after all, there are more topoi than just the standard and quantum ones. In a series of papers unveiled last month, Isham proposes an even more mind-bending idea: there may be myriad ways of viewing reality, each based on its own topos. Together with Andreas Doering of Imperial, he has shown that every physical system - from an electron to the whole universe - has a unique mathematical identity that dictates how it will appear when viewed through the prism of a particular topos.

Seen via the topos of set theory, an atom takes on its classical appearance with nice, well-defined properties. Viewed through the topos associated with quantum theory, it becomes altogether fuzzier and strange.

We needn't stop there. Why not opt for another topos? It could lead to a view of reality even more astonishing and successful than quantum theory. "What we're hoping is that topos theory becomes the basis for a whole new way of constructing theories", says Isham.
“Topos theory could lead to a view of reality more astonishing and successful than quantum theory”

It is an exhilarating possibility, and one that could hardly be better timed. Theoretical physicists feel growing disquiet about the lack of progress on the truly fundamental questions. Attempts to understand the ultimate origin of the universe have spawned a host of ideas, but no consensus as to which is right. Meanwhile the search for a "theory of everything" that would unify all the forces and particles of nature has run into innumerable problems.

Not surprisingly, this has led to mounting suspicions that current theories of fundamental physics are missing something big. Could topos theory open the way? "There's no doubt that we need something radical", says Max Tegmark, a theorist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Whether this is it is another question. In the end the real test is: does it get us anywhere?"

Isham agrees, but stresses that he and his colleagues have only just begun to scratch the surface of topos theory. He hopes researchers will see his latest papers as a framework for going beyond quantum theory, perhaps to something even more profound.

So will topos theory trigger as big a change in our perceptions of reality as quantum theory did a century ago? That depends at least in part on how other theorists react to these first papers. Isham is under no illusions about that: "We are trying to change the way we construct theories of what reality is like," he says. "And that's always going to be problematic."
Robert Matthews is visiting reader in science at Aston University in Birmingham, UK
From issue 2599 of New Scientist magazine, 14 April 2007, page 30-33

Source: [[Impossible things for breakfast, at the Logic Café - fundamentals - 14 April 2007 - New Scientist|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/fundamentals/mg19425991.400-impossible-things-for-breakfast-at-the-logic-caf%E9.html;jsessionid=DPBLJMGBJCOM]]
<<include "http://tiddlyspot.com/twhelp/index.html">>
<html><div align="left"><font size="3" color="#00f">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;  ''Indianapolis''</font><br><iframe src="http://free.timeanddate.com/clock/ifev65x/n105/tlau/fs10/fc000080/tt0/tw1/tm1/td2/th1" frameborder="0" width="148" height="15"></iframe></div></html>
/***
|Name|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Version|1.6.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <<br>>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|Insert Javascript executable code directly into your tiddler content.|

''Call directly into TW core utility routines, define new functions, calculate values, add dynamically-generated TiddlyWiki-formatted output'' into tiddler content, or perform any other programmatic actions each time the tiddler is rendered.
!!!!!Usage
<<<
When installed, this plugin adds new wiki syntax for surrounding tiddler content with {{{<script>}}} and {{{</script>}}} markers, so that it can be treated as embedded javascript and executed each time the tiddler is rendered.

''Deferred execution from an 'onClick' link''
By including a {{{label="..."}}} parameter in the initial {{{<script>}}} marker, the plugin will create a link to an 'onclick' script that will only be executed when that specific link is clicked, rather than running the script each time the tiddler is rendered.  You may also include a {{{title="..."}}} parameter to specify the 'tooltip' text that will appear whenever the mouse is moved over the onClick link text

''External script source files:''
You can also load javascript from an external source URL, by including a src="..." parameter in the initial {{{<script>}}} marker (e.g., {{{<script src="demo.js"></script>}}}).  This is particularly useful when incorporating third-party javascript libraries for use in custom extensions and plugins.  The 'foreign' javascript code remains isolated in a separate file that can be easily replaced whenever an updated library file becomes available.

''Display script source in tiddler output''
By including the keyword parameter "show", in the initial {{{<script>}}} marker, the plugin will include the script source code in the output that it displays in the tiddler.

''Defining javascript functions and libraries:''
Although the external javascript file is loaded while the tiddler content is being rendered, any functions it defines will not be available for use until //after// the rendering has been completed.  Thus, you cannot load a library and //immediately// use it's functions within the same tiddler.  However, once that tiddler has been loaded, the library functions can be freely used in any tiddler (even the one in which it was initially loaded).

To ensure that your javascript functions are always available when needed, you should load the libraries from a tiddler that will be rendered as soon as your TiddlyWiki document is opened.  For example, you could put your {{{<script src="..."></script>}}} syntax into a tiddler called LoadScripts, and then add {{{<<tiddler LoadScripts>>}}} in your MainMenu tiddler.

Since the MainMenu is always rendered immediately upon opening your document, the library will always be loaded before any other tiddlers that rely upon the functions it defines.  Loading an external javascript library does not produce any direct output in the tiddler, so these definitions should have no impact on the appearance of your MainMenu.

''Creating dynamic tiddler content''
An important difference between this implementation of embedded scripting and conventional embedded javascript techniques for web pages is the method used to produce output that is dynamically inserted into the document:
* In a typical web document, you use the document.write() function to output text sequences (often containing HTML tags) that are then rendered when the entire document is first loaded into the browser window.
* However, in a ~TiddlyWiki document, tiddlers (and other DOM elements) are created, deleted, and rendered "on-the-fly", so writing directly to the global 'document' object does not produce the results you want (i.e., replacing the embedded script within the tiddler content), and completely replaces the entire ~TiddlyWiki document in your browser window.
* To allow these scripts to work unmodified, the plugin automatically converts all occurences of document.write() so that the output is inserted into the tiddler content instead of replacing the entire ~TiddlyWiki document.

If your script does not use document.write() to create dynamically embedded content within a tiddler, your javascript can, as an alternative, explicitly return a text value that the plugin can then pass through the wikify() rendering engine to insert into the tiddler display.  For example, using {{{return "thistext"}}} will produce the same output as {{{document.write("thistext")}}}.

//Note: your script code is automatically 'wrapped' inside a function, {{{_out()}}}, so that any return value you provide can be correctly handled by the plugin and inserted into the tiddler.  To avoid unpredictable results (and possibly fatal execution errors), this function should never be redefined or called from ''within'' your script code.//

''Accessing the ~TiddlyWiki DOM''
The plugin provides one pre-defined variable, 'place', that is passed in to your javascript code so that it can have direct access to the containing DOM element into which the tiddler output is currently being rendered.

Access to this DOM element allows you to create scripts that can:
* vary their actions based upon the specific location in which they are embedded
* access 'tiddler-relative' information (use findContainingTiddler(place))
* perform direct DOM manipulations (when returning wikified text is not enough)
<<<
!!!!!Examples
<<<
an "alert" message box:
><script show>
	alert('InlineJavascriptPlugin: this is a demonstration message');
</script>
dynamic output:
><script show>
	return (new Date()).toString();
</script>
wikified dynamic output:
><script show>
	return "link to current user: [["+config.options.txtUserName+"]]";
</script>
dynamic output using 'place' to get size information for current tiddler:
><script show>
   if (!window.story) window.story=window;
   var title=story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7);
   return title+" is using "+store.getTiddlerText(title).length+" bytes";
</script>
creating an 'onclick' button/link that runs a script:
><script label="click here" title="clicking this link will show an 'alert' box" show>
   if (!window.story) window.story=window;
   alert("Hello World!\nlinktext='"+place.firstChild.data+"'\ntiddler='"+story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7)+"'");
</script>
loading a script from a source url:
>http://www.TiddlyTools.com/demo.js contains:
>>{{{function demo() { alert('this output is from demo(), defined in demo.js') } }}}
>>{{{alert('InlineJavascriptPlugin: demo.js has been loaded'); }}}
><script src="demo.js" show>
	return "loading demo.js..."
</script>
><script label="click to execute demo() function" show>
	demo()
</script>
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''InlineJavascriptPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2007.02.19 [1.6.0]'' added support for title="..." to specify mouseover tooltip when using an onclick (label="...") script
''2006.10.16 [1.5.2]'' add newline before closing '}' in 'function out_' wrapper.  Fixes error caused when last line of script is a comment.
''2006.06.01 [1.5.1]'' when calling wikify() on script return value, pass hightlightRegExp and tiddler params so macros that rely on these values can render properly
''2006.04.19 [1.5.0]'' added 'show' parameter to force display of javascript source code in tiddler output
''2006.01.05 [1.4.0]'' added support 'onclick' scripts.  When label="..." param is present, a button/link is created using the indicated label text, and the script is only executed when the button/link is clicked.  'place' value is set to match the clicked button/link element.
''2005.12.13 [1.3.1]'' when catching eval error in IE, e.description contains the error text, instead of e.toString().  Fixed error reporting so IE shows the correct response text.  Based on a suggestion by UdoBorkowski
''2005.11.09 [1.3.0]'' for 'inline' scripts (i.e., not scripts loaded with src="..."), automatically replace calls to 'document.write()' with 'place.innerHTML+=' so script output is directed into tiddler content.  Based on a suggestion by BradleyMeck
''2005.11.08 [1.2.0]'' handle loading of javascript from an external URL via src="..." syntax
''2005.11.08 [1.1.0]'' pass 'place' param into scripts to provide direct DOM access 
''2005.11.08 [1.0.0]'' initial release
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]]
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.inlineJavascript= {major: 1, minor: 6, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,2,19)};

config.formatters.push( {
	name: "inlineJavascript",
	match: "\\<script",
	lookahead: "\\<script(?: src=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: label=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: title=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?( show)?\\>((?:.|\\n)*?)\\</script\\>",

	handler: function(w) {
		var lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
		lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
		var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
		if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
			if (lookaheadMatch[1]) { // load a script library
				// make script tag, set src, add to body to execute, then remove for cleanup
				var script = document.createElement("script"); script.src = lookaheadMatch[1];
				document.body.appendChild(script); document.body.removeChild(script);
			}
			if (lookaheadMatch[5]) { // there is script code
				if (lookaheadMatch[4]) // show inline script code in tiddler output
					wikify("{{{\n"+lookaheadMatch[0]+"\n}}}\n",w.output);
				if (lookaheadMatch[2]) { // create a link to an 'onclick' script
					// add a link, define click handler, save code in link (pass 'place'), set link attributes
					var link=createTiddlyElement(w.output,"a",null,"tiddlyLinkExisting",lookaheadMatch[2]);
					link.onclick=function(){try{return(eval(this.code))}catch(e){alert(e.description?e.description:e.toString())}}
					link.code="function _out(place){"+lookaheadMatch[5]+"\n};_out(this);"
					link.setAttribute("title",lookaheadMatch[3]?lookaheadMatch[3]:"");
					link.setAttribute("href","javascript:;");
					link.style.cursor="pointer";
				}
				else { // run inline script code
					var code="function _out(place){"+lookaheadMatch[5]+"\n};_out(w.output);"
					code=code.replace(/document.write\(/gi,'place.innerHTML+=(');
					try { var out = eval(code); } catch(e) { out = e.description?e.description:e.toString(); }
					if (out && out.length) wikify(out,w.output,w.highlightRegExp,w.tiddler);
				}
			}
			w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;
		}
	}
} )
//}}}
/***
|Name:|InstantTimestampPlugin|
|Source|http://instanttimestamp.tiddlyspot.com/|
|Documentation|TBA|
|Version|1.0.5 (17-Jan-2007)|
|Author|SimonBaird|
|License|Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires|NA|
|Overrides|NA|
|Description|Date Stamp|
!Description
If you enter {ts} in your tiddler content (without the spaces) it will be replaced with a timestamp when you save the tiddler. Full list:
{{{
* {ts} or {t} -> timestamp
* {ds} or {d} -> datestamp
* !ts or !t at start of line -> !!timestamp
* !ds or !d at start of line -> !!datestamp
}}}
(I added the extra ! since that's how I like it. Remove it from translations below if required)
!Notes
* Change the timeFormat and dateFormat below to suit your preference.
* See also AutoCorrectPlugin
!History
* 17-Jan-07, version 1.0.5
** added fields param to saveTiddler method needed in TW 2.1+
* 06-Apr-06, version 1.0.4
** removed the AutoCorrect stuff and put it in AutoCorrectPlugin
* 05-Apr-06, version 1.0.3
** now have exclusion by tag and tiddler name, probably less important here than in AutoCorrectPlugin
* 05-Apr-06, version 1.0.2
** put matches into array to and eval them to allow generic substitutions
* 05-Apr-06, version 1.0.1
** added ds for datestamp as suggested by DanielBaird
** made case insensitive
** Added translation for !t at start of line
* 05-Apr-06, version 1.0.0
** written after suggestion by Achim Wessling 
!Code
***/
//{{{

config.InstantTimestamp = {

	// adjust to suit
	timeFormat: '0DD.0MM.YY 0hh:0mm',
	dateFormat: '0DD.0MM.YY',

	translations: [
		[/^!ts?$/img,  "'!!'+now.formatString(config.InstantTimestamp.timeFormat)"],
		[/^!ds?$/img,  "'!!'+now.formatString(config.InstantTimestamp.dateFormat)"],
		[/\{ts?\}/ig, "now.formatString(config.InstantTimestamp.timeFormat)"],
		[/\{ds?\}/ig, "now.formatString(config.InstantTimestamp.dateFormat)"]
	],

	excludeTags: [
		"noAutoCorrect",
		"html",
		"CSS",
		"css",
		"systemConfig",
		"zsystemConfig",
		"Plugins",
		"Plugin",
		"plugins",
		"plugin",
		"javascript",
		"code"
	],

	excludeTiddlers: [
		"StyleSheet",
		"StyleSheetLayout",
		"StyleSheetColors",
		"StyleSheetPrint"
	]

}; 

if (!Array.prototype.contains)
	Array.prototype.contains = function(item) {
		return (this.find(item) != null);
	};

if (!Array.prototype.containsAny)
	Array.prototype.containsAny = function(items) {
		for (var i=0;i<items.length;i++)
			if (this.contains(items[i]))
				return true;
		return false;
	};

TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler_mptw_instanttimestamp = TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler;
TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler = function(title,newTitle,newBody,modifier,modified,tags,fields) {

	tags = (typeof(tags) == "string") ? tags.readBracketedList() : tags;
	var conf = config.InstantTimestamp;

	if ( !tags.containsAny(conf.excludeTags) && !conf.excludeTiddlers.contains(newTitle) ) {

		var now = new Date();
		var trans = config.InstantTimestamp.translations;
		for (var i=0;i<trans.length;i++) {
			newBody = newBody.replace(trans[i][0], eval(trans[i][1]));
		}
	}

	return this.saveTiddler_mptw_instanttimestamp(title,newTitle,newBody,modifier,modified,tags,fields);
}

//}}}
<html><hide linebreaks>
<em>GEOFF ARMITAGE'S CONVERSION TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS</em>
                    </strong>
                    <table class="table">
                  <tbody>
                    <tr>
                      <th>Name of Measure</th>

                      <th>Approx. Equivalent in millimetres</th>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Antwerp ruthen</td>
                      <td>5,736</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Aunes</td>
                      <td>1,143</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Baras castellanes</td>
                      <td>835</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Bolognese foot</td>
                      <td>380</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Brabant foot</td>
                      <td>281</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Bracas</td>
                      <td>2,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Braccia</td>

                      <td>600</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Brasse</td>
                      <td>595</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Brazos castellanas</td>
                      <td>1,683</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Brazza</td>
                      <td>595</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>British fathom</td>
                      <td>1,828</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Cable</td>
                      <td>219,456</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Calemberger foot</td>
                      <td>292</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Calemberger ruthen</td>

                      <td>4,672</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Canne</td>
                      <td>2,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Canne anconitane</td>
                      <td>2,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Canne napolitane</td>
                      <td>2,096</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Canne romane</td>
                      <td>2,112</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Canne siciliane</td>
                      <td>2,028</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Carmi</td>
                      <td>2,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Castilian league</td>

                      <td>6,350,500</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Castilian varas</td>
                      <td>835</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Chain</td>
                      <td>20,117</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Cleffter</td>
                      <td>2,000</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Common league</td>
                      <td>7,408,900</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Dutch league</td>
                      <td>5,969,990</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Dutch mile</td>
                      <td>1,000,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>English league</td>

                      <td>4,828,032</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Faden</td>
                      <td>1,629</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Fathom</td>
                      <td>1,828</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Florentine braccia</td>
                      <td>583</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Florentine mile</td>
                      <td>1,778,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Foot</td>
                      <td>305</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>French foot</td>
                      <td>330</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>French league</td>

                      <td>4,448,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>French marine league</td>
                      <td>5,556,700</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>French pace</td>
                      <td>812</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>French toise</td>
                      <td>1,949 (post-1812: 2,000)</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Genevese toise</td>
                      <td>2,599</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Geometrical foot</td>
                      <td>337</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Geometrical pace</td>
                      <td>1,524</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>German mile</td>

                      <td>7,649,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Irish perch</td>
                      <td>6,400</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Italian mile</td>
                      <td>1,852,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Italian pace</td>
                      <td>1,500</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Kilometre</td>
                      <td>1,000,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Klaffter</td>
                      <td>2,000</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Lachter</td>
                      <td>2,036</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>League</td>

                      <td>4,828,032</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Leucarum Hispanicarum [= Spanish league???]</td>
                      <td>6,300,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Lieue [= league]</td>
                      <td>4,828,032</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Lieue commune de France</td>
                      <td>4,445,400</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Lieue japonaise</td>
                      <td>???</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Lieue marine</td>
                      <td>5,556,700</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Marine league</td>
                      <td>5,556,700</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Marine mile</td>

                      <td>1,852,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Metre</td>
                      <td>1,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Mexican league</td>
                      <td>4,190,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Mexican varas</td>
                      <td>848</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Milanese mile</td>
                      <td>1,652,600</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Mile</td>
                      <td>1,609,344</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Miliarium/milliaria [=  English mile]</td>
                      <td>1,609,344</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Mille (itineraire)</td>

                      <td>1,949,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Mille marin</td>
                      <td>1,852,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Milliaria anglica [= English mile]</td>
                      <td>1,609,344</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Milliaria germanica [=German mile]</td>
                      <td>7,649,000</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Milliaria Italica [= Italian mile]</td>
                      <td>1,852,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Milliaria thietm. [= Thietmarsh mile ???]</td>
                      <td>???</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Modenese perch</td>
                      <td>3,180</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Nautic[al] mile</td>

                      <td>1,852,200</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Pace</td>
                      <td>762</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Palmi</td>
                      <td>250</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Palmi genovese</td>
                      <td>249</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Palmi romani</td>
                      <td>228</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Paraguay league</td>
                      <td>4,190,000</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Paris foot</td>
                      <td>330</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Pas [= French pace]</td>

                      <td>812</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Passi</td>
                      <td>1,500</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Pedum [= Foot???]</td>
                      <td>305</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Perch</td>
                      <td>5,029</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Perticarum [= Perch]</td>
                      <td>5,029</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Pertiche ferrarese</td>
                      <td>4,038</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Pertiche modenese</td>
                      <td>3,180</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Pertiche versonese</td>

                      <td>2,057</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Piedmontese mile</td>
                      <td>1,778,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Pole</td>
                      <td>5,029</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Rhenish/Rheinland/Rynland - rod/ruthen/roeden</td>
                      <td>3,766</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Rhenish foot</td>
                      <td>314</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Rhenish verge/yard</td>
                      <td>3,766</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Rhine <em>see</em> Rhenish</td>
                      <td>
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Rod</td>
                      <td>5,029</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Roden/Danish perches??? (La Rode)</td>
                      <td>3,138</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Roman palmi</td>
                      <td>228</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Russian faden/fathom</td>
                      <td>1,629</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Russian toise</td>
                      <td>1,604</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Rynland <em>see</em> Rhenish</td>

                      <td>
                      </td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Scala [<em>ignore; note the next word</em>]</td>
                      <td>
                      </td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Schrit[te]</td>
                      <td>1,710</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Schuh [= German foot???]</td>

                      <td>290</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Scots chain</td>
                      <td>22,676</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Sea league = marine league???</td>
                      <td>5,556,700</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Sea mile = nautic[al] mile???</td>
                      <td>1,852,200</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Spanish league</td>
                      <td>6,300,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Spanish maritime league</td>
                      <td>5,566,700</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>T. [= Toise]</td>
                      <td>2,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>T[h]oise</td>

                      <td>2,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Trabocci/Trabucchi</td>
                      <td>3,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Trabocchi of Piacenza</td>
                      <td>2,819</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Varas [Castellanas/Castille/Espanolas/Spanish]</td>
                      <td>858</td>
                    </tr>

                    <tr>
                      <td>Venetian mile</td>
                      <td>1,738,700</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Venetian pasa/pace</td>
                      <td>1,739</td>

                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Verge de Rhin[land]</td>
                      <td>3,766</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Veronese mile</td>

                      <td>1,778,000</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>
                      <td>Werst</td>
                      <td>1,066,780</td>
                    </tr>
                    <tr>

                      <td>Yard</td>
                      <td>914</td>
</html>
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.ipnsig.org/reports/DTN_Tutorial11.pdf]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2008/nov/HQ_08-298_Deep_space_internet.html","plagiarism")'>Deep Space Internet</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.ipnsig.org/reports/DTN_Tutorial11.pdf" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
An interpretation of quantum mechanics is a statement which attempts to explain how quantum mechanics informs our understanding of nature. Although quantum mechanics is the most thoroughly tested and precise theory in the history of science, the fundamentals of the theory are yet to be fully understood. There are a number of contending schools of thought, differing over whether quantum mechanics can be understood to be deterministic, which elements of quantum mechanics can be considered "real," and other matters.

Although today this question is of special interest to philosophers of physics, many physicists continue to show a strong interest in the subject.

Source: [[Interpretation of quantum mechanics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretation_of_quantum_mechanics]]
[[Interview: The chance of a lifetime - opinion - 24 March 2007 - New Scientist|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/mg19325961.800-interview-the-chance-of-a-lifetime.html;jsessionid=GGELDHBFFJOL]]

----
{{textjustify{
{{firstletter{
@@color:#c06;W @@
}}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;''hen he ran away from home aged 14 to spend two years on the road as a magician's assistant'', 
&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Persi Diaconis|http://www-stat.stanford.edu/~cgates/PERSI/]] had little idea that his fascination with magic would take him to Harvard University and beyond. Today he is not only one of the world's top sleight-of-hand magicians but a professor of statistics at Stanford to boot. He has used his skills to debunk numerous instances of fraud and trickery, and proved that it takes seven shuffles to perfectly randomise a pack of cards. He tells Justin Mullins about his strange journey

''How did you become involved in magic?''
{{imgfloatright{
[img[http://img339.imageshack.us/img339/9219/1007025230639f98cfembb7.jpg]]
}}}
When I was 5 I found a magic book and did a little show for my mother. I was the centre of attention and became hooked. When I was older, I was sitting in a cafeteria one day doing a trick where you deal the second card from a pack rather than the top card. A magician called Dai Vernon spotted me and saw some potential. One day he called, said he was going to Delaware the following day to do a show and asked if I wanted to go along as his assistant. I packed my bag and left. We travelled around for two years and I learned a great deal from him. I never went home again.

''How did your tricks end up being published?''

As a teenager, I got to know Martin Gardner, the famous recreational mathematician. I showed him one of my mathematical magic tricks, and he published it in the column he had in Scientific American. I was very proud. He got me interested in the link between magic and mathematics.

{{borderless{
|bgcolor:#f96;“I became interested in the link between magic and mathematics”|@@color:#03f;//''What is the link between magic and mathematics?''//@@|
}}}
With practice, magicians can shuffle a pack of cards perfectly. They can cut the pack exactly in half and interweave the cards one after the other. Suppose I have a pack with four aces on top and I shuffle it perfectly. The aces would then be every second card. If I shuffle it again, they would be every fourth card. If I was a crooked gambler and dealt four hands, I'd get the aces. Gamblers have been writing about what they can and can't do with perfect shuffles for 300 years.

There are two kinds of perfect shuffle. You can keep the original top card on top or place it second from top - those are called "out" and "in" shuffles. As a kid I learned a method for moving the top card to any other position in the pack. First express the position you want as a binary number and subtract 1. Then interpret the 1s and 0s in the number as in and out shuffles. If you carry out that sequence of in and out shuffles, the top card ends up where you want. That's how I learned about binary numbers.

''Why are shuffles interesting mathematically?''

If you out-shuffle a pack of cards eight times, the deck comes back to where it started. But it takes 52 in-shuffles to bring a deck back to the start - as many shuffles as there are cards in the deck. One interesting question is: are there larger decks, with say 104 cards, or some other number, where it also takes a deck-size number of out-shuffles to bring the deck back to the start? The answer is completely unknown. It's linked to the ''[[Riemann hypothesis|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_hypothesis]]'', one of the fanciest open problems in mathematics. That's the kind of thing that makes the mathematician and magician in me rather happy.

''Without a high-school education, was it hard to get involved in advanced mathematics?''

When I was 24, I decided to enrol in night school at City College in New York. When I graduated, I applied to do statistics at Harvard. Martin Gardner wrote a letter for me saying: "Of the 10 best card tricks invented in the last two years, this kid invented two of them. And if he says he wants to do statistics, you should give him a chance." One of the people on the Harvard committee, Fred Mosteller, was also a serious amateur magician and was influenced by Martin's letter. That's how I got in.

''What is statistics?''

My favourite example of statistics is Carl Gauss's role in the discovery of Ceres in 1801. At that time, people were sure there were only seven planets. But then an astronomer spotted Ceres and followed it for about 40 days. This was exciting stuff, in all the newspapers. Was there a new planet? Then he lost it in the sun. If you know the position and velocity of something orbiting the sun at one time, you should know where it is forever. But the observations were "noisy" because of poor-quality telescopes and errors in measuring Ceres's position.

Gauss took up the challenge. Within a year he had invented the statistical tools to handle noisy observations - the techniques of least-squares, Gaussian elimination and the Gaussian bell-shaped curve. Then he calculated where Ceres should be and told people where to point their telescopes. On the first clear night, they found it. It has ended up classed only as the largest asteroid, not a planet, though.

A friend of mine says that statistics is the physics of data sets. For me, statistics is making human sense out of data from the world around us while facing up to the fact that our observations have noise in them.

''How did you become involved in the debunking of extrasensory perception?''

I got hooked on it through Martin Gardner. Somebody had sent a book into Scientific American about "psychic" photography. The claim was that a guy called Ted Serios could take a Polaroid picture and it would have some image produced just by his thoughts on it - a plane flying through the picture or a ~Cro-Magnon man, say. Martin paid me and some technical photographers to go and watch this guy. I caught him sneaking a little marble with a photograph on it into a tube in front of the camera. It was a trick.

''Are you still debunking these days?''

Yes, I still get calls. There are many ways that bad science happens - one is outright fraud and trickery like Serios, another is bad statistics. An example of bad statistics is a book called The Bible Code, which has sold 3 million copies. It's by a bunch of mathematicians and rabbis who claim that you can use the book of Genesis and arithmetic progressions to predict the future. It is quite a complicated piece of mathematics, but the proof of it was basically statistical. It goes something like this: you take some phrase like "Persi Diaconis" and find the shortest progression in Genesis that spells it out. You can find anything, I promise you. Then you take some phrase that is related to the first phrase, like "shuffling cards", and you find the shortest progression that contains that. The book claims that these progressions are physically closer together than they would be by chance. They had some way of trying to quantify this that was just crazy. But you had to be a professional statistician to know.

''How are you still involved in magic?''

I write magic tricks for friends. Maybe one of them will be doing a trade show for a steel company and will call asking whether I can invent a trick with tin cans. I still subscribe to magic journals. Magic is a community that I am part of. I am writing a book called Mathematics and Magic Tricks that is almost finished and might be done in a year. So right at the moment I'm doing a fair amount more magic than I normally do. I'm also teaching a course on mathematics and magic so I perform for the kids a little bit and do my perfect shuffles.
}}}
Source: [[Interview: The chance of a lifetime - opinion - 24 March 2007 - New Scientist|http://www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/mg19325961.800-interview-the-chance-of-a-lifetime.html;jsessionid=GGELDHBFFJOL]]
{{borderless{
|<<QOTD Quotes>>|
}}}
{{textcenter{
John Maynard Keynes famously said last century: ''When the facts change, I change my mind. What do you do, Sir?''


[[The Ascent of Man: A Personal View - Jacob Brownoski|http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=A3FC4D7ED67F4B1A]]}}}
<<tiddler TodayTabs>>{{textcenter{
@@color:#c06;''What the Dutch are saying about Science Matters'' @@
@@color:#04b;"Een prachtig voorbeeld van een vrij complexe webstek gemaakt met ~TiddlyWiki."@@}}}
| [img[Rose-Volksgarten Viennia |http://img19.imageshack.us/img19/6018/therose75hnr9.gif][http://img522.imageshack.us/img522/396/1001351800wrn7.gif]]<br>Rose Of Vienna | [img[Trilobite Modocia|http://img27.imageshack.us/img27/5403/trilobite75hnc5.gif][http://img515.imageshack.us/img515/8633/tu110rm4.jpg]]<br> ~Trilobite-Modocia | [img[Here's looking at you kid.|http://img27.imageshack.us/img27/9732/neweye75hfu9.gif]]<br>{{unboldLink{<script label="refresh">story.forEachTiddler(function(t,e){story.refreshTiddler(t,null,true)});refreshDisplay();return false;</script> }}} | [img[Spiral Galaxy NGC 4414|http://img243.imageshack.us/img243/6527/spiral75hfc9.gif][http://img183.imageshack.us/img183/2406/m81deephallas720ln0.jpg]]<br> Spiral Galaxy M81 | [img[http://img444.imageshack.us/img444/101/heart75hfh9.gif][http://img169.imageshack.us/img169/2593/heartrussellsj7.jpg]]<br> Heart Nebula |
|borderless|k
<<tiddler Frustra>>
<<tiddler AllScienceSubjects>>
{{textcenter{
[[Sydney PowerHouse Museum|http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/imageservices/]]
[[Garrett Lisi's Theory of Everything (be patient while it loads)|http://deferentialgeometry.org/]]
}}}

<html>
<style type="text/css">
#tiddlerIntroAll .title {display:none;}
#tiddlerIntroAll {color:#c06;}
</style>
</html>
[img[http://img264.imageshack.us/img264/2087/radiotvzt7.gif]] If you must know.... then click on the tabs

<html><div id="myIsolaBella" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" /><div><img src="http://img341.imageshack.us/img341/8122/bellasp2.jpg"><br><div align="center">Isola Bella</div></div></div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myIsolaBella')">Isola Bella</a></html>
<html><div id="myIsolaBella-II" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none"><img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" /><div><img src="http://img27.imageshack.us/img27/4081/isolabellaii.jpg"><br><div align="center">Isola Bella - Napoleon and Josephine</div></div></div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myIsolaBella-II')">IsolaBella-II</a></html>
<html><hide linebreaks>
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" style="border-collapse: collapse" width="182" id="table1" bordercolorlight="#ECEBF1" bordercolordark="#E9DFD1" bordercolor="#C0C0C0"><tr><td height="19" ></td></tr><tr><td bordercolor="#C0C0C0"></td></tr><embed src="http://lb.lyricsdownload.com/2/fla/2.2.swf?passid=1298103-12259788&testopos=center&p_varlista=1&ida=&colT=FFCC33&colF=111111&colL=EEEEEE&aphF=80&sizF=9&spdS=1&bkgI=insert url image&txtT=its not for me to say&themerq=1&themeLy=92" quality="high" bgcolor="#ffffff" wmode="transparent"  width="180" height="200" name="lyricsbox20" align="middle" allowScriptAccess="sameDomain" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" pluginspage="http://www.macromedia.com/go/getflashplayer" /> <tr><td height="19" ><center><a target="_blank"  href="johnny-mathis-lyrics.html">Johnny Mathis Lyrics</a></center></td></tr></table>
</html>
#[img[http://img126.imageshack.us/img126/8415/mimetexpg1.gif]]
#[img[http://img252.imageshack.us/img252/7871/mimetexwn4.gif]]
#[img[http://img122.imageshack.us/img122/7549/mimetexeg3.gif]]
#[img[http://img267.imageshack.us/img267/7070/mimetexou3.gif]]
#[img[http://img267.imageshack.us/img267/6436/mimetexas0.gif]]
#[img[http://img444.imageshack.us/img444/7224/mimetexag2.gif]]
#[img[http://img443.imageshack.us/img443/1016/mimetexaz6.gif]]
#[img[http://img443.imageshack.us/img443/6581/mimetexae9.gif]]
#[img[http://img89.imageshack.us/img89/1286/mimetexsr5.gif]]
#[img[http://img255.imageshack.us/img255/4519/mimetexcgik1we1.gif]]
<html><div align="center"> <object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/Ss0qcaCjx80&hl=en&fs=1&amp;autoplay=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/Ss0qcaCjx80&hl=en&fs=1&amp;autoplay=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object></div></html>

{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.tux.org/~bagleyd/abacus.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.tux.org/~bagleyd/abacus.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
[[Joanna|http://img176.imageshack.us/img176/5046/joannanewsombigun1.jpg]]
+++[Joanna Newsom lyrics]...
----
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://alwaysontherun.net/joanna.htm]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://alwaysontherun.net/joanna.htm" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
===

{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<tiddler ./fm>> |vertical-align:middle; <<tiddler ./jo>>|
}}}
<part fm hidden>
[img[http://img514.imageshack.us/img514/5906/190musicfw2.jpg]]
<html><div align="center"><style type="text/css">.lastfmWidget {float:left;width:100%;}.lastfmWidget object {float:left;}.lastfmWidget div {height:20px;}.lastfmWidget a {overflow:hidden;height:20px;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none;}.lastfmHead a {float:left;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position:0 -20px;}.lastfmHead a:hover {background-position: 0 0;}.lastfmFoot {clear:left;float:left;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:0 100%;}.lastfmFoot a {float:right;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position:0 -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.config {width:85px;background-position: 0 -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.config:hover {background-position: 0 0;}.lastfmFoot a.view {width:74px;background-position:-85px -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.view:hover {background-position:-85px 0;}.lastfmFoot a.popup {width:25px;background-position:-159px -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.popup:hover {background-position:-159px 0;}</style>
<div class="lastfmWidget"><div class="lastfmHead" style="width:184px;"><a title="Music like Joanna Newsom" href="http://www.last.fm/listen/artist/Joanna%2520Newsom/similarartists" target="_blank" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/header/radio/regular_blue.gif);width:184px;"></a></div><object classid="clsid:d27cdb6e-ae6d-11cf-96b8-444553540000" width="184" height="140" codebase="http://fpdownload.macromedia.com/pub/shockwave/cabs/flash/swflash.cab%23version=7,0,0,0"><param name="bgcolor" value="6598cd" /><param name="movie" value="http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/radio/1.swf" /><param name="quality" value="high" /><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="sameDomain" /><param name="FlashVars" value="lfmMode=radio&amp;radioURL=artist%2FJoanna%2520Newsom%2Fsimilarartists&amp;title=Music+like+Joanna+Newsom&amp;theme=blue&amp;autostart=1" /><embed src="http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/radio/1.swf" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" name="widgetPlayer" bgcolor="6598cd" width="184" height="140" quality="high" pluginspage="http://www.macromedia.com/go/getflashplayer"  FlashVars="lfmMode=radio&amp;radioURL=artist%2FJoanna%2520Newsom%2Fsimilarartists&amp;title=Music+like+Joanna+Newsom&amp;theme=blue&amp;autostart=1" allowScriptAccess="sameDomain"></embed></object><div class="lastfmFoot" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/background/blue.gif);width:184px;"><a class="popup" title="Load this radio in a pop up" href="http://www.last.fm/tools/widgets/popup/?widget=radio&amp;url=artist%2FJoanna%2520Newsom%2Fsimilarartists&amp;colour=blue&amp;width=regular&amp;autostart=1&amp;from=widget&amp;resize=1" target="_blank" onclick="window.open(this.href + '&amp;shrink=0', 'lastfm_popup', 'height=220, width=224, location=no, toolbar=no, menubar=no, directories=no, personalbar=no, status=no, resizable=yes, scrollbars=no'); return false;" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/blue.gif);"></a><a class="view" title="View symiel's profile" href="http://www.last.fm/user/symiel/" target="_blank" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/blue.gif);"></a><a class="config" title="Get your own" href="http://www.last.fm/tools/widgets/?widget=radio&amp;url=artist%2FJoanna%2520Newsom%2Fsimilarartists&amp;colour=blue&amp;width=regular&amp;autostart=1&amp;from=widget" target="_blank" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/blue.gif);"></a></div></div></div></html>
</part>
<part jo hidden>
[img[http://img507.imageshack.us/img507/6837/joannavn9.jpg]]
</part>
<<gradient vert  #003  #00c>>
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:middle; <<tiddler ./joan>> |vertical-align:top; <<tiddler ./pict>> |
}}}>>
<part joan hidden>
<html><div align="center"><object classid="clsid:02BF25D5-8C17-4B23-BC80-D3488ABDDC6B" codebase="http://www.apple.com/qtactivex/qtplugin.cab" height="140" width="165"><param name="src" value="http://www.dragcity.com/video/JNewsom_sm2.mov"><param name="autoplay" value="true"><param name="type" value="video/quicktime" height="140" width="165"><embed src="http://www.dragcity.com/video/JNewsom_sm2.mov" height="140" width="165" autoplay="true" type="video/quicktime" pluginspage="http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/"></object>
[[Joanna Newsom|http://www.dragcity.com/video/JNewsom_sm2.mov]]</div></html>
</part>
<part pict hidden>
[img[http://img510.imageshack.us/img510/8033/joannanewsomlz1.jpg]]
</part>
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #fff>>&nbsp;[[Any format of a journal you want|JournalTemplate]]^^<<tiddler CloseThisOpen with: "Macros Built-in"  '« back'>>|<<toolbar editTiddler>>» ^^>>
!!!<<gradient horiz #abf #fff>>&nbsp;Goals>>
Dear Journal,

Today is @@color:#C06;''<<today "YYYY.0MM.0DD 0hh:0mm:0ss week 0WW">>''@@ and I am going to dance at the slightest sound of music I hear played.  It might sound funny but that's my goal for today.
!!!<<gradient horiz #abf #fff>>&nbsp;Tasks>>
Completed every task. Am very proud and bored.

!!!<<gradient horiz #abf #fff>>&nbsp;Day's end>>

/***
|''Name:''|JsDoIt|
|''Version:''|1.0.1|
|''Source:''|[[AiddlyWiki|http://aiddlywiki.sourceforge.net]]|
|''Author:''|[[Arphen Lin|mailto:arphenlin@gmail.com]]|
|''Type:''|Macro extension|
|''Required:''|TiddlyWiki 2.0.0|
!Description
JsDoIt lets you execute Javascript executable codes immediately when you click on a JsDoIt macro button.
!Syntax
{{{<<}}}JsDoIt {label} {prompt} {jsEntity} [[jsEntity2] [jsEntity3] ... [jsEntityN]]{{{>>}}}
parameters:
* label - caption text of the JsDoIt button
* prompt - tip text of the JsDoIt button
* jsEntity - javascript that would be executed
** javascript code - begin with ''javascript:''
** javascript tiddler - tiddler that contains javascript code
** external javascript source - including URIs and local files
!Example & Demo
* execute javascript code(s):
<<<
{{{<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute javascript code' 'javascript:alert("Hello world!");'>>}}}
<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute javascript code' 'javascript:alert("Hello world!");'>>
<<<
* execute javascript tiddler(s):
<<<
{{{<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute javascript tiddler(s)' 'code1.js' 'code2.js'>>}}}
<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute javascript tiddler(s)' 'code1.js' 'code2.js'>>
<<<
* execute external javascript source
<<<
{{{<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute external javascript' 'external.js'>>}}}
<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute external javascript' 'external.js'>>
{{{<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute external javascript' 'http://aiddlywiki.sourceforge.net/external.js'>>}}}
<<JsDoIt 'click me!' 'execute external javascript' 'http://aiddlywiki.sourceforge.net/external.js'>>
<<<
!Revision history
*v1.0.1 (2006/1/6)
**fixed for(var key in params){} problem
*v1.0.0 (2006/1/4)
**Initial release
!Code
***/
//{{{
config.macros.JsDoIt = {major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 1, date: new Date(2006,1,6)};
config.macros.JsDoIt.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,allParams,tiddler){
	if(params.length<=2){	throw 'not enough parameters'; }
	var button = createTiddlyButton(place, params[0], params[1]);
	button.onclick = function(){
		for(var paramIndex=2; paramIndex<params.length; paramIndex++){
			var p=params[paramIndex];
			if(p.trim().search(/javascript:/gi)===0){
				eval(p.trim().replace(/javascript:/gi,''));
			}else{
				var t=store.getTiddler(p);
				if(t){
					eval(t.text);
				}else{
					var rs=document.createElement('script');
					rs.type = 'text/javascript';
					rs.src = p.trim();
					try{
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						document.body.removeChild(rs);
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						displayMessage('load ' + p + ' error: ' + e);
					}
				}
			}
		}
	};
};
//}}}
config.commands.top ={
text:"top",
tooltip:"jump to top"

};

config.commands.top.handler = function(event,src,title){
window.scrollTo(0,0);

} 
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.tcblades.com/honing__sharpening]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----

<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.tcblades.com/honing__sharpening" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://iwillknot.com/butterfly_knot/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.animatedknots.com/knotlist.php?LogoImage=&Website=","plagiarism")'>Animated Knots</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://iwillknot.com/butterfly_knot/" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
~~{{tablecenter{
<<forEachTiddler 
 where
 'tiddler.modified'
 sortBy
 'tiddler.modified'
 descending
 write
 '(index < 25) ? "|"+(index+1)+"|[["+tiddler.title+"]] |@@color:#c06;&raquo;  &raquo;@@ |"+tiddler.modified.formatString("YYYY.0MM.0DD"+" @ "+"0hh:0mm:0ss")+"|\n" : ""'
>>
}}}~~
<html><div align="center"><style type="text/css">.lastfmWidget {float:left;width:100%;}.lastfmWidget object {float:left;}.lastfmWidget div {height:20px;}.lastfmWidget a {overflow:hidden;height:20px;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none;}.lastfmHead a {float:left;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position:0 -20px;}.lastfmHead a:hover {background-position: 0 0;}.lastfmFoot {clear:left;float:left;background-repeat:repeat-x;background-position:0 100%;}.lastfmFoot a {float:right;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-position:0 -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.config {width:85px;background-position: 0 -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.config:hover {background-position: 0 0;}.lastfmFoot a.view {width:74px;background-position:-85px -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.view:hover {background-position:-85px 0;}.lastfmFoot a.popup {width:25px;background-position:-159px -20px;}.lastfmFoot a.popup:hover {background-position:-159px 0;}</style>
<div class="lastfmWidget"><div class="lastfmHead" style="width:460px;"><a title="Music like Joanna Newsom" href="http://www.last.fm/listen/artist/Joanna%2520Newsom/similarartists" target="_blank" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/header/quilt/album_horizontal_grey.gif);width:460px;"></a></div><object classid="clsid:d27cdb6e-ae6d-11cf-96b8-444553540000" width="460" height="180" codebase="http://fpdownload.macromedia.com/pub/shockwave/cabs/flash/swflash.cab%23version=7,0,0,0"><param name="bgcolor" value="999999" /><param name="movie" value="http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/quilt/6.swf" /><param name="quality" value="high" /><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="sameDomain" /><param name="FlashVars" value="type=artistplus&amp;variable=Joanna+Newsom&amp;file=artistplusalbums&amp;bgColor=grey&amp;theme=grey" /><embed src="http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/quilt/6.swf" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" name="widgetPlayer" bgcolor="999999" width="460" height="180" quality="high" pluginspage="http://www.macromedia.com/go/getflashplayer"  FlashVars="type=artistplus&amp;variable=Joanna+Newsom&amp;file=artistplusalbums&amp;bgColor=grey&amp;theme=grey" allowScriptAccess="sameDomain"></embed></object><div class="lastfmFoot" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/background/grey.gif);width:460px;"><a class="popup" title="Load this quilt in a pop up" href="http://www.last.fm/tools/widgets/popup/?widget=quilt&amp;url=artist%2FJoanna%2520Newsom%2Fsimilarartists&amp;quiltType=album&amp;colour=grey&amp;orient=horizontal&amp;height=medium&amp;from=widget&amp;resize=1" target="_blank" onclick="window.open(this.href + '&amp;shrink=0', 'lastfm_popup', 'height=260, width=500, location=no, toolbar=no, menubar=no, directories=no, personalbar=no, status=no, resizable=yes, scrollbars=no'); return false;" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/grey.gif);"></a><a class="view" title="View symiel's profile" href="http://www.last.fm/user/symiel/" target="_blank" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/grey.gif);"></a><a class="config" title="Get your own" href="http://www.last.fm/tools/widgets/?widget=quilt&amp;url=artist%2FJoanna%2520Newsom%2Fsimilarartists&amp;quiltType=album&amp;colour=grey&amp;orient=horizontal&amp;height=medium&amp;from=widget" target="_blank" style="background-image:url(http://panther1.last.fm/widgets/images/footer/grey.gif);"></a></div></div></div></html>
|>|>| !Latin Letters |
| !Symbol | !upper-case | !lower-case |
| Agrave | &Agrave; | &agrave; |
| Aacute | &Aacute; | &aacute; |
| Acirc | &Acirc; | &acirc; |
| Atilde | &Atilde; | &atilde; |
| Auml | &Auml; | &auml; |
| Aring | &Aring; | &aring; |
| ~AElig | &AElig; | &aelig; |
| Ccedil | &Ccedil; | &ccedil; |
| Egrave | &Egrave; | &egrave; |
| Eacute | &Eacute; | &eacute; |
| Ecirc | &Ecirc; | &ecirc; |
| Euml | &Euml; | &euml; |
| Igrave | &Igrave; | &igrave; |
| Iacute | &Iacute; | &iacute; |
| Icirc | &Icirc; | &icirc; |
| Iuml | &Iuml; | &iuml; |
| ETH | &ETH; | &eth; |
| Ntilde | &Ntilde; | &ntilde; |
| Ograve | &Ograve; | &ograve; |
| Oacute | &Oacute; | &oacute; |
| Ocirc | &Ocirc; | &ocirc; |
| Otilde | &Otilde; | &otilde; |
| Ouml | &Ouml; | &ouml; |
| Oslash | &Oslash; | &oslash; |
| Ugrave | &Ugrave; | &ugrave; |
| Uacute | &Uacute; | &uacute; |
| Ucirc | &Ucirc; | &ucirc; |
| Uuml | &Uuml; | &uuml; |
| Yacute | &Yacute; | &yacute; |
| THORN | &THORN; | &thorn; |
| Yuml | &Yuml; | &yuml; |
| ~OElig | &OElig; | &oelig; |
| Scaron | &Scaron; | &scaron; |
| szlig | &szlig; | |
/***
|''Name:''|LaunchApplicationPlugin|
|''Author:''|Lyall Pearce|
|''Source:''|http://www.Remotely-Helpful.com/TiddlyWiki/LaunchApplication.html|
|''License:''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/]]|
|''Version:''|1.4.0|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.3.0|
|''Requires:''| |
|''Overrides:''| |
|''Description:''|Launch an application from within TiddlyWiki using a button|
!!!!!Usage
<<<
{{{<<LaunchApplication "buttonLabel" "tooltip" "application" ["arguments" ...]>>}}}
{{{<<LaunchApplicationButton "buttonLabel" "tooltip" "application" ["arguments" ...]>>}}}
{{{<<LaunchApplicationLink "buttonLabel" "tooltip" "application" ["arguments" ...]>>}}}
* buttonLabel is anything you like
* tooltip is anything you like
* application is a path to the executable (which is Operating System dependant)
* arguments is any command line arguments the application requires.
* You must supply relative path from the location of the TiddlyWiki OR a fully qualified path
* Forward slashes works fine for Windows

{{{<<LaunchApplication...>>}}} functions the same as {{{<<LaunchApplicationButton...>>}}}

eg.

{{{
<<LaunchApplicationButton "Emacs" "Linux Emacs" "file:///usr/bin/emacs">>
}}}
<<LaunchApplicationButton "Emacs" "Linux Emacs" "file:///usr/bin/emacs">>

{{{
<<LaunchApplicationLink "LocalProgram" "Program relative to Tiddly html file" "localDir/bin/emacs">>
}}}
<<LaunchApplicationLink "LocalProgram" "Program relative to Tiddly html file" "localDir/bin/emacs">>
					     
{{{
<<LaunchApplicationButton "Open Notepad" "Text Editing" "file:///e:/Windows/notepad.exe">>
}}}
<<LaunchApplicationButton "Open Notepad" "Text Editing" "file:///e:/Windows/notepad.exe">>

{{{
<<LaunchApplicationLink "C Drive" "Folder" "file:///c:/">>
}}}
<<LaunchApplicationLink "C Drive" "Folder" "file:///c:/">>


!!!!!Revision History
* 1.1.0 - leveraged some tweaks from from Bradly Meck's version (http://bradleymeck.tiddlyspot.com/#LaunchApplicationPlugin) and the example text.
* 1.2.0 - Make launching work in Linux too and use displayMessage() to give diagnostics/status info.
* 1.3.0 - execute programs relative to TiddlyWiki html file plus fix to args for firefox.
* 1.3.1 - parameters to the macro are properly parsed, allowing dynamic paramters using {{{ {{javascript}} }}} notation.
* 1.4.0 - updated core version and fixed empty tooltip and added launch link capability

<<<
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.LaunchApplication = {major: 1, minor: 4, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,12,29)};
config.macros.LaunchApplication = {};
config.macros.LaunchApplicationButton = {};
config.macros.LaunchApplicationLink = {};

function LaunchApplication(appToLaunch,appParams) {
    if(! appToLaunch)
	return;
    var tiddlyBaseDir = self.location.pathname.substring(0,self.location.pathname.lastIndexOf("\\")+1);
    if(!tiddlyBaseDir || tiddlyBaseDir == "") {
	tiddlyBaseDir = self.location.pathname.substring(0,self.location.pathname.lastIndexOf("/")+1);
    }
    // if Returns with a leading slash, we don't want that.
    if(tiddlyBaseDir.substring(0,1) == "/") {
	tiddlyBaseDir = tiddlyBaseDir.substring(1);
    }
    if(appToLaunch.indexOf("file:///") == 0) // windows would have C:\ as the resulting file
    {
	tiddlyBaseDir = "";
	appToLaunch = appToLaunch.substring(8);
    }

    if (config.browser.isIE) {
	// want where the tiddly is actually located, excluding tiddly html file

	var theShell = new ActiveXObject("WScript.Shell");
	if(theShell) {
            // the app name may have a directory component, need that too
	    // as we want to start with current working dir as the location
	    // of the app.
	    var appDir = appToLaunch.substring(0, appToLaunch.lastIndexOf("\\"));
	    if(! appDir || appDir == "") {
		appDir = appToLaunch.substring(0, appToLaunch.lastIndexOf("/"));
	    }
	    appParams = appParams.length > 0 ? " \""+appParams.join("\" \"")+"\"" : "";
	    try {
		theShell.CurrentDirectory = decodeURI(tiddlyBaseDir + appDir);
		var commandString = ('"' +decodeURI(tiddlyBaseDir+appToLaunch) + '" ' + appParams);
		pluginInfo.log.push(commandString);
	        theShell.run(commandString);
	    } catch (e) {
		displayMessage("LaunchApplication cannot locate/execute file '"+tiddlyBaseDir+appToLaunch+"'");
		return;
	    }
	} else {
	    displayMessage("LaunchApplication failed to create ActiveX component WScript.Shell");
	}
    } else { // Not IE
	// want where the tiddly is actually located, excluding tiddly html file
	netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege("UniversalXPConnect");
        var file = Components.classes["@mozilla.org/file/local;1"].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsILocalFile);
        var launchString;
	try { // try linux/unix format
            launchString = decodeURI(tiddlyBaseDir+appToLaunch);
	    file.initWithPath(launchString);
	} catch (e) {
	    try { // leading slash on tiddlyBaseDir
                launchString = decodeURI("/"+tiddlyBaseDir+appToLaunch);
		file.initWithPath(launchString);
	    } catch (e) {
		try { // try windows format
		    launchString = decodeURI(appToLaunch).replace(/\//g,"\\");
		    file.initWithPath(launchString);
		} catch (e) {
		    try { // try windows format
			launchString = decodeURI(tiddlyBaseDir+appToLaunch).replace(/\//g,"\\");
			file.initWithPath(launchString);
		    } catch (e) {
			displayMessage("LaunchApplication cannot locate file '"+launchString+"' : "+e);
			return;
		    } // try windows mode
		} // try windows mode
	    }; // try with leading slash in tiddlyBaseDir
	}; // try linux/unix mode
	try {
	    if (file.isFile() && file.isExecutable()) {
		displayMessage("LaunchApplication executing '"+launchString+"' "+appParams.join(" "));
		var process = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/process/util;1'].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsIProcess);
		process.init(file);
		process.run(false, appParams, appParams.length);
	    }
	    else
	    {
		displayMessage("LaunchApplication launching '"+launchString+"' "+appParams.join(" "));
		file.launch(); // No args available with this option
	    }
	} catch (e) {
	    displayMessage("LaunchApplication cannot execute/launch file '"+launchString+"'");
	}
    }
};

config.macros.LaunchApplication.handler = function (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
    // 0=ButtonText, 1=toolTip, 2=AppToLaunch, 3...AppParameters
    if (params[0] && (params[1] || params[1] == "") && params[2]) {
        var theButton = createTiddlyButton(place, getParam(params,"buttonText",params[0]), getParam(params,"toolTip",params[1]), onClickLaunchApplication);
        theButton.setAttribute("appToLaunch", getParam(params,"appToLaunch",params[2]));
        params.splice(0,3);
        theButton.setAttribute("appParameters", params.join(" "));
        return;
    }
}
config.macros.LaunchApplicationButton.handler = function (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
    config.macros.LaunchApplication.handler (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler);
}

config.macros.LaunchApplicationLink.handler = function (place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
    // 0=ButtonText, 1=toolTip, 2=AppToLaunch, 3...AppParameters
    if (params[0] && (params[1] || params[1] == "") && params[2]) {
        //var theLink = createExternalLink(place, getParam(params,"buttonText",params[0]));
        var theLink = createTiddlyButton(place, getParam(params,"buttonText",params[0]), getParam(params,"toolTip",params[1]), onClickLaunchApplication,"link");
        theLink.setAttribute("appToLaunch", getParam(params,"appToLaunch",params[2]));
        params.splice(0,3);
        theLink.setAttribute("appParameters", params.join(" "));
        return;
    }
}

function onClickLaunchApplication(e) {
	var theAppToLaunch = this.getAttribute("appToLaunch");
	var theAppParams = this.getAttribute("appParameters").readMacroParams();
	LaunchApplication(theAppToLaunch,theAppParams);
}

//}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.loc.gov/index.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.loc.gov/index.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
The observation, measurement, and explanation of human variability in time and space. This includes both biological variability and the study of cultural, or learned, behavior among contemporary human societies.
#lightBoxOverlay {
    position:absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    z-index: 90;   
    background-color: #000;
    -moz-opacity: 0.6;
    opacity: .60;
    filter: alpha(opacity=60);
}
#lightBoxOverlay[id]{ 
    position: fixed;
}

div.lightBox {
    background: #2d2d2d;
    color: #fff;
    border: 2px solid #eee;
}

img.lightBoxClose {
    position: absolute;
    top: -5px;
    right: -5px;
    margin: 0px;
    cursor: pointer;
}

div.lightBoxAlert {
    width: 300px;
    height: 64px;
    background: #2d2d2d;
    color: #fff;
    padding: 10px;
    border: 2px solid #eee;
}

div.lightBoxAlertIcon {
	position: absolute;
	top: 8px;
	left: 8px;
	width: 48px;
	height: 48px;
}

div.lightBoxAlertMessage {
	margin-left: 56px;
	margin-top: 16px;
}
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[img[http://img220.imageshack.us/img220/4498/closeyv0.gif]]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;http://img220.imageshack.us/img220/4498/closeyv0.gif
[img[http://img329.imageshack.us/img329/3753/errorxk2.png]]http://img329.imageshack.us/img329/3753/errorxk2.png
[img[http://img329.imageshack.us/img329/9236/infoim4.png]]http://img329.imageshack.us/img329/9236/infoim4.png
[img[http://img246.imageshack.us/img246/8503/okdd8.png]]http://img246.imageshack.us/img246/8503/okdd8.png
[img[http://img246.imageshack.us/img246/8312/questionhq4.png]]http://img246.imageshack.us/img246/8312/questionhq4.png
[img[http://img136.imageshack.us/img136/8066/warningvv8.png]]http://img136.imageshack.us/img136/8066/warningvv8.png
<html><div id="myLightning" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img378.imageshack.us/img378/8663/lightningih5.jpg"><br><div align="center">Lightning</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myLightning')">Lightning</a></html>
1:@@ ''Link to tiddlers with ~WikiWord titles''@@ TiddlyWiki
<<<
{{{like this: TiddlyWiki - just use tiddler title}}}
<<<
2:@@ ''Link to tiddlers with nonWikiWord titles (with spaces)''@@ [[Tiddly Wiki]]
<<<
{{{like this: [[Tiddly Wiki]] using double square brackets.}}}
<<<
3:@@ ''Link to tiddlers with ordinary words''@@ [[ordinary words|TiddlyWiki]]
<<<
{{{like this: [[ordinary words|TiddlyWiki]]}}}
{{{like this: [[ordinary words|Tiddly Wiki]]}}}
<<<
4:@@ ''Link to external sites with ordinary words''@@ [[external site|http://www.osmosoft.com]]
<<<
{{{like this: [[external site|http://www.osmosoft.com]]}}}
<<<
5:@@ ''Link to external sites using ordinary words in HTML''@@ <html><a href="http://www.osmosoft.com" target="_blank">External link using HTML</a></html>
<<<
{{{like this: <html><a href="http://www.osmosoft.com" target="_blank">External link using HTML</a></html>}}}
<<<
6:@@ ''Link to external sites using URL''@@ http://www.osmosoft.com
<<<
{{{like this: http://www.osmosoft.com}}}
<<<
7:@@ ''Link to a file on local disk''@@ [[Link to file|file:///D:/Digital Photos/100_0008.JPG]]
<<<
{{{like this:  [[Link to file|file:///D:/Digital Photos/100_0008.JPG]]}}}
<<<
8:@@ ''Link to a folder on local disk''@@ [[Link to folder|file:///D:/Digital Photos/]]
<<<
{{{like this:  [[Link to folder|file:///D:/Digital Photos/]]}}}
<<<
9:@@ ''Link to external images'' @@
<<<
{{{like this:[img[http://img480.imageshack.us/img480/6435/CastleOnDanube.jpg]]}}}
<<<
[img[http://img480.imageshack.us/img480/6435/CastleOnDanube.jpg]]

10:@@ ''Using external image as a link in HTML''@@
<<<
{{{like this: <html><a href="http://img480.imageshack.us/img480/7466/RainbowOverDanube.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://img480.imageshack.us/img480/7203/ParliamentHouseBudapest.jpg" width="240" height="160" alt="Castle on the Danube" /></a></html>}}}
<<<
<html><a href="http://img480.imageshack.us/img480/7466/RainbowOverDanube.jpg" target="_blank"><img src="http://img480.imageshack.us/img480/7203/ParliamentHouseBudapest.jpg" width="240" height="160" alt="Castle on the Danube" /></a></html>
Parliament House Budapest
(click to to see rainbow over the Danube)
{{floatleft{
<<toolbar references>>
}}}
*[[more fallacies|http://www.fallacyfiles.org/index.html]]
*http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/index.htm Logic
*http://parmenides.objectis.net/reason/
*http://www.atheistfoundation.org.au
*http://richarddawkins.net/
*http://richarddawkins.net/foundation,ourMission
*http://www.philosophypages.com/index.htm
[[Lissajous figures, a 3D java applet|http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/englishhtm/Lissajous.htm]]
<<forEachTiddler
 where 'tiddler.tags.contains("TiddlySnip")'
 sortBy '(tiddler.title)'
 script 'function getFirstLine(s) {
           var m = s.match(/\s*(.*)/);
           return m != null && m.length >= 1 ? m[1] : "";}'
 write '"[["+tiddler.title+"]] &rarr; "+getFirstLine(tiddler.text)
+"\n"' >> 
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/errors.html#errors]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/errors.html#errors" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
<<list shadowed>>
<<tabs tabsClass  [[Intro]] "tool tip" [[TiddlersByIntro]][[ByCreateDate]] "tool tip" [[TiddlersByCreateDate]][[BySize]] "BySize" [[TiddlersBySize]] [[ByNoTags]] "ByNoTags" [[ByNoTags]] [[ByTagFirstLine]] "ByTagFirstLine" [[ByTagFirstLine]] [[ListByTagTiddlySnip]] "ListByTagTiddlySnip" [[ListByTagTiddlySnip]]>>
{{textcenter{
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://relativity.livingreviews.org/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|

----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://relativity.livingreviews.org/" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
/***
|''Name:''|LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy (previous LoadRemoteFileHijack)|
|''Description:''|When the TiddlyWiki file is located on the web (view over http) the content of [[SiteProxy]] tiddler is added in front of the file url. If [[SiteProxy]] does not exist "/proxy/" is added. |
|''Version:''|1.1.0|
|''Date:''|mar 17, 2007|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#LoadRemoteFileHijack|
|''Author:''|BidiX (BidiX (at) bidix (dot) info)|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license|http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#%5B%5BBSD%20open%20source%20license%5D%5D ]]|
|''~CoreVersion:''|2.2.0|
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy = {
 major: 1, minor: 1, revision: 0, 
 date: new Date("mar 17, 2007"), 
 source: "http://tiddlywiki.bidix.info/#LoadRemoteFileThroughProxy"};

if (!window.bidix) window.bidix = {}; // bidix namespace
if (!bidix.core) bidix.core = {};

bidix.core.loadRemoteFile = loadRemoteFile;
loadRemoteFile = function(url,callback,params)
{
 if ((document.location.toString().substr(0,4) == "http") && (url.substr(0,4) == "http")){ 
  url = store.getTiddlerText("SiteProxy", "/proxy/") + url;
 }
 return bidix.core.loadRemoteFile(url,callback,params);
}
//}}}
{{twocolumns{
<html><H3>Introduction</H3><P>There's a lot of debate on the net. Unfortunately, much of it is of very low quality. The aim of this document is to explain the basics of logical reasoning, and hopefully improve the overall quality of debate.</P><P>The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines logic as "the science of reasoning, proof, thinking, or inference." Logic will let you analyze an argument or a piece of reasoning, and work out whether it is likely to be correct or not. You don't need to know logic to argue, of course; but if you know even a little, you'll find it easier to spot invalid arguments.</P><P>There are many kinds of logic, such as fuzzy logic and constructive logic; they have different rules, and different strengths and weaknesses. This document discusses simple Boolean logic, because it's commonplace and relatively easy to understand. When people talk about something being 'logical', they usually mean the type of logic described here.</P><A ID="isnot" NAME="isnot"></A><H3>What logic isn't</H3><P>It's worth mentioning a couple of things which logic is not.</P><P>Firstly, <STRONG>logical reasoning is not an absolute law which governs the universe</STRONG>. Many times in the past, people have concluded that because something is logically impossible (given the science of the day), it must be impossible, period. It was also believed at one time that Euclidean geometry was a universal law; it is, after all, logically consistent. Again, we now know that the rules of Euclidean geometry are not universal.</P><P>Secondly, <STRONG>logic is not a set of rules which govern human behavior</STRONG>. Humans may have logically conflicting goals. For example:</P><UL> <LI> <P>John wishes to speak to whoever is in charge.</P> </LI><LI> <P>The person in charge is Steve.</P> </LI><LI> <P>Therefore John wishes to speak to Steve.</P> </LI> </UL><P>Unfortunately, John may have a conflicting goal of avoiding Steve, meaning that the reasoned answer may be inapplicable to real life.</P><P>This document only explains how to use logic; you must decide whether logic is the right tool for the job. There are other ways to communicate, discuss and debate.</P><H3>Arguments</H3><P>An argument is, "a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition."</P><P>Many types of argument exist; we will discuss the <DFN>deductive argument</DFN>. Deductive arguments are generally viewed as the most precise and the most persuasive; they provide conclusive proof of their conclusion, and are either <DFN>valid</DFN> or <DFN>invalid</DFN>.</P><P>Deductive arguments have three stages: premises, inference, and conclusion. However, before we can consider those stages in detail, we must discuss the building blocks of a deductive argument: propositions.</P><H3>Propositions</H3><P>A <DFN>proposition</DFN> is a statement which is either true or false. The proposition is the meaning of the statement, not the precise arrangement of words used to convey that meaning.</P><P>For example, "There exists an even prime number greater than two" is a proposition. (A false one, in this case.) "An even prime number greater than two exists" is the same proposition, re-worded.</P><P>Unfortunately, it's very easy to unintentionally change the meaning of a statement by rephrasing it. It's generally safer to consider the wording of a proposition as significant.</P><P>It's possible to use formal linguistics to analyze and re-phrase a statement without changing its meaning; but how to do so is outside the scope of this document.</P><H3>Premises</H3><P>A deductive argument always requires a number of core assumptions. These are called <DFN>premises</DFN>, and are the assumptions the argument is built on; or to look at it another way, the reasons for accepting the argument. Premises are only premises in the context of a particular argument; they might be conclusions in other arguments, for example.</P><P>You should always state the premises of the argument explicitly; this is the principle of <a HREF="#audiatur">audiatur et altera pa</a><a id=BPM-supero title="Open in a new window" target=_blank HREF="#audiatur">rs</a>. Failing to state your assumptions is often viewed as suspicious, and will likely reduce the acceptance of your argument.</P><P>The premises of an argument are often introduced with words such as "Assume...", "Since...", "Obviously..." and "Because...." It's a good idea to get your opponent to agree with the premises of your argument before proceeding any further.</P><P>The word "obviously" is also often viewed with suspicion. It occasionally gets used to persuade people to accept false statements, rather than admit that they don't understand why something is 'obvious'. So don't be afraid to question statements which people tell you are 'obvious' -- when you've heard the explanation you can always say something like "You're right, now that I think about it that way, it <EM>is</EM> obvious."</P><H3>Inference</H3><P>Once the premises have been agreed, the argument proceeds via a step-by-step process called <DFN>inference</DFN>.</P><P>In inference, you start with one or more propositions which have been accepted; you then use those propositions to arrive at a new proposition. If the inference is valid, that proposition should also be accepted. You can use the new proposition for inference later on.</P><P>So initially, you can only infer things from the premises of the argument. But as the argument proceeds, the number of statements available for inference increases.</P><P>There are various kinds of valid inference - and also some invalid kinds, which we'll look at later in this document. Inference steps are often identified by phrases like "therefore..." or "...implies that..."</P><H3>Conclusion</H3><P>Hopefully you will arrive at a proposition which is the conclusion of the argument - the result you are trying to prove. The conclusion is the result of the final step of inference. It's only a conclusion in the context of a particular argument; it could be a premise or assumption in another argument.</P><P>The conclusion is said to be <DFN>affirmed</DFN> on the basis of the premises, and the inference from them. This is a subtle point which deserves further explanation.</P><H3>Implication in detail</H3><P>Clearly you can build a valid argument from true premises, and arrive at a true conclusion. You can also build a valid argument from false premises, and arrive at a false conclusion.</P><P>The tricky part is that you can start with false premises, proceed via valid inference, and reach a <EM>true</EM> conclusion. For example:</P><UL> <LI>Premise: All fish live in the ocean</LI><LI>Premise: <a HREF="http://www.pobox.com/~meta/otters/" target=_top>Sea otte</a><a id=BPM-supero title="Open in a new window" target=_blank HREF="http://www.pobox.com/~meta/otters/">rs</a> are fish</LI><LI>Conclusion: Therefore sea otters live in the ocean</LI> </UL><P>There's one thing you can't do, though: start from true premises, proceed via valid deductive inference, and reach a false conclusion.</P><P>We can summarize these results as a "<A ID="truthtable" NAME="truthtable">truth table</A>" for implication. The symbol "=&gt;" denotes implication; "A" is the premise, "B" the conclusion. "T" and "F" represent true and false respectively.</P><TABLE BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="3"><TR> <TH>Premise</TH> <TH>Conclusion</TH> <TH>Inference</TH> </TR><TR> <TH>A</TH> <TH>B</TH> <TH>A =&gt; B</TH> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> </TR> </TABLE><UL> <LI>If the premises are false and the inference valid, the conclusion can be true or false. (Lines 1 and 2.)</LI><LI>If the premises are true and the conclusion false, the inference must be invalid. (Line 3.)</LI><LI>If the premises are true and the inference valid, the conclusion must be true. (Line 4.)</LI> </UL><P>So <EM>the fact that an argument is valid doesn't necessarily mean that its conclusion holds</EM> -- it may have started from false premises.</P><P>If an argument is valid, and in addition it started from true premises, then it is called a <DFN>sound</DFN> argument. A sound argument must arrive at a true conclusion.</P><H3>Example argument</H3><P>Here's an example of an argument which is valid, and which may or may not be sound:</P>1: Premise: Every event has a cause
2: Premise: The universe has a beginning
3: Premise: All beginnings involve an event
4: Inference: This implies that the beginning of the universe involved an event
5: Inference: Therefore the beginning of the universe had a cause
6: Conclusion: The universe had a cause<P>The proposition in line 4 is inferred from lines 2 and 3. Line 1 is then used, with the proposition derived in line 4, to infer a new proposition in line 5. The result of the inference in line 5 is then re-stated (in slightly simplified form) as the conclusion.</P><H3>Spotting arguments</H3><P>Spotting an argument is harder than spotting premises or a conclusion. Lots of people shower their writing with assertions, without ever producing anything you might reasonably call an argument.</P><P>Sometimes arguments don't follow the pattern described above. For example, people may state their conclusions first, and then justify them afterwards. This is valid, but it can be a little confusing.</P><P>To make the situation worse, some statements look like arguments but aren't. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"If the Bible is accurate, Jesus must either have been insane, an evil liar, or the Son of God."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>That's not an argument; it's a conditional statement. It doesn't state the premises necessary to support its conclusion, and even if you add those assertions it suffers from a number of other flaws which are described in more detail in the <a HREF="arguments.html#lll">Atheist Argumen</a><a id=BPM-supero title="Open in a new window" target=_blank HREF="arguments.html#lll">ts</a> document.</P><P>An argument is also not the same as an explanation. Suppose that you are trying to argue that Albert Einstein believed in God, and say:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Einstein made his famous statement 'God does not play dice' because of his belief in God."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>That may look like a relevant argument, but it's not; it's an explanation of Einstein's statement. To see this, remember that a statement of the form "X because Y" can be re-phrased as an equivalent statement, of the form "Y therefore X." Doing so gives us:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Einstein believed in God, therefore he made his famous statement 'God does not play dice'.</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>Now it's clear that the statement, which looked like an argument, is actually assuming the result which it is supposed to be proving, in order to explain the Einstein quote.</P><P>Furthermore, Einstein did not believe in a personal God concerned with human affairs -- again, see the <a HREF="arguments.html#einstein">Atheist Argumen</a><a id=BPM-supero title="Open in a new window" target=_blank HREF="arguments.html#einstein">ts</a> document.</P><H3>Further reading</H3><P>We've outlined the structure of a sound deductive argument, from premises to conclusion. But ultimately, the conclusion of a valid logical argument is only as compelling as the premises you started from. Logic in itself doesn't solve the problem of verifying the basic assertions which support arguments; for that, we need some other tool.</P><P>The dominant means of verifying basic assertions is scientific enquiry. However, the philosophy of science and the scientific method are huge topics which are quite beyond the scope of this document.</P><P>For a more comprehensive introduction to logic, <br> TBA<H3>Fallacies</H3><P>There are a number of common pitfalls to avoid when constructing a deductive argument; they're known as <DFN>fallacies</DFN>. In everyday English, we refer to many kinds of mistaken beliefs as fallacies; but in logic, the term has a more specific meaning: a fallacy is a technical flaw which makes an argument unsound or invalid.</P><P>(Note that you can criticize more than just the soundness of an argument. Arguments are almost always presented with some specific purpose in mind -- and the intent of the argument may also be worthy of criticism.)</P><P>Arguments which contain fallacies are described as <DFN>fallacious</DFN>. They often appear valid and convincing; sometimes only close inspection reveals the logical flaw.</P><P>Further is a list of some common fallacies, and also some rhetorical devices often used in debate. The list isn't intended to be exhaustive; the hope is that if you learn to recognize some of the more common fallacies, you'll be able to avoid being fooled by them.</P> [[Go to Logical Fallacies|LogicalFallacies]]</html>
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#[[Fallacies: alphabetic list (full list)|http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/fallacies/fallacies_alpha.htm]]
#http://onegoodmove.org/fallacy/welcome.htm
#http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html
{{tablecenter{
<html><table border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr align="center"><th>&nbsp; Premises &nbsp; </th><th>&nbsp; Inference&nbsp; </th><th>&nbsp; Conclusion&nbsp; </th></tr><tr align="center"><td rowspan="4" valign="middle"> True </td><td rowspan="2"> Valid </td><td>True</td></tr><tr align="center"><td>@@color:#c06;'' XXXX''@@ </td></tr><tr align="center"><td rowspan="2"> Invalid</td><td> True </td></tr><tr align="center"><td> False </td></tr><tr align="center"><td rowspan="4"> False </td><td rowspan="2"> Valid </td><td> True</td></tr><tr align="center"><td> False </td></tr><tr align="center"><td rowspan="2"> Invalid </td><td> True </td></tr><tr align="center"><td> False </td></tr></table></html>
}}}
*''Distinction in logic between types of reasoning, arguments, or inferences.''
|bgcolor:#fff;In a deductive argument the truth of the premises is supposed to guarantee the truth of the conclusion. In an inductive argument the truth of the premises merely makes it probable that the conclusion is true.|
<html><H3><a HREF="#Introduction">Introduction</a></H3>*<<slider chkSliderReason [[LinksToReason]] "Click here to open and close Links To Reason">>
----
<P>''There is a lot of debate on the net. Unfortunately, much of it is of very low quality''. The aim of this document is to explain the basics of logical reasoning, and hopefully improve the overall quality of debate.</P><P>''The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines logic as'' "the science of reasoning, proof, thinking, or inference." Logic will let you analyze an argument or a piece of reasoning, and work out whether it is likely to be correct or not. You don't need to know logic to argue, of course; but if you know even a little, you'll find it easier to spot invalid arguments.</P><P>''There are many kinds of logic'', such as fuzzy logic and constructive logic; they have different rules, and different strengths and weaknesses. This document discusses simple Boolean logic, because it's commonplace and relatively easy to understand. When people talk about something being 'logical', they usually mean the type of logic described here.</P><H3><A ID="fallacies" NAME="fallacies">Fallacies</A></H3><P>''There are a number of common pitfalls to avoid when constructing a deductive argument; they're known as fallacies. In everyday English, we refer to many kinds of mistaken beliefs as fallacies; but in logic, the term has a more specific meaning: a fallacy is a technical flaw which makes an argument unsound or invalid.''</P><P>(Note that you can criticize more than just the soundness of an argument. Arguments are almost always presented with some specific purpose in mind -- and the intent of the argument may also be worthy of criticism.)</P><P>Arguments which contain fallacies are described as fallacious. They often appear valid and convincing; sometimes only close inspection reveals the logical flaw.</P><P>Below is a list of some common fallacies, and also some rhetorical devices often used in debate. The list isn't intended to be exhaustive; the hope is that if you learn to recognize some of the more common fallacies, you'll be able to avoid being fooled by them.[[  ...read the full introduction here|Logic-Introduction]]</P><hr>
{{textcenter{
''List of logical fallacies''
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<hr><UL> <LI><a HREF="#accent">Accent</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#adhoc">Ad hoc</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#consequent">Affirmation of the consequent</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#amphiboly">Amphiboly</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#anecdotal">Anecdotal evidence</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#antiquitatem">Argumentum ad antiquitatem</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#baculum">Argumentum ad baculum / Appeal to force</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#crumenam">Argumentum ad crumenam</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#hominem">Argumentum ad hominem</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#ignorantiam">Argumentum ad ignorantiam</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#lazarum">Argumentum ad lazarum</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#logicam">Argumentum ad logicam</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#misericordiam">Argumentum ad misericordiam</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#nauseam">Argumentum ad nausem</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#novitatem">Argumentum ad novitatem</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#numerum">Argumentum ad numerum</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#populum">Argumentum ad populum</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#authority">Argumentum ad verecundiam</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#alterapars">Audiatur et altera pars</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#bifurcation">Bifurcation</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#circulus">Circulus in demonstrando</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#complexq">Complex question / Fallacy of interrogation / Fallacy of presupposition</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#composition">Fallacies of composition</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#generalization">Converse accident / Hasty generalization</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#conditional">Converting a conditional</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#cumhoc">Cum hoc ergo propter hoc</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#antecedent">Denial of the antecedent</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#accident">The fallacy of accident / Sweeping generalization / Dicto simpliciter</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#division">Fallacy of division</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#equivocation">Equivocation / Fallacy of four terms</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#analogy">The extended analogy</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#elenchi">Ignoratio elenchi / Irrelevant conclusion</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#natural">The Natural Law fallacy / Appeal to Nature</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#scots">The "No True Scotsman..." fallacy</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#noncausa">Non causa pro causa</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#nonseq">Non sequitur</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#begging">Petitio principii / Begging the question</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#manyq">Plurium interrogationum / Many questions</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#posthoc">Post hoc ergo propter hoc</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#herring">Red herring</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#reification">Reification / Hypostatization</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#shifting">Shifting the burden of proof</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#slope">The slippery slope argument</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#strawman">Straw man</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#tuquoque">Tu quoque</a></LI>
<LI><a HREF="#isatype">Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle / "A is based on B" fallacies / "...is a type of..." fallacies</a></LI> </UL>
<HR> <H4><A ID="accent" NAME="accent">Accent</A></H4><P>Accent is a form of fallacy through shifting meaning. In this case, the meaning is changed by altering which parts of a statement are emphasized. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"We should not speak <STRONG>ill</STRONG> of our friends"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>and</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"We should not speak ill of our <STRONG>friends</STRONG>"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>Be particularly wary of this fallacy on the net, where it's easy to misread the emphasis of what's written.</P><H4><A ID="adhoc" NAME="adhoc">Ad hoc</A></H4><P>As mentioned earlier, there is a difference between <a HREF="#causality">argument and explanation</a>. If we're interested in establishing A, and B is offered as evidence, the statement "A because B" is an argument. If we're trying to establish the truth of B, then "A because B" is not an argument, it's an explanation.</P><P>The Ad Hoc fallacy is to give an after-the-fact explanation which doesn't apply to other situations. Often this ad hoc explanation will be dressed up to look like an argument. For example, if we assume that God treats all people equally, then the following is an ad hoc explanation:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"I was healed from cancer."</P><P>"Praise the Lord, then. He is your healer."</P><P>"So, will He heal others who have cancer?"</P><P>"Er... The ways of God are mysterious."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="consequent" NAME="consequent">Affirmation of the consequent</A></H4><P>This fallacy is an argument of the form "A implies B, B is true, therefore A is true." To understand why it is a fallacy, examine the <a HREF="#truthtable">truth table</a> for implication</a> given earlier. Here's an example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"If the universe had been created by a supernatural being, we would see order and organization everywhere. And we do see order, not randomness -- so it's clear that the universe had a creator."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is the converse of <a HREF="#antecedent">Denial of the Antecedent</a>.</P><H4><A ID="amphiboly" NAME="amphiboly">Amphiboly</A></H4><P>Amphiboly occurs when the premises used in an argument are ambiguous because of careless or ungrammatical phrasing. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Premise: Belief in God fills a much-needed gap."</BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="anecdotal" NAME="anecdotal">Anecdotal evidence</A></H4><P>One of the simplest fallacies is to rely on anecdotal evidence. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"There's abundant proof that God exists and is still performing miracles today. Just last week I read about a girl who was dying of cancer. Her whole family went to church and prayed for her, and she was cured."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>It's quite valid to use personal experience to illustrate a point; but such anecdotes don't actually prove anything to anyone. Your friend may say he met Elvis in the supermarket, but those who haven't had the same experience will require more than your friend's anecdotal evidence to convince them.</P><P>Anecdotal evidence can seem very compelling, especially if the audience <EM>wants</EM> to believe it. This is part of the explanation for urban legends; stories which are verifiably false have been known to circulate as anecdotes for years.</P><H4><A ID="antiquitatem" NAME="antiquitatem">Argumentum ad antiquitatem</A></H4><P>This is the fallacy of asserting that something is right or good simply because it's old, or because "that's the way it's always been." The opposite of <a HREF="#novitatem">Argumentum ad Novitatem</a>.</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"For thousands of years Christians have believed in Jesus Christ. Christianity must be true, to have persisted so long even in the face of persecution."</BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="baculum" NAME="baculum">Argumentum ad baculum / Appeal to force</A></H4><P>An Appeal to Force happens when someone resorts to force (or the threat of force) to try and push others to accept a conclusion. This fallacy is often used by politicians, and can be summarized as "might makes right." The threat doesn't have to come directly from the person arguing. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"... Thus there is ample proof of the truth of the Bible. All those who refuse to accept that truth will burn in Hell."</P><P>"... In any case, I know your phone number and I know where you live. Have I mentioned I am licensed to carry concealed weapons?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="crumenam" NAME="crumenam">Argumentum ad crumenam</A></H4><P>The fallacy of believing that money is a criterion of correctness; that those with more money are more likely to be right. The opposite of <a HREF="#lazarum">Argumentum ad Lazarum</a>. Example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"<a HREF="http://www.microsoft.com/" target=_top>Microsoft</a> software is undoubtedly superior; why else would Bill Gates have got so rich?"</BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="hominem" NAME="hominem">Argumentum ad hominem</A></H4><P>Argumentum ad hominem literally means "argument directed at the man"; there are two varieties.</P><P>The first is the abusive form. If you refuse to accept a statement, and justify your refusal by criticizing the person who made the statement, then you are guilty of abusive argumentum ad hominem. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"You claim that atheists can be moral -- yet I happen to know that you abandoned your wife and children."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is a fallacy because the truth of an assertion doesn't depend on the virtues of the person asserting it. A less blatant argumentum ad hominem is to reject a proposition based on the fact that it was also asserted by some other easily criticized person. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Therefore we should close down the church? Hitler and Stalin would have agreed with you."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>A second form of argumentum ad hominem is to try and persuade someone to accept a statement you make, by referring to that person's particular circumstances. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Therefore it is perfectly acceptable to kill animals for food. I hope you won't argue otherwise, given that you're quite happy to wear leather shoes."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is known as circumstantial argumentum ad hominem. The fallacy can also be used as an excuse to reject a particular conclusion. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Of course you'd argue that positive discrimination is a bad thing. You're white."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>This particular form of Argumentum ad Hominem, when you allege that someone is rationalizing a conclusion for selfish reasons, is also known as "poisoning the well."</P><P>It's not always invalid to refer to the circumstances of an individual who is making a claim. If someone is a known perjurer or liar, that fact will reduce their credibility as a witness. It won't, however, prove that their testimony is false in this case. It also won't alter the soundness of any logical arguments they may make.</P><H4><A ID="ignorantiam" NAME="ignorantiam">Argumentum ad ignorantiam</A></H4><P>Argumentum ad ignorantiam means "argument from ignorance." The fallacy occurs when it's argued that something must be true, simply because it hasn't been proved false. Or, equivalently, when it is argued that something must be false because it hasn't been proved true.</P><P>(Note that this isn't the same as <EM>assuming</EM> something is false until it has been proved true. In law, for example, you're generally assumed innocent until proven guilty.)</P><P>Here are a couple of examples:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Of course the Bible is true. Nobody can prove otherwise."</P><P>"Of course telepathy and other psychic phenomena do not exist. Nobody has shown any proof that they are real."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>In scientific investigation, if it is known that an event would produce certain evidence of its having occurred, the absence of such evidence can validly be used to infer that the event didn't occur. It does not prove it with certainty, however.</P><P>For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"A flood as described in the Bible would require an enormous volume of water to be present on the earth. The earth doesn't have a tenth as much water, even if we count that which is frozen into ice at the poles. Therefore no such flood occurred."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>It is, of course, possible that some unknown process occurred to remove the water. Good science would then demand a plausible testable theory to explain how it vanished.</P><P>Of course, the history of science is full of logically valid bad predictions. In 1893, the Royal Academy of Science were convinced by Sir Robert Ball that communication with the planet Mars was a physical impossibility, because it would require a flag as large as Ireland, which it would be impossible to wave. <CITE>[<a HREF="http://www.forteantimes.co.uk/" target=_top>Fortean Times</a> Number 82.]</CITE></P><P>See also <a HREF="#shifting">Shifting the Burden of Proof</a>.</P><H4><A ID="lazarum" NAME="lazarum">Argumentum ad lazarum</A></H4><P>The fallacy of assuming that someone poor is sounder or more virtuous than someone who's wealthier. This fallacy is the opposite of the <a HREF="#crumenam">Argumentum ad Crumenam</a>. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Monks are more likely to possess insight into the meaning of life, as they have given up the distractions of wealth."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="logicam" NAME="logicam">Argumentum ad logicam</A></H4><P>This is the "fallacy fallacy" of arguing that a proposition is false because it has been presented as the conclusion of a fallacious argument. Remember always that fallacious arguments can arrive at true conclusions.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Take the fraction 16/64. Now, cancelling a six on top and a six on the bottom, we get that 16/64 = 1/4."</P><P>"Wait a second! You can't just cancel the six!"</P><P>"Oh, so you're telling us 16/64 is not equal to 1/4, are you?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="misericordiam" NAME="misericordiam">Argumentum ad misericordiam</A></H4><P>This is the Appeal to Pity, also known as Special Pleading. The fallacy is committed when someone appeals to pity for the sake of getting a conclusion accepted. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"I did not murder my mother and father with an axe! Please don't find me guilty; I'm suffering enough through being an orphan."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="nauseam" NAME="nauseam">Argumentum ad nauseam</A></H4><P>This is the incorrect belief that an assertion is more likely to be true, or is more likely to be accepted as true, the more often it is heard. So an Argumentum ad Nauseam is one that employs constant repetition in asserting something; saying the same thing over and over again until you're sick of hearing it.</P><P>On Usenet, your argument is often less likely to be heard if you repeat it over and over again, as people will tend to put you in their kill files.</P><H4><A ID="novitatem" NAME="novitatem">Argumentum ad novitatem</A></H4><P>This is the opposite of the <a HREF="#antiquitatem">Argumentum ad Antiquitatem</a>; it's the fallacy of asserting that something is better or more correct simply because it is new, or newer than something else.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"BeOS is a far better choice of operating system than OpenStep, as it has a much newer design."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="numerum" NAME="numerum">Argumentum ad numerum</A></H4><P>This fallacy is closely related to the <a HREF="#populum">argumentum ad populum</a>. It consists of asserting that the more people who support or believe a proposition, the more likely it is that that proposition is correct. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"The vast majority of people in this country believe that capital punishment has a noticeable deterrent effect. To suggest that it doesn't in the face of so much evidence is ridiculous."</P><P>"All I'm saying is that thousands of people believe in pyramid power, so there must be something to it."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="populum" NAME="populum">Argumentum ad populum</A></H4><P>This is known as Appealing to the Gallery, or Appealing to the People. You commit this fallacy if you attempt to win acceptance of an assertion by appealing to a large group of people. This form of fallacy is often characterized by emotive language. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Pornography must be banned. It is violence against women."</P><P>"For thousands of years people have believed in Jesus and the Bible. This belief has had a great impact on their lives. What more evidence do you need that Jesus was the Son of God? Are you trying to tell those people that they are all mistaken fools?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="authority" NAME="authority">Argumentum ad verecundiam</A></H4><P>An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in logic, consisting on basing the truth value of an otherwise unsupported assertion on the authority, knowledge or position of the person asserting it. It is also known as argument from authority, argumentum ad verecundiam (Latin: argument to respect) or ipse dixit (Latin: he himself said it). It is one method of obtaining propositional knowledge, but a fallacy in regard to logic, because the validity of a claim does not follow from the credibility of the source. The corresponding reverse case would be an ad hominem attack: to imply that the claim is false because the asserter is objectionable.

On the other hand, there is no fallacy involved in simply arguing that the assertion made by an authority is plausible: it is likely true, we just don't know for sure, because authority alone is not a proof. The Appeal to Authority uses admiration of a famous person to try and win support for an assertion. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"<a HREF="http://wwwcn.cern.ch/~mcnab/n/" target=_top>Isaac Newton</a> was a genius and he believed in God."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>This line of argument isn't always completely bogus when used in an inductive argument; for example, it may be relevant to refer to a widely-regarded authority in a particular field, if you're discussing that subject. For example, we can distinguish quite clearly between:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Hawking has concluded that black holes give off radiation"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>and</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"<a HREF="http://www.worldofescher.com/misc/penrose.html" target=_top>Penrose</a> has concluded that it is impossible to build an intelligent computer"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>Hawking is a physicist, and so we can reasonably expect his opinions on black hole radiation to be informed. Penrose is a mathematician, so it is questionable whether he is well-qualified to speak on the subject of machine intelligence.</P><H4><A ID="alterapars" NAME="alterapars">Audiatur et altera pars</A></H4><P>Often, people will argue from assumptions which they don't bother to state. The principle of Audiatur et Altera Pars is that all of the premises of an argument should be stated explicitly. It's not strictly a fallacy to fail to state all of your assumptions; however, it's often viewed with suspicion.</P><H4><A ID="bifurcation" NAME="bifurcation">Bifurcation</A></H4><P>Also referred to as the "black and white" fallacy and "false dichotomy", bifurcation occurs if someone presents a situation as having only two alternatives, where in fact other alternatives exist or can exist. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Either man was created, as the Bible tells us, or he evolved from inanimate chemicals by pure random chance, as scientists tell us. The latter is incredibly unlikely, so..."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="circulus" NAME="circulus">Circulus in demonstrando</A></H4><P>This fallacy occurs if you assume as a premise the conclusion which you wish to reach. Often, the proposition is rephrased so that the fallacy appears to be a valid argument. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Homosexuals must not be allowed to hold government office. Hence any government official who is revealed to be a homosexual will lose his job. Therefore homosexuals will do anything to hide their secret, and will be open to blackmail. Therefore homosexuals cannot be allowed to hold government office."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>Note that the argument is entirely circular; the premise is the same as the conclusion. An argument like the above has actually been cited as the reason for the British Secret Services' official ban on homosexual employees.</P><P>Circular arguments are surprisingly common, unfortunately. If you've already reached a particular conclusion once, it's easy to accidentally make it an assertion when explaining your reasoning to someone else.</P><H4><A ID="complexq" NAME="complexq">Complex question / Fallacy of interrogation / Fallacy of presupposition</A></H4><P>This is the interrogative form of <a HREF="#begging">Begging the Question</a>. One example is the classic loaded question:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Have you stopped beating your wife?"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>The question presupposes a definite answer to another question which has not even been asked. This trick is often used by lawyers in cross-examination, when they ask questions like:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Where did you hide the money you stole?"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>Similarly, politicians often ask loaded questions such as:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"How long will this EU interference in our affairs be allowed to continue?"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>or</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Does the Chancellor plan two more years of ruinous privatization?"</BLOCKQUOTE><P>Another form of this fallacy is to ask for an explanation of something which is untrue or not yet established.</P><H4><A ID="composition" NAME="composition">Fallacies of composition</A></H4><P>The Fallacy of Composition is to conclude that a property shared by a number of individual items, is also shared by a collection of those items; or that a property of the parts of an object, must also be a property of the whole thing. Examples:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"The bicycle is made entirely of low mass components, and is therefore very lightweight."</P><P>"A car uses less petrochemicals and causes less pollution than a bus. Therefore cars are less environmentally damaging than buses."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>A related form of fallacy of composition is the "just" fallacy, or <a HREF="http://andrewlias.blogspot.com/2004/05/fallacy-of-mediocrity.html" target=_top>fallacy of mediocrity</a>. This is the fallacy that assumes that any given member of a set must be limited to the attributes that are held in common with all the other members of the set. Example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE><P>"Humans are just animals, so we should not concern ourselves with justice; we should just obey the law of the jungle."</P></BLOCKQUOTE><P>Here the fallacy is to reason that because we are animals, we can have only properties which animals have; that nothing can distinguish us as a special case.</P><H4><A ID="generalization" NAME="generalization">Converse accident / Hasty generalization</A></H4><P>This fallacy is the reverse of the <a HREF="#accident">Fallacy of Accident</a>. It occurs when you form a general rule by examining only a few specific cases which aren't representative of all possible cases. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"Jim Bakker was an insincere Christian. Therefore all Christians are insincere."</BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="conditional" NAME="conditional">Converting a conditional</A></H4><P>This fallacy is an argument of the form "If A then B, therefore if B then A."</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"If educational standards are lowered, the quality of argument seen on the Internet worsens. So if we see the level of debate on the net get worse over the next few years, we'll know that our educational standards are still falling."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>This fallacy is similar to the <a HREF="#consequent">Affirmation of the Consequent</a>, but phrased as a conditional statement.</P><H4><A ID="cumhoc" NAME="cumhoc">Cum hoc ergo propter hoc</A></H4><P>This fallacy is similar to <a HREF="#posthoc">post hoc ergo propter hoc</a>. The fallacy is to assert that because two events occur together, they must be causally related. It's a fallacy because it ignores other factors that may be the cause(s) of the events.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Literacy rates have steadily declined since the advent of television. Clearly television viewing impedes learning."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>This fallacy is a special case of the more general <a HREF="#noncausa">non causa pro causa</a>.</P><H4><A ID="antecedent" NAME="antecedent">Denial of the antecedent</A></H4><P>This fallacy is an argument of the form "A implies B, A is false, therefore B is false." The <a HREF="#truthtable">truth table for implication</a> makes it clear why this is a fallacy.</P><P>Note that this fallacy is different from <a HREF="#posthoc">Non Causa Pro Causa</a>. That has the form "A implies B, A is false, therefore B is false", where A does <EM>not</EM> in fact imply B at all. Here, the problem isn't that the implication is invalid; rather it's that the falseness of A doesn't allow us to deduce anything about B.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"If the God of the Bible appeared to me, personally, that would certainly prove that Christianity was true. But God has never appeared to me, so the Bible must be a work of fiction."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is the converse of the fallacy of <a HREF="#consequent">Affirmation of the Consequent</a>.</P><H4><A ID="accident" NAME="accident">The fallacy of accident</A> / Sweeping generalization / Dicto simpliciter</H4><P>A sweeping generalization occurs when a general rule is applied to a particular situation, but the features of that particular situation mean the rule is inapplicable. It's the error made when you go from the general to the specific. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Christians generally dislike atheists. You are a Christian, so you must dislike atheists."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>This fallacy is often committed by people who try to decide moral and legal questions by mechanically applying general rules.</P><H4><A ID="division" NAME="division">Fallacy of division</A></H4><P>The fallacy of division is the opposite of the <a HREF="#composition">Fallacy of Composition</a>. It consists of assuming that a property of some thing must apply to its parts; or that a property of a collection of items is shared by each item.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"You are studying at a rich college. Therefore you must be rich."</P><P>"Ants can destroy a tree. Therefore this ant can destroy a tree."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="equivocation" NAME="equivocation">Equivocation / Fallacy of four terms</A></H4><P>Equivocation occurs when a key word is used with two or more different meanings in the same argument. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"What could be more affordable than free software? But to make sure that it remains free, that users can do what they like with it, we must place a license on it to make sure that will always be freely redistributable."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>One way to avoid this fallacy is to choose your terminology carefully before beginning the argument, and avoid words like "free" which have many meanings.</P><H4><A ID="analogy" NAME="analogy">The extended analogy</A></H4><P>The fallacy of the Extended Analogy often occurs when some suggested general rule is being argued over. The fallacy is to assume that mentioning two different situations, in an argument about a general rule, constitutes a claim that those situations are analogous to each other.</P><P>Here's real example from an online debate about anti-cryptography legislation:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"I believe it is always wrong to oppose the law by breaking it."</P><P>"Such a position is odious: it implies that you would not have supported Martin Luther King."</P><P>"Are you saying that cryptography legislation is as important as the struggle for Black liberation? How dare you!"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="elenchi" NAME="elenchi">Ignoratio elenchi / Irrelevant conclusion</A></H4><P>The fallacy of Irrelevant Conclusion consists of claiming that an argument supports a particular conclusion when it is actually logically nothing to do with that conclusion.</P><P>For example, a Christian may begin by saying that he will argue that the teachings of Christianity are undoubtedly true. If he then argues at length that Christianity is of great help to many people, no matter how well he argues he will not have shown that Christian teachings are true.</P><P>Sadly, these kinds of irrelevant arguments are often successful, because they make people to view the supposed conclusion in a more favorable light.</P><H4><A ID="natural" NAME="natural">The Natural Law fallacy / Appeal to Nature</A></H4><P>The Appeal to Nature is a common fallacy in political arguments. One version consists of drawing an analogy between a particular conclusion, and some aspect of the natural world -- and then stating that the conclusion is inevitable, because the natural world is similar:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"The natural world is characterized by competition; animals struggle against each other for ownership of limited natural resources. Capitalism, the competitive struggle for ownership of capital, is simply an inevitable part of human nature. It's how the natural world works."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>Another form of appeal to nature is to argue that because human beings are products of the natural world, we must mimic behavior seen in the natural world, and that to do otherwise is 'unnatural':</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Of course homosexuality is unnatural. When's the last time you saw two animals of the same sex mating?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>Robert Anton Wilson deals with this form of fallacy at length in his book "<CITE CLASS="amazon"><a HREF="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=091517961X/InternetInfidels/" target=_top> Natural Law</a></CITE>." A recent example of "Appeal to Nature" taken to extremes is <a HREF="http://www.panix.com/~clays/Una/index.html" target=_top>The Unabomber Manifesto</a>.</P><H4><A ID="scots" NAME="scots">The "No True Scotsman..." fallacy</A></H4><P>Suppose I assert that no Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge. You counter this by pointing out that your friend Angus likes sugar with his porridge. I then say "Ah, yes, but no <EM>true</EM> Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge.</P><P>This is an example of an <a HREF="#adhoc">ad hoc</a> change being used to shore up an assertion, combined with an attempt to <a HREF="#equivocation">shift the meaning of the words</a> used original assertion; you might call it a combination of fallacies.</P><H4><A ID="noncausa" NAME="noncausa">Non causa pro causa</A></H4><P>The fallacy of Non Causa Pro Causa occurs when something is identified as the cause of an event, but it has not actually been <EM>shown</EM> to be the cause. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"I took an aspirin and prayed to God, and my headache disappeared. So God cured me of the headache."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is known as a false cause fallacy. Two specific forms of non causa pro causa fallacy are the <a HREF="#cumhoc">cum hoc ergo propter hoc</a> and <a HREF="#posthoc">post hoc ergo propter hoc</a> fallacies.</P><H4><A ID="nonseq" NAME="nonseq">Non sequitur</A></H4><P>A non sequitur is an argument where the conclusion is drawn from premises which aren't logically connected with it. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Since Egyptians did so much excavation to construct the pyramids, they were well versed in paleontology."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>(Non sequiturs are an important ingredient in a lot of humor. They're still fallacies, though.)</P><H4><A ID="begging" NAME="begging">Petitio principii / Begging the question</A></H4><P>This fallacy occurs when the premises are at least as questionable as the conclusion reached. Typically the premises of the argument implicitly assume the result which the argument purports to prove, in a disguised form. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"The Bible is the word of God. The word of God cannot be doubted, and the Bible states that the Bible is true. Therefore the Bible must be true.</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>Begging the question is similar to <a HREF="#circulus">circulus in demonstrando</a>, where the conclusion is exactly the same as the premise.</P><H4><A ID="manyq" NAME="manyq">Plurium interrogationum / Many questions</A></H4><P>This fallacy occurs when someone demands a simple (or simplistic) answer to a complex question.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Are higher taxes an impediment to business or not? Yes or no?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="posthoc" NAME="posthoc">Post hoc ergo propter hoc</A></H4><P>The fallacy of Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc occurs when something is assumed to be the cause of an event merely because it happened before that event. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"The Soviet Union collapsed after instituting state atheism. Therefore we must avoid atheism for the same reasons."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is another type of <a HREF="#noncausa">false cause fallacy</a>.</P><H4><A ID="herring" NAME="herring">Red herring</A></H4><P>This fallacy is committed when someone introduces irrelevant material to the issue being discussed, so that everyone's attention is diverted away from the points made, towards a different conclusion.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"You may claim that the death penalty is an ineffective deterrent against crime -- but what about the victims of crime? How do you think surviving family members feel when they see the man who murdered their son kept in prison at their expense? Is it right that they should pay for their son's murderer to be fed and housed?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="reification" NAME="reification">Reification / Hypostatization</A></H4><P>Reification occurs when an abstract concept is treated as a concrete thing.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"I noticed you described him as 'evil'. Where does this 'evil' exist within the brain? You can't show it to me, so I claim it doesn't exist, and no man is 'evil'."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="shifting" NAME="shifting">Shifting the burden of proof</A></H4><P>The burden of proof is always on the person asserting something. Shifting the burden of proof, a special case of <a HREF="#ignorantiam">Argumentum ad Ignorantiam</a>, is the fallacy of putting the burden of proof on the person who denies or questions the assertion. The source of the fallacy is the assumption that something is true unless proven otherwise.</P><P>For further discussion of this idea, see the "<a HREF="intro.html#assertions" TITLE="Introduction to Atheism">Introduction to Atheism</a>" document.</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"OK, so if you don't think the grey aliens have gained control of the US government, can you prove it?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="slope" NAME="slope">The slippery slope argument</A></H4><P>This argument states that should one event occur, so will other harmful events. There is no proof made that the harmful events are caused by the first event. For example:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"If we legalize <a HREF="http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/" target=_top>marijuana</a>, then more people would start to take crack and heroin, and we'd have to legalize those too. Before long we'd have a nation full of drug-addicts on welfare. Therefore we cannot legalize marijuana."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><H4><A ID="strawman" NAME="strawman">Straw man</A></H4><P>The straw man fallacy is when you misrepresent someone else's position so that it can be attacked more easily, knock down that misrepresented position, then conclude that the original position has been demolished. It's a fallacy because it fails to deal with the actual arguments that have been made.</P><BLOCKQUOTE>"To be an atheist, you have to believe with absolute certainty that there is no God. In order to convince yourself with absolute certainty, you must examine all the Universe and all the places where God could possibly be. Since you obviously haven't, your position is indefensible."</BLOCKQUOTE><P>The above straw man argument appears at about once a week on the net. If you can't see what's wrong with it, read the "<a HREF="intro.html">Introduction to Atheism</a>" document.</P><H4><A ID="tuquoque" NAME="tuquoque">Tu quoque</A></H4><P>This is the famous "you too" fallacy. It occurs if you argue that an action is acceptable because your opponent has performed it. For instance:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"You're just being randomly abusive."</P><P>"So? You've been abusive too."</P> </BLOCKQUOTE><P>This is a personal attack, and is therefore a special case of <a HREF="#hominem">Argumentum ad Hominem</a>.</P><H4><A ID="isatype" NAME="isatype">Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle / "A is based on B" fallacies / "...is a type of..." fallacies</A></H4><P>These fallacies occur if you attempt to argue that things are in some way similar, but you don't actually specify in what way they are similar. Examples:</P><BLOCKQUOTE> <P>"Isn't history based upon faith? If so, then isn't the Bible also a form of history?"</P><P>"Islam is based on faith, Christianity is based on faith, so isn't Islam a form of Christianity?"</P><P>"Cats are a form of animal based on carbon chemistry, dogs are a form of animal based on carbon chemistry, so aren't dogs a form of cat?"</P> </BLOCKQUOTE>[[See further explantion of the truth table here|Logic-Introduction]]<P>We can summarize these results as a "<A ID="truthtable" NAME="truthtable">truth table</A>" for implication. The symbol "=&gt;" denotes implication; "A" is the premise, "B" the conclusion. "T" and "F" represent true and false respectively.</P><TABLE BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="3"><TR> <TH>Premise</TH> <TH>Conclusion</TH> <TH>Inference</TH> </TR><TR> <TH>A</TH> <TH>B</TH> <TH>A =&gt; B</TH> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">false</TD> </TR><TR> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> <TD ALIGN="center">true</TD> </TR> </TABLE><p>So the fact that an argument is valid doesn't necessarily mean that its conclusion holds -- it may have started from false premises. If an argument is valid, and in addition it started from true premises, then it is called a sound argument. A sound argument must arrive at a true conclusion.</P></html>
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[[MyScienceLinks|MyLinksToScience]]
MembersWebSites
----
[[ColorChart]]
----
[[TiddlyWiki Help|http://tiddlyspot.com/twhelp/index.html]]
[[TiddlyWikiTutorial|http://www.giffmex.org/twfortherestofus.html]]
[[TiddlyWiki Group|http://groups.google.com/group/TiddlyWiki/topics]]
----
{{tablecenter{
|bgcolor:#fff; [img[http://img172.imageshack.us/img172/7398/buttpiano2tu5.gif]] |
}}}
----
}}}
}}}
+++[makeTiddlers]
<<newTiddler "New Tiddler">>
<<newJournal "YYYY.0MM.0DD Week-0WW ddd at 0hh:0mm:0ss">>
<<tiddler NewABCUpdate>>
<<tiddler NewExampleFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewHTMLFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewIframeFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewObjectFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewSliderFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewSystemConfigTiddler>>
<<tiddler NewTableFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewTabsFromTemplate>>
<<tiddler NewTweakFromTemplate>>

===
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://whitewolf.newcastle.edu.au/words/authors/P/PatersonAB_Banjo/verse/manfromsnowyriver/snowyriver.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://whitewolf.newcastle.edu.au/words/authors/P/PatersonAB_Banjo/verse/manfromsnowyriver/snowyriver.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>}}}
|1st|[[da1|http://www.wku.edu/%7Eshizhen.gao/Chinese101/sound/tones/da1.mp3]]|High and level.|
|2nd|[[da2|http://www.wku.edu/%7Eshizhen.gao/Chinese101/sound/tones/da2.mp3]]|Starts medium in tone, then rises to the top.|
|3rd|[[da3|http://www.wku.edu/%7Eshizhen.gao/Chinese101/sound/tones/da3.mp3]]|Starts low, dips to the bottom, then rises toward the top.|
|4th|[[da4|http://www.wku.edu/%7Eshizhen.gao/Chinese101/sound/tones/da4.mp3]]|Starts at the top, then falls sharp and strong to the bottom.|
|5th|[[da5|http://www.wku.edu/%7Eshizhen.gao/Chinese101/sound/tones/da.mp3]]|Flat, with no emphasis.|
<html><div id="myManly" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div><img src="http://img511.imageshack.us/img511/3001/manlybeachxn0.jpg"><br><div align="center">Manly Beach - Sydney</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myManly')">Manly Beach</a></html>
Performance chemistry: 100 bottles of Diet Coke plus more than 500
Mentos mints = don't try this in your lounge room. (Quicktime movie
with music)
http://eepybird.com/dcm1.html

How to make molecule models from balloons.
http://www.balloonmolecules.com/Html/Galerie_vor.htm

"Historians assumed it must have been smallpox; it must have been
typhus," Acuña-Soto recalls. "But historians are not epidemiologists."
After re-translating a manuscript by Francisco Hernandez (personal
physician to Philip II of Spain), Acuña-Soto concluded that the
disease that decimated 16th-century Aztec poulations "...was certainly
not smallpox... If they described something real, then it appeared to
be a hemorrhagic fever."
http://www.discover.com/issues/feb-06/features/megadeath-in-mexico/

"Two billion war deaths would have occurred in the 20th century if
modern societies suffered the same casualty rate as primitive
peoples... This and other noteworthy prehistoric factoids can be found
in Nicholas Wade's Before the Dawn, a survey of genetic, linguistic
and archeological research on early man. Primitive peoples, it
appears, were nasty, brutish,  and short, not at all the cuddly
children of nature depicted by popular culture and post-colonial
academic studies."
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Front_Page/HG04Aa02.html

In a 'molecular happening', people enact the process of coding and
forming a protein molecule. (sound and video)
http://biology.kenyon.edu/slonc/Micro/protein_synth102105.mp4
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++++[+Measurements and Conversions]
The amount of weight an evangelist carries with the almighty is measured in billigrahams
<<tiddler Measurements>>
===
*[[MathAxioms&GeomPostulates|http://homepage.mac.com/ardeshir/MathAxioms&GeomPostulates.html#1%20is%20a%20natural%20number.]]
*[[Prime Numbers Generator and Checker|http://www.numberempire.com/primenumbers.php]] and much more
*''[[distance/from/sydney/to/london|http://www.convertunits.com/distance/from/sydney/to/london]]''
*''[[Convert Decimal Latitude To Minutes|http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/DDDMMSS-decimal.html]]''
*''[[Math Thesaurus|http://thesaurus.maths.org/mmkb/view.html]]''
*[[101 uses of a quadratic equation|http://plus.maths.org/issue29/features/quadratic/index-gifd.html]]
*[[101 uses of a quadratic equation part II|http://plus.maths.org/issue30/features/quadratic/index-gifd.html]]
*''[[Doing Algebra in your Head|http://hilomath.com/inneralgebra/index.php]]''
*''[[MathWorld-webs most extensive math resource|http://mathworld.wolfram.com/]]''
*''[[Calculators and Converters|http://www.easycalculation.com/index.php]]''
*''[[More Conversions|http://www.teaching-english-in-japan.net/conversion/gallons]]''
*''[[Conversions Energy|http://www.energy.iastate.edu/renewable/wind/wem/wem-18_apen_a.html]]''
*[[Velocity Conversion|VelocityConversion]]
*''[[Altimetry-Aeronautics|http://www.luizmonteiro.com/Altimetry.htm]]''
*''[[Images and Mathematics|http://archives.math.utk.edu/images.html]]''
*''[[Engineering Toolbox|http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/]]''
*''[[Random Numbers|http://www.random.org/]]''
*''[[Platonic Realms|http://www.mathacademy.com/pr/]]''
<html><td><H3>Useful Links for Maths and Statistics</H3>
<a href="http://www.lib.flinders.edu.au/resources/databases/sub/mathematics.shtml" target="_blank">''Library Databases for Maths''</A>
     Links to maths databases accessible through Flinders University Library.

<A href="http://www.lib.flinders.edu.au/resources/ej/sub/mathematics.shtml" target="_blank">''Maths Eectronic Journals''</A>
    Links to electronic maths journals accessible through Flinders University Library.

!!!~PrePrint Servers
<A href="http://www.ams.org/global-preprints/" target="_blank" target="_blank">''E Math''</A>
      American Mathematical Society global directory of pre-print servers. 
      Includes links to general servers, to specialized subject servers and to 
      nearly 70 servers from maths departments and institutes.

      <A href="http://xxx.adelaide.edu.au/list/math/0010" target="_blank">''Maths section of the Los Alamos Preprint Server''</A>
      Preprints since 1991, available by year and by subject.

      <A href="http://mathnet.preprints.org/" target="_blank">''~MathNet.preprints''</A>
      Searchable preprint database. Includes preprints from Austria, France, 
      Italy, Russia, Sweden.

        <h1>Maths Portals</h1>
      <A href="http://emis.maths.adelaide.edu.au/EMIS/" target="_blank">''EMIS''</A>
        European Mathematical Information Service. Links to maths databases such 
          as MATH, which indexes mathematical research articles from 2000 journals 
          since 1931. Also has links toconferences and to free maths journals.
        
<a href="http://eqworld.ipmnet.ru" target="_blank">''~EqWorld''</a>

       The World of Mathematical Equations presents extensive information 
          on  algebraic, ordinary differential, partial differential 
          (mathematical physics), integral, functional, and other mathematical 
          equations. Outlines exact solutions and some methods for solving equations.<br>
          It includes articles, links to math websites, useful handbooks, textbooks, 
          journals, etc. All resources are free.
       
        <A href="http://www.galaxy.com/galaxy/Science/Mathematics.html" target="_blank">''Galaxy Mathematics''</A>

      Maths links by topic. Searchable.

      <A href="http://archives.math.utk.edu/" target="_blank">''Math Archives''</A>

      Links to maths sites by topic, to teaching material and to maths software.

      <A href="http://mathforum.org/library/" target="_blank">''The Math Forum Internet 
      Mathematics Library''</A>

      Links to maths sites by topic, resource type and education level. 
      Searchable.

      <A 
      href="http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ssgfi/math/singleindex.html" target="_blank">''~MathGuide''</A>

      Links to over 900 scholarly maths sites that have been described and 
      evaluated with metadata. Searchable.

        <A href="http://www.siam.org/" target="_blank">''Siam''</A>

      News, Journal tables of contents, book catalogue, conference 
      information.

      <A href="http://www.statsci.org/" target="_blank">''<FONT color=#0000ff><U>Statistical 
      Science Web (StatSci.org)</U></FONT>''</A>

      This site will lead you to information on careers, jobs, employers of 
      statisticians, societies, conferences, statistics departments, mailing 
      lists, courses, data sets, statistical computing, research funding ... and 
      a whole lot more.


      <A href="http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/" target="_blank">''<FONT 
      color=#0000ff><U>Statlib</U></FONT>''</A>

      Data, Software and News from the Statistics community

      <A href="http://dir.yahoo.com/Science/Mathematics/" target="_blank">''Yahoo:  Mathematics''</A>

      Links to resources on a wide range of mathematical topics, including 
      algebra, applied mathmatics, calculus, chaos, fractals, modelling, number 
      theory and statistics.

!!!Maths Institutes Societies and Departments

      <A href="http://e-math.ams.org/" target="_blank">''American Mathematical Society''</A>

      <A href="http://www.amsi.org.au/" target="_blank">''<FONT color=#0000ff><U>Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute</U></FONT>''</A>

      <A href="http://www.austms.org.au/" target="_blank">''Australian Mathematical Society''</A>

      Contains information about the society, its publications and 
      conferences, maths organizatons and courses, and links to other maths 
      sites.
      <A href="http://www.infoeng.flinders.edu.au/" target="_blank">''Flinders University School of Informatics and Engineering''</A>

      Information on courses, staff and their research interests.
      <A href="http://www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/maths" target="_blank">''Internet Mathematician''</A>

      A free, "teach yourself" tutorial that lets you practise your Internet 
      Information Skills

      <A href="http://www.statsoc.org.au/" target="_blank">''<FONT 
      color=#0000ff><U>Statistical Society of Australia</U></FONT>''</A>

     Other Links
        <h3><a href="http://www.mathworks.com/support/" target="_blank">''MATLAB Support</a></h3>
      Online help for MATLAB&nbsp;software
      <A href="http://clem.mscd.edu/~talmanl/MathAnim.html" target="_blank">''<FONT 
      color=#0000ff><U>Mathematics Animated</U></FONT>''</A>
      A series of Quicktime animations of mathematical concepts
      <A 
      href="http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~hgreenbe/glossary/index.php?" target="_blank">''<FONT 
      color=#0033ff><U>Mathematical Programming Glossary</U></FONT>''</A>

      <FONT color=#000000>This contains terms specific to mathematical 
      programming, and some terms from other disciplines, notably economics, 
      computer science, and mathematics, that are directly related.</FONT>

      <A href="http://www.akiti.ca/Mathfxns.html" target="_blank">''<FONT 
      color=#0000ff><U>Miscellaneous Mathematical Utilities</U></FONT>''</A>

      <A href="http://clem.mscd.edu/~talmanl/TeachCalculus/" target="_blank">''<FONT 
      color=#0000ff><U>The Teacher's Guide to Calculus</U></FONT>''</A>

{{wrappingClass{
''Math Links Content Ends''}}}
    </TD></html>
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Indexes/HistoryTopics.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Indexes/HistoryTopics.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600" marginheight="2px" marginwidth="50px"></iframe></div></html>


|>|>| !Math |
| !Symbol | !Character | !Description |
| deg | &deg; |degree sign |
| plusmn | &plusmn; |plus or minus sign |
| times | &times; |multiplication sign |
| divide | &divide; |division sign |
| lt | &lt; |less-than sign |
| gt | &gt; |greater-than sign |
| lang | &lang; |left angle bracket |
| rang | &rang; |right angle bracket |
| not | &not; |not sign |
| sup1 | &sup1; |superscript one |
| sup2 | &sup2; |superscript two |
| sup3 | &sup3; |superscript three |
| middot | &middot; |middle dot |
| frac14 | &frac14; |one quarter |
| frac12 | &frac12; |one half |
| frac34 | &frac34; |three quarters |
| permil | &permil; |per mille sign |
| fnof | &fnof; |latin small f with hook (function) |
| prime | &prime; |prime / minutes / feet |
| Prime | &Prime; |double prime / seconds / inches |
| frasl | &frasl; |fraction slash |
| weierp | &weierp; |script capital P |
| image | &image; |bold I / imaginary part |
| real | &real; |bold R / real part |
| alefsym | &alefsym; |first transfinite cardinal |
| micro | &micro; |micro sign |
| forall | &forall; |for all |
| part | &part; |partial differential |
| exist | &exist; |there exists |
| empty | &empty; |empty set / diameter |
| nabla | &nabla; |backward difference |
| isin | &isin; |element of |
| notin | &notin; |not an element of |
| ni | &ni; |contains as member |
| prod | &prod; |product sign |
| sum | &sum; |n-ary sumation |
| minus | &minus; |minus sign |
| lowast | &lowast; |asterisk operator |
| radic | &radic; |square root / radical |
| prop | &prop; |proportional to |
| infin | &infin; |infinity |
| ang | &ang; |angle |
| and | &and; |logical and |
| or | &or; |logical or |
| cap | &cap; |intersection |
| cup | &cup; |union |
| int | &int; |integral |
| there4 | &there4; |therefore |
| sim | &sim; |similar to |
| cong | &cong; |approximately equal to |
| asymp | &asymp; |almost equal to |
| ne | &ne; |not equal to |
| equiv | &equiv; |identical to |
| le | &le; |less-than or equal to |
| ge | &ge; |greater-than or equal to |
| sub | &sub; |subset of |
| sup | &sup; |superset of |
| nsub | &nsub; |not a subset of |
| sube | &sube; |subset of or equal to |
| supe | &supe; |superset of or equal to |
| oplus | &oplus; |direct sum |
| otimes | &otimes; |vector product |
| perp | &perp; |orthogonal to / perpendicular |
| sdot | &sdot; |dot operator |
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/index.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===


<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="plagiarism" name="plagiarism" src ="http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/index.html" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
<<tabs tabsMaths [[Men in Mathematics]] "" [[Biographies of Mathematicians]][[Women in Mathematics]] "" [[Women in Mathematics]] >>
!!!Mathematics ^^&bull;[[Detach this|Mathematics]]^^
<<<
[[Mathematicians]]
Math for ~TiddlyWiki [[GoogleGroupDiscussion|http://groups.google.com/group/TiddlyWiki/browse_thread/thread/67423cf4d407d0bf/164b2b4f42c1f359?lnk=gst&q=HTML+in+a+tiddler&rnum=42#164b2b4f42c1f359]]
http://math.chapman.edu/~jipsen/asciencepad/asciencepad.html
<<<
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/index.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/index.html" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>}}}
!!!<<gradient horiz #fc3 #fff>>&nbsp;[[Measurements|Measurements]] ^^<<tiddler CloseThisOpen with: 'Math Links'  '« back'>>|<<toolbar editTiddler>>» ^^>>
<<<
SolveTwoVariables
[[SOSMath|http://www.sosmath.com/]]  @@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@  free resource for math review material from Algebra to Differential Equations
[[InternationalMeasurementsInMillimetres]]
''[[Nautical Units and Angles|http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/units/sea.htm]]
''[[Aeronautical Conversion|http://www.luizmonteiro.com/Index.aspx]]
''[[Conversions|http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/conversions.html]]'' ''@@color:#C06;''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@ Metric conversions & US customary unit conversion
''[[International Bureau of Weights and Measures/Bureau International des Poids et Mesures|http://www.bipm.org/en/]]''
[[Calculate duration between two dates|http://www.timeanddate.com/date/timeduration.html]]
[[Length/AreaVolume/Capacity/Mass (weight)/Temperature|http://convert.french-property.co.uk/]]
[[Capacity and Volume Conversion|http://www.convert-me.com/en/convert/volume]]
[[List of strange units of measurement|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_strange_units_of_measurement]]
[[List of humorous units of measurement|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_humorous_units_of_measurement]]
[[Chile Pepper Heat|Chile Pepper Heat]]
[[Pepper hotness: Scoville heat unit|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoville_scale]] &raquo; +++[more...]
<<<
The [[Scoville scale|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoville_scale]] is a measure of the hotness of a chili pepper. It is the degree of dilution in sugar water of a specific [[chili pepper|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chili_pepper]] extract when a panel of 5 tasters can no longer detect its 'heat'. Pure [[capsaicin|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsaicin]] (the chemical responsible for the 'heat') has 1.6 × 107 Scoville heat units.

''Pepper hotness: ASTA Pungency unit''
ASTA (American Spice Trade Association) Pungency unit is based on a scientific method of measuring chili pepper 'heat'. The technique utilizes high performance liquid chromatography to identify and measure the concentrations of the various compounds that produce a heat sensation. Scoville units are roughly 15 times higher than Pungency units while measuring capsaicin, so a rough conversion is to multiply Pungency by 15 to obtain Scoville heat units. 
<<<
===
<<<
{{textcenter{
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.roymech.co.uk/index.htm]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://users.qldnet.com.au/~ajay/From%20an%20Engineer%27s%20Notebook/Science%20Note.pdf","engineering")'>Fussy Facts about Friction</a>&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;<a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FfTX88Sv4I8&NR=1&feature=fvwp","engineering")'>How Engines work</a></html>
}}}
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  id="engineering" name="engineering" src ="http://www.roymech.co.uk/index.htm" width="100%" align="center" height="800" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
<html><form id="playerform_$1" style="margin:0;padding:0"
	onsubmit="config.macros.player.loadURL(null,'player_$1',null,this.url.value,this.w.value,this.h.value,this.ctrls.checked);return false;"><!--
--><nobr><select size="1" style="font-size:8pt;width:30%"
	onchange="this.form.url.value=this.value; config.macros.player.loadURL(null,'player_$1', null, this.form.url.value, this.form.w.value, this.form.h.value, this.form.ctrls.checked);">
<option value="">Favorites:</option>

<!-- BEGIN FAVORITES -->
<option value="http://www.nccbuscc.org/cchd/povertyusa/tour.swf">&nbsp; "PovertyUSA" - WATCH THIS!</option>
<option value="http://wolfram.org/media/jack_20050310_cleaned.mov">&nbsp; Jack W counts (1yr old)</option>
<option value="http://www.kulakswoodshed.com/high.asx">&nbsp; Kulak's Woodshed: Live/Recorded acoustic music</option>
<!-- insertion marker - do not remove this comment -->
<option value="">webcams...</option>
<option value="http://www.earthcam.com/usa/newyork/timessquare/asx/tsq_stream.asx">&nbsp; Times Square</option>
<option value="http://www.mbayaq.org/media/STRM/mba_mbay.asx">&nbsp; Monterey Bay</option>
<option value="http://www.mbayaq.org/media/strm/mba_shark.asx">&nbsp; Monterey Aquarium -  Sharks</option>
<option value="http://www.aroundtownnc.com/wvx/beachcam.wvx">&nbsp; Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina</option>
<option value="http://www.terena.nl/~dick/cam2.asx">&nbsp; Koningsplein, Amsterdam</option>
<option value="http://195.6.173.164/liensmedias/webcam.asx">&nbsp; Corsica</option>
<option value="">news...</option>
<option value="http://www.bloomberg.com/streams/video/LiveBTV200.ram">&nbsp; Bloomberg Business News</option>
<option value="http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/realmedia/news/tvnews.ram">&nbsp; BBC News - London</option>
<option value="http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsa/n5ctrl/summaries/entertain/bb_liquid_news.ram">&nbsp; BBC News - Entertainment</option>
<option value="">movies (AmericaFree.TV)...</option>
<option value="http://www.americafree.tv/unicast_mov/AmericaFreeTVComedy.mov">&nbsp; Classic Comedy</option>
<option value="http://www.americafree.tv/unicast_mov/AmericaFreeTVClassics.mov">&nbsp; Classic Movies</option>
<option value="http://www.americafree.tv/unicast_mov/AmericaFreeTVDimensionB.mov">&nbsp; "B" Movies</option>
<option value="">science/education...</option>
<option value="http://www.scctv.net/annenberg_broadband.asx">&nbsp; PBS: Annenberg/CPB</option>
<option value="http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/video/nasatv/nasatv.asx">&nbsp; NASA TV</option>
<option value="">government...</option>
<option value="http://play.rbn.com/play.asx?url=cspan/cspan/wmlive/cspan1v.asf&proto=mms?mswmext=.asx">&nbsp; C-SPAN 1</option>
<option value="http://play.rbn.com/play.asx?url=cspan/cspan/wmlive/cspan2v.asf&proto=mms?mswmext=.asx">&nbsp; C-SPAN 2</option>
<option value="http://play.rbn.com/play.asx?url=cspan/cspan/wmlive/cspan3v.asf&proto=mms?mswmext=.asx">&nbsp; C-SPAN 3</option>
<option value="">games...</option>
<option value="http://www.planetdan.net/pics/misc/georgerag.swf">&nbsp; Rag Doll</option>
<option value="http://www.80smusiclyrics.com/games/asteroids/asteroids.swf">&nbsp; Asteroids</option>
<option value="http://www.80smusiclyrics.com/games/pacman/pacman.swf">&nbsp; PacMan</option>
<option value="http://www.aftergames.com/games/pp_tetris.swf">&nbsp; Tetris</option>
<option value="http://www.80smusiclyrics.com/games/simon/simon.swf">&nbsp; Simon</option>
<option value="http://www.aftergames.com/games/pp_breakout.swf">&nbsp; Breakout</option>
<!-- END FAVORITES -->

</select><!--
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	onclick="window.mediaCenterAdd(this.form.url);"><!--
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	onclick="config.macros.player.loadURL(null,'player_$1', null, this.form.url.value, this.form.w.value, this.form.h.value, this.checked)">show controls<!--
--></nobr></form></html><script>

document.getElementById("playerform_$1").w.value=config.options.txtPlayerDefaultWidth;
document.getElementById("playerform_$1").h.value=config.options.txtPlayerDefaultHeight;

window.mediaCenterFitSize = function(place) {
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	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place); if (!t) { t=place; while (t && t.className!='floatingPanel') t=t.parentNode; } if (!t) return;
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}

window.mediaCenterAdd = function(place) {
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	var tiddler = store.getTiddler("MediaCenter");
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	tiddler.set(null,tiddler.text.replace(optRegExp,""));
	story.refreshTiddler("MediaCenter",1,true);
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}
</script>
{{textcenter{
+++[Show controls]...
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.megaloradio.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
===

----
{{textcenter{
<html><a href="javascript: void(0)" onclick='window.open("http://www.megaloradio.com/","plagiarism")'>URL to target at iframe</a></html>
}}}
----
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{{borderless {
|<<tiddler ./Themes>>|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;|vertical-align:middle;[img[http://files.myopera.com/msgray/files/quill_of_ire.jpg]]|
}}}
<part Themes hidden>
''Melodic Themes Misguided''

With misread letter laid aside
Fair maid her lover she did abide
To follow rules of steel she penned
With quill of ire that could not bend

Inglorious words did fill the night
Pettifoggery in full flight
Spread its wings and unrestrained
Did quibble niggle squabble maimed

Truth lay martyred on fields of rage
While wisdom held its head backstage
Waiting for blind wrath be done
Its cue to speak that did not come

A world away in sweet repose
A dear heart lay devoid of woes
With unsuspected dangers near
It slept deep sleep that knew no fear

Winged sylphs impelled to spread the ire
Those bold audacious words of fire
All reason in their message chided
Wrong thoughts melodic themes misguided

Laid their message cruel and bare
Upon a heart sweet kind and fair
And near the ocean sitting here
Did make it deeper by a tear

MsgRay 2005.07.15
</part>
{{borderless{
<html><table><tr><td align="left"><font color="#008000">
With misread letter laid aside
Fair maid her lover she did abide
To follow rules of steel she penned
With quill of ire that could not bend

Inglorious words did fill the night
Pettifoggery in full flight
Spread its wings and unrestrained
Did quibble niggle squabble maimed

Truth lay martyred on fields of rage
While wisdom held its head backstage
Waiting for blind wrath be done
Its cue to speak that did not come

A world away in sweet repose
A dear heart lay devoid of woes
With unsuspected dangers near
It slept deep sleep that knew no fear

Winged sylphs impelled to spread the ire
Those bold audacious words of fire
All reason in their message chided
Wrong thoughts melodic themes misguided

Laid their message cruel and bare
Upon a heart sweet kind and fair
And near the ocean sitting here
Did make it deeper by a tear

</font>~MsgRay 2005.07.15
</td><td align="left" style="vertical-align:middle"><img src="http://my.opera.com/msgray/homes/files/quill_of_ire.jpg" width="222" height="480"></td></tr>
</table></html>
}}}
 	The melting point of an alloy is often quite different from the melting points of the pure metals from which it is made. 	 

Bismuth melts at 519.8° F (271.3° C). 
Tin melts at 447.8° F (231.8° C). 
Lead melts at 620.6° F (327.5° C). 
Indium melts at 312.8° F (156.6° C). 	 

  	Pure substances have a sharp melting point. A pure substance is either an element, or a chemical compound. Mixtures melt over a range of temperatures. 	 

  	A eutectic alloy is one that has a sharp melting point. This implies that it is a chemical compound, where the elements are bound together in strict proportions, rather than a simple mixture of elements. 	 

  	In a mixture of elements, some of them will react together to make compounds. Compounds consist of exact proportions of one atom to another, such as one to one, two to one, three to two, etc. Any excess of one element over another will not react, and will stay in the mixture as a pure element. 	 

  	That is why mixures have a wider melting point. One chemical melts at one temperature, and the others melt at higher temperatures. Only when all of them have melted do you get a true liquid. 	 

  	What makes a substance melt at a given temperature is how strongly the molecules of the material bind to one another. Sometimes two elements combine to form a compound that binds tightly to itself. This would raise the melting point. Other times, the compound formed does not bind to itself as easily as the pure elements do. This compound would have a lower melting point than either of the pure elements. Compounds are not limited to two elements. Sometimes many elements bind together into a single compound. 	 

  	In electronics, one of the prefered solders used is a eutectic mix of lead and tin. By weight, there is just about 63% tin, and 37% lead. It melts at 361° Fahrenheit (183° Celcius). 	 

  	
The atomic weight of lead is 207.2. 
The atomic weight of tin is 118.71. 
If there were one atom of lead for every three atoms of tin, the ratios would be: 
                207.2
          ------------------    = 36.78% lead
          207.2 + 3 x 118.71


|<html><span title="mouseover tooltip text">207.2</span></html> ||
|--------------------------- | = 36.78% lead |
|207.2 + 3 x 118.71 ||


and

              3 x 118.71
          ------------------    = 63.22% tin
          207.2 + 3 x 118.71	 

  	Thus the chemical formula for the compound is PbSn3. 	 

  	Another eutectic alloy is a mixture of lead and antimony. For every antimony atom, there are four lead atoms. The melting points are: 
Lead (Pb): 327° Celcius 
Antimony (Sb): 630° Celcius 
Alloy (SbPb4): 246° Celsius 	 

  	In the eutectic alloy of magnesium and lead, there are two atoms of magnesium for each atom of lead: 
Lead (Pb): 327° Celcius 
Magnesium (Mg): 651° Celcius 
Alloy (PbMg2): 530° Celsius
+++[+ SM List Members]
----
[[Dr John Penhallurick|WorldBirdInfo]]
[[Southern Sky Watch|http://www.abc.net.au/science/space/default.htm]]
[[Ian Musgrave Blog|http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/2009/02/sheer-stupdity.html]]
[[Ian Musgrave|http://home.mira.net/~reynella/]]
[[Ian Musgrave pandasthumb|http://pandasthumb.org/archives/author/ian_musgrave/]]
[[Margaret L Ruwoldt|http://www.sneedleflipsock.com/theblog/]]
[[Science-Matters List|http://www.angelfire.com/space/smatters/]]
[[Science-Matters List Topics|http://www.angelfire.com/space/smatters/topics.html]]
[[All Knowledge|http://www.symbex.net.au/knowledge/]]
[[Meredith(soundwarp)|http://www.soundwarp.com.au]]
[[Peter Macinnis-The Writer|http://members.ozemail.com.au/~macinnis/index.htm]]
[[Peter Macinnis-The Writer (new)|http://members.ozemail.com.au/~macinnis/writing/index.htm]]
[[Peter Macinnis, Science Fun|http://members.ozemail.com.au/~macinnis@ozemail.com.au/scifun/]]
[[The Funneled Web|http://www.the-funneled-web.com]] 
===

:~~[[Detach this »» |MembersWebSites]]~~
''"Lissajous figure. The ABC logo uses a 3:1 frequency ratio of 2 sine waves.'' I know. I was the one who suggested it back in the early 1960s, and demonstrated it on a University of Sydney oscilloscope. Bob Allnut was the ABC producer who encouraged us, and Peter ? (forget his name) was the one who authorised the payment for it. And yes, the original receipt with details on it for the payment still exists if anyone wants to dispute it." - ''Doug Rickard''
*[[Lissajous figures, a 3D java applet|http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/englishhtm/Lissajous.htm]]
*[[Lissajous|http://www.answers.com/Lissajous]]
Doug has a long and varied history. He has been involved in the application of computer and electronics based technology for many years.{{imgfloatleft{
[img[http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/memoirs/img/doug_1.jpg]]}}}
He was with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for 11 years as a consultant. He has been involved extensively as a consultant to the mining and metals processing industry, as well as to many other industries. He has extensive experience in process control engineering.

Prior to working with DEC, Doug worked at a variety of technology related jobs. He was Computer Centre Manager at the Australian Institute of Marine Science at Townsville in North Queensland. He worked in the Ionospheric Research Group at the University of Queensland Physics Department, and he also worked on the USA Deep Space Projects at Woomera in South Australia, and at Pasadena and Goldstone in California, involved in the first successful un-manned US flights to the Moon, Mars, etc.

Doug also worked on the British Atomic Weapons Tests at Maralinga in South Australia in the late 1950s, and as a result of radiation received there he now has bone marrow cancer (myelofibrosis) which has forced his premature retirement.

Source: [[Memoirs of a Space Engineer - about Doug Rickard|http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/memoirs/about.htm]]
<html><div align="center"><font size="-2" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" color="#ff0000">&nbsp; <A HREF="http://www.symbex.net.au/Wiki/memorize.htm" target="mem" title="Love Styles">Love Styles</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.symbex.net.au/Wiki/memorizeDoubleSpeak.htm" target="mem" title="DoubleSpeak">Double Speak</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="file:///I:\TiddlySpot\TiddlyWiki2.1\memorizePhonics.htm" target="mem" title="Phonics">Int'l Phonics</A></html>
{{borderless{
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{{borderless textcenter{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/galleria/index.html]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
@@color:#C06;The Molecular Expressions Galleria is your gateway to our numerous collections of photographs taken through a microscope.@@
----
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All TV Guide
http://www.yourtv.com.au/guide/index.cfm
----
ABC TV Guide
http://www.abc.net.au/tv/guide/
----
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http://www.sbs.com.au/whatson/index.php3?tvsch=1
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----
ABC News
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Compass
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Catalyst
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----
Catapult
http://www.abc.net.au/catapult/
----
Health Report
http://www.abc.net.au/health/
----
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http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/
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The Lab
http://abc.net.au/science/
----
Astronomy Picture of Today
http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/
----
>>
----
BBC Age of Empire
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/1020_ageofempire/
----
BBC Video/Audio
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/video_and_audio/default.stm
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Mnemosyne (nĭ-mŏs'ə-nē)

in Greek mythology, the goddess of memory. A Titaness, she was the daughter of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaea (Earth), and, according to Hesiod, the mother (by Zeus) of the nine Muses. She gave birth to the Muses after Zeus went to Pieria and stayed with her nine consecutive nights
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}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www.surfmusic.de/radio-station/monte-carlo-monaco,2220.html" width="100%" align="center" height="290"></iframe></div></html>

<html><div align="center"><!-- // Begin Current Moon Phase HTML (c) CalculatorCat.com // --><div style="width:141px"><div style="padding:2px;background-color:#000000;border: 1px solid #000000"><div style="padding:15px;padding-bottom:5px;padding-top:11.3px;border: 1px solid #AFB2D8" align="center"><div style="padding-bottom:5.6px;color:#FFFFFF;font-family:arial,helvetica,sans-serif;font-size:11.3px;">CURRENT MOON</div><embed allowScriptAccess="never" src="http://www.moonmodule.com/cs/ccm_v1.swf" FlashVars="lg=en&hs=2&tc=FFFFFF&bgc=000000&mc=&js=1&msp=0" quality="high" width="103" height="151.8" bgcolor="#000000" name="ccm_mph_mod" align="middle" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" pluginspage="http://www.macromedia.com/go/getflashplayer" /><div style="padding-top:5px" align="center">MoonPhaseBonus</div></div></div></div><!-- // end moon phase HTML // --></div></html>
http://www.bluemarmot.com/download/moon/bonus/
<html><a href="http://www.calculatorcat.com/moon_phases/moon_phases.phtml" target="cc_moon_ph" style="font-size:10px;font-family:arial,verdana,sans-serif;color:#888888;text-decoration:underline;border:none;"><span style="color:#888888">moon phase info</span></a></html>
Moonlight becomes you, it goes with your hair
You certainly know the right thing to wear
Moonlight becomes you, I'm thrilled at the sight
And I could get so romantic tonight

You're all dressed up to go dreaming
Now don't tell me I'm wrong
And what a night to go dreaming
Mind if I tag along

If I say I love you
I want you to know
It's not just because there's moonlight
Although, moonlight becomes you so

------ instrumental break ------

You're all dressed up to go dreaming
Now don't tell me I'm wrong
And what a night to go dreaming
Mind if I tag along

If I say I love you
I want you to know
It's not just because there's moonlight
Although, moonlight becomes you so 
Link: [[History of Daylight Saving Australia 1917-2007|http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml]]
!!!This Table is for AEST GMT +10
|bgcolor:#fff;Daylight saving begins at 2 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on the last Sunday in October and ends at 3 a.m. summer time on the last Sunday in March. During daylight saving, summer time in New South Wales is one hour in advance of New South Wales standard time.|
[[See tables for Daylight Saving Time GMT +11 hours here|MoonriseMoonset2007DS]]
<html><pre>
SYDNEY   Lat=-33°52'00"  Long=+151°12'00"
TIMES OF MOONRISE AND MOONSET (for ideal horizon &amp; meteorological conditions)
For the year 2007   Time zone: +10.00 hours
                    Make corrections for daylight saving time where necessary.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       JAN          FEB          MAR          APR          MAY          JUN   
    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set
 1  1711 0158    1838 0344    1714 0239    1704 0430    1620 0511    1641 0659
 2  1817 0249    1913 0448    1745 0342    1727 0525    1648 0608    1732 0758
 3  1914 0348    1942 0551    1811 0442    1751 0621    1721 0706    1830 0852
 4  2002 0452    2008 0651    1836 0540    1817 0717    1759 0807    1933 0941
 5  2041 0558    2032 0749    1859 0636    1846 0815    1844 0906    2038 1024
 6  2114 0703    2056 0845    1922 0732    1919 0914    1936 1004    2144 1100
 7  2142 0805    2119 0940    1947 0827    1959 1014    2035 1056    2250 1132

 8  2207 0903    2144 1036    2013 0924    2046 1113    2139 1143    2356 1202
 9  2230 1000    2212 1133    2044 1022    2141 1209    2245 1223         1230
10  2254 1055    2244 1232    2119 1121    2242 1300    2352 1259    0103 1259
11  2318 1150    2323 1332    2202 1221    2349 1345         1330    0211 1330
12  2344 1246         1434    2252 1321         1425    0059 1400    0323 1406
13       1345    0010 1533    2351 1417    0057 1500    0207 1429    0437 1448
14  0014 1445    0106 1629         1507    0207 1532    0317 1500    0552 1538

15  0049 1548    0210 1718    0057 1551    0317 1602    0429 1534    0703 1638
16  0132 1650    0320 1800    0207 1630    0428 1633    0544 1613    0806 1744
17  0224 1749    0433 1837    0319 1704    0541 1705    0701 1659    0859 1853
18  0325 1842    0545 1910    0431 1736    0656 1742    0816 1755    0943 2001
19  0433 1928    0657 1940    0543 1807    0813 1824    0924 1858    1018 2106
20  0545 2007    0808 2010    0655 1838    0929 1914    1022 2005    1047 2206
21  0656 2041    0919 2042    0809 1912    1040 2012    1110 2113    1114 2304

22  0807 2112    1031 2116    0924 1950    1142 2116    1148 2218    1137 2400
23  0916 2141    1143 2155    1038 2035    1234 2222    1220 2319    1201     
24  1024 2210    1254 2240    1150 2127    1316 2327    1247         1225 0055
25  1132 2241    1401 2333    1255 2225    1350         1312 0017    1251 0151
26  1242 2316    1502         1351 2328    1419 0029    1335 0113    1321 0249
27  1352 2356    1554 0032    1438         1445 0128    1359 0209    1355 0348
28  1501         1638 0135    1516 0032    1509 0225    1423 0304    1436 0449

29  1607 0043                 1548 0135    1532 0320    1450 0400    1524 0548
30  1706 0138                 1616 0236    1555 0415    1521 0459    1621 0645
31  1756 0239                 1640 0334                 1558 0559    

       JUL          AUG          SEP          OCT          NOV          DEC   
    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set
 1  1723 0737    1940 0807    2202 0807    2325 0806    0008 1006         1108
 2  1829 0822    2047 0836    2315 0842         0902    0049 1113    0019 1207
 3  1937 0901    2154 0905         0923    0030 1004    0122 1216    0044 1304
 4  2043 0935    2303 0934    0028 1012    0125 1110    0151 1316    0108 1359
 5  2150 1005         1006    0136 1108    0211 1216    0217 1414    0133 1456
 6  2255 1034    0013 1042    0237 1211    0249 1321    0241 1510    0159 1552
 7       1102    0125 1125    0328 1317    0320 1423    0305 1605    0228 1650

 8  0002 1131    0236 1216    0411 1423    0348 1521    0329 1702    0301 1749
 9  0111 1204    0342 1314    0446 1528    0412 1618    0356 1759    0340 1847
10  0222 1243    0441 1419    0517 1629    0436 1715    0426 1857    0425 1942
11  0335 1328    0530 1527    0543 1728    0500 1811    0501 1956    0517 2032
12  0446 1423    0611 1634    0608 1825    0525 1908    0541 2053    0615 2116
13  0552 1526    0645 1738    0632 1921    0553 2006    0628 2146    0716 2155
14  0648 1634    0714 1839    0656 2018    0624 2104    0722 2234    0819 2228

15  0736 1742    0740 1938    0722 2115    0700 2202    0820 2317    0923 2259
16  0814 1849    0805 2034    0750 2214    0742 2258    0922 2354    1026 2327
17  0846 1952    0829 2131    0823 2313    0832 2351    1026         1129 2354
18  0914 2052    0853 2228    0901         0927         1130 0027    1234     
19  0939 2149    0920 2325    0946 0011    1028 0038    1235 0057    1341 0023
20  1003 2245    0950         1039 0106    1132 0119    1341 0125    1453 0054
21  1027 2341    1025 0024    1138 0158    1238 0155    1449 0154    1607 0131

22  1052         1106 0124    1242 0244    1345 0228    1601 0225    1723 0215
23  1120 0038    1155 0222    1350 0324    1453 0258    1717 0300    1835 0309
24  1152 0137    1252 0317    1458 0400    1602 0328    1835 0341    1938 0412
25  1229 0236    1355 0407    1608 0432    1714 0358    1950 0430    2031 0522
26  1315 0336    1503 0452    1718 0502    1830 0431    2059 0530    2114 0635
27  1408 0434    1612 0530    1829 0532    1948 0510    2156 0637    2149 0745
28  1508 0528    1722 0604    1943 0604    2105 0555    2243 0748    2219 0852

29  1614 0616    1831 0636    2058 0639    2216 0649    2321 0858    2245 0954
30  1723 0658    1940 0705    2213 0719    2317 0751    2352 1005    2310 1053
31  1832 0734    2051 0735                      0858                 2335 1151



Computed using National Mapping Division's moonrisenset program, version 1.2
</pre></html>
Link: [[History of Daylight Saving Australia 1917-2007|http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml]]
!!!This Table is for AEDT GMT +11 (Australian Eastern Daylight Saving Time)
|bgcolor:#fff;Daylight saving begins at 2 a.m. Eastern Standard Time on the last Sunday in October and ends at 3 a.m. summer time on the last Sunday in March. During daylight saving, summer time in New South Wales is one hour in advance of New South Wales standard time.|
[[See tables for Standard Time GMT +10 hours here|MoonriseMoonset2007]]
<html><pre>
SYDNEY   Lat=-33°52'00"  Long=+151°12'00"
TIMES OF MOONRISE AND MOONSET (for ideal horizon &amp; meteorological conditions)
For the year 2007   Time zone: +11.00 hours
                    Make corrections for daylight saving time where necessary.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       JAN          FEB          MAR          APR          MAY          JUN   
    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set
 1  1811 0258    1938 0444    1814 0339    1804 0530    1721 0611    1741 0759
 2  1917 0349    2013 0548    1845 0442    1827 0626    1749 0708    1832 0858
 3  2014 0448    2042 0651    1912 0542    1851 0721    1821 0807    1930 0952
 4  2102 0552    2108 0751    1936 0640    1917 0817    1859 0907    2032 1041
 5  2141 0658    2132 0849    1959 0736    1946 0915    1944 1006    2138 1123
 6  2214 0803    2156 0945    2022 0832    2019 1014    2036 1104    2244 1200
 7  2242 0905    2219 1040    2047 0927    2059 1114    2135 1156    2350 1232

 8  2307 1003    2244 1136    2113 1024    2146 1212    2239 1243         1302
 9  2330 1100    2312 1233    2144 1122    2241 1309    2345 1323    0056 1330
10  2354 1155    2344 1332    2219 1222    2342 1400         1359    0203 1359
11       1250         1432    2302 1321         1445    0052 1430    0311 1430
12  0017 1346    0023 1534    2352 1421    0049 1525    0159 1500    0423 1506
13  0044 1445    0110 1633         1517    0157 1600    0307 1529    0537 1548
14  0114 1545    0206 1729    0051 1607    0307 1632    0417 1600    0652 1638

15  0149 1648    0310 1818    0157 1651    0417 1702    0529 1634    0803 1738
16  0232 1750    0420 1900    0307 1730    0528 1733    0644 1713    0906 1844
17  0324 1849    0533 1937    0419 1804    0641 1805    0801 1759    0959 1953
18  0425 1942    0645 2010    0531 1836    0756 1842    0916 1855    1043 2101
19  0533 2028    0757 2040    0643 1907    0913 1924    1024 1958    1118 2206
20  0645 2107    0908 2110    0755 1938    1029 2014    1122 2105    1147 2306
21  0756 2141    1019 2142    0909 2012    1140 2112    1210 2213    1213     

22  0907 2212    1131 2216    1024 2050    1242 2216    1248 2318    1237 0004
23  1016 2241    1243 2255    1139 2135    1334 2322    1320         1301 0100
24  1124 2310    1354 2340    1250 2227    1416         1347 0019    1325 0155
25  1232 2341    1501         1355 2325    1450 0027    1412 0117    1351 0252
26  1342         1602 0033    1451         1519 0129    1435 0213    1421 0349
27  1452 0016    1654 0132    1538 0028    1545 0228    1459 0309    1455 0448
28  1601 0056    1738 0235    1616 0132    1609 0325    1523 0404    1536 0549

29  1707 0143                 1648 0235    1632 0420    1550 0500    1625 0648
30  1806 0238                 1716 0336    1655 0515    1621 0559    1721 0746
31  1856 0339                 1740 0434                 1658 0659    

       JUL          AUG          SEP          OCT          NOV          DEC   
    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set
 1  1823 0837    2040 0907    2302 0907         0906    0108 1106    0052 1208
 2  1929 0922    2147 0936         0942    0025 1002    0149 1213    0119 1307
 3  2037 1001    2254 1005    0015 1023    0130 1104    0222 1316    0144 1404
 4  2144 1035         1034    0128 1112    0226 1210    0251 1416    0208 1459
 5  2249 1105    0003 1106    0236 1208    0311 1316    0317 1514    0233 1556
 6  2355 1133    0113 1142    0337 1311    0349 1421    0341 1610    0259 1652
 7       1202    0225 1225    0428 1417    0420 1523    0405 1705    0328 1750

 8  0102 1231    0336 1316    0511 1523    0448 1621    0429 1802    0401 1849
 9  0211 1304    0442 1414    0546 1628    0512 1718    0456 1859    0440 1947
10  0322 1343    0541 1519    0617 1729    0536 1815    0526 1957    0525 2042
11  0435 1428    0630 1627    0643 1828    0600 1911    0601 2056    0617 2132
12  0546 1523    0711 1734    0708 1925    0625 2008    0641 2153    0715 2216
13  0652 1626    0745 1838    0732 2021    0653 2106    0728 2246    0816 2255
14  0748 1734    0814 1939    0756 2118    0724 2204    0822 2334    0919 2328

15  0836 1842    0840 2038    0822 2215    0800 2302    0920         1023 2359
16  0914 1949    0905 2134    0850 2314    0842 2358    1022 0017    1126     
17  0946 2052    0929 2231    0923         0932         1126 0054    1229 0027
18  1014 2152    0953 2328    1001 0013    1027 0051    1230 0127    1334 0054
19  1039 2249    1020         1046 0111    1128 0138    1335 0157    1441 0123
20  1103 2345    1050 0025    1139 0206    1232 0219    1441 0225    1553 0154
21  1126         1125 0124    1238 0258    1338 0255    1549 0254    1707 0231

22  1152 0041    1206 0224    1342 0343    1445 0328    1701 0325    1823 0315
23  1220 0138    1255 0322    1450 0424    1553 0358    1817 0400    1935 0409
24  1252 0237    1352 0417    1558 0459    1702 0428    1935 0441    2038 0512
25  1329 0336    1455 0507    1708 0532    1814 0458    2050 0530    2131 0622
26  1415 0436    1603 0552    1818 0602    1930 0531    2159 0630    2214 0735
27  1508 0534    1712 0630    1929 0632    2048 0610    2256 0737    2249 0845
28  1609 0628    1822 0705    2042 0704    2205 0655    2343 0848    2319 0952

29  1714 0717    1931 0736    2158 0739    2316 0749         0958    2345 1054
30  1823 0758    2040 0805    2313 0819         0851    0021 1105         1153
31  1932 0835    2151 0835                 0017 0958                 0010 1251



Computed using National Mapping Division's moonrisenset program, version 1.2
</pre></html>
Link: [[History of Daylight Saving Australia 1917-2007|http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml]]
Link: [[Calculate Sunrise/Moonrise|http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp]]
!!!This Table is for AEST GMT +10
|bgcolor:#fff;Daylight Saving commenced on Sunday 28 October 2007. Daylight Saving ends on Sunday 6 April 2008 at 3am summer time.|
[[See tables for Daylight Saving Time GMT +11 hours here|MoonriseMoonset2008DS]]

Sydney   Lat=-33°38'00"  Long=+151°18'00"
TIMES OF MOONRISE AND MOONSET (for ideal horizon & meteorological conditions)
For the year 2008   Time zone: +10.00 hours
                    Make corrections for daylight saving time where necessary.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<html><pre>
       JAN          FEB          MAR          APR          MAY          JUN   
    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set
 1       1247         1427    2343 1407    0028 1454    0122 1423    0331 1425
 2  0000 1343    0014 1524         1458    0131 1527    0227 1452    0445 1507
 3  0028 1441    0101 1617    0039 1543    0236 1557    0333 1522    0601 1558
 4  0100 1539    0155 1707    0141 1623    0341 1626    0443 1556    0716 1700
 5  0137 1637    0254 1750    0245 1658    0448 1656    0556 1635    0824 1809
 6  0220 1734    0358 1828    0350 1730    0557 1728    0713 1721    0922 1923
 7  0310 1826    0503 1901    0456 1800    0709 1803    0829 1817    1009 2035

 8  0407 1913    0608 1932    0602 1829    0823 1845    0941 1922    1047 2144
 9  0508 1954    0713 2000    0709 1859    0939 1934    1043 2032    1119 2248
10  0612 2029    0818 2029    0818 1931    1051 2032    1133 2143    1147 2349
11  0716 2101    0924 2058    0930 2008    1157 2137    1215 2252    1213     
12  0819 2130    1032 2131    1043 2051    1252 2246    1249 2356    1239 0048
13  0923 2157    1142 2208    1155 2141    1338 2354    1318         1305 0145
14  1026 2225    1253 2252    1303 2240    1415         1345 0057    1334 0243

15  1132 2255    1403 2345    1404 2345    1447 0100    1410 0156    1406 0341
16  1239 2329    1510         1455         1515 0203    1436 0254    1442 0439
17  1350         1608 0046    1537 0053    1541 0303    1503 0351    1524 0537
18  1503 0009    1657 0153    1613 0201    1606 0401    1532 0449    1612 0632
19  1614 0056    1738 0303    1644 0307    1632 0459    1605 0547    1705 0724
20  1720 0153    1813 0412    1712 0409    1659 0557    1643 0645    1803 0810
21  1817 0259    1843 0518    1737 0510    1730 0655    1726 0743    1903 0851

22  1904 0410    1910 0621    1803 0609    1804 0754    1816 0837    2004 0926
23  1943 0522    1936 0722    1829 0707    1844 0852    1911 0927    2104 0957
24  2015 0631    2001 0821    1858 0805    1929 0949    2009 1011    2205 1026
25  2044 0736    2028 0919    1929 0904    2020 1042    2109 1050    2306 1053
26  2110 0838    2057 1017    2005 1003    2116 1131    2210 1124         1120
27  2135 0937    2130 1116    2046 1101    2216 1213    2310 1155    0008 1149
28  2201 1035    2208 1215    2134 1157    2317 1251         1223    0114 1221

29  2228 1132    2252 1312    2227 1249         1324    0012 1251    0224 1259
30  2258 1230                 2326 1336    0019 1355    0115 1319    0337 1344
31  2333 1328                      1417                 0221 1350    

       JUL          AUG          SEP          OCT          NOV          DEC   
    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set    rise  set
 1  0451 1439    0632 1700    0641 1907    0604 1955    0630 2137    0701 2150
 2  0602 1544    0711 1811    0708 2008    0636 2055    0718 2227    0759 2225
 3  0705 1657    0744 1918    0735 2108    0710 2155    0812 2312    0857 2257
 4  0758 1811    0814 2021    0805 2208    0750 2252    0908 2351    0956 2326
 5  0841 1924    0841 2123    0837 2308    0835 2345    1007         1054 2353
 6  0916 2032    0908 2223    0913         0925         1106 0026    1153     
 7  0947 2136    0936 2322    0955 0007    1020 0034    1206 0057    1254 0020

 8  1015 2237    1006         1042 0102    1118 0117    1306 0125    1358 0048
 9  1041 2336    1039 0021    1135 0154    1218 0155    1408 0153    1506 0118
10  1108         1117 0120    1232 0241    1319 0228    1512 0221    1618 0154
11  1135 0035    1201 0217    1332 0322    1421 0259    1620 0251    1733 0237
12  1206 0133    1250 0312    1433 0358    1524 0327    1732 0325    1846 0329
13  1240 0231    1345 0402    1536 0431    1628 0356    1847 0405    1953 0432
14  1320 0329    1444 0447    1638 0501    1735 0425    2001 0453    2050 0544

15  1406 0426    1546 0526    1742 0529    1845 0456    2111 0550    2136 0659
16  1458 0519    1648 0601    1846 0557    1958 0533    2212 0657    2215 0813
17  1555 0607    1750 0632    1953 0627    2111 0615    2301 0809    2248 0923
18  1655 0650    1852 0700    2103 0659    2222 0706    2343 0921    2317 1029
19  1757 0727    1954 0728    2214 0737    2326 0806         1031    2345 1132
20  1858 0800    2058 0756    2325 0821         0912    0017 1137         1233
21  1959 0830    2205 0825         0913    0020 1022    0047 1239    0012 1332

22  2100 0857    2313 0858    0032 1013    0105 1131    0115 1340    0040 1431
23  2202 0924         0937    0132 1120    0143 1239    0142 1439    0111 1530
24  2305 0952    0024 1022    0223 1229    0215 1343    0209 1538    0146 1629
25       1022    0134 1117    0305 1339    0244 1445    0238 1637    0225 1725
26  0012 1057    0239 1220    0341 1446    0311 1545    0310 1736    0310 1818
27  0122 1137    0337 1329    0413 1551    0338 1645    0346 1834    0401 1906
28  0234 1227    0426 1441    0441 1653    0406 1744    0427 1930    0455 1949

29  0344 1326    0507 1551    0509 1754    0436 1844    0514 2022    0553 2026
30  0449 1434    0542 1659    0536 1855    0509 1944    0606 2109    0651 2059
31  0546 1547    0612 1804                 0547 2042                 0750 2128
</pre></html>


Computed using National Mapping Division's moonrisenset program, version 1.2
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<html>
<tr><td valign="top"><a href="http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/" target="_blank"><b>~PlanetQuest:the Search for Another Earth</b></a> - ~PlanetQuest is NASA's public home page for new planet discoveries and research. The site includes many multimedia features including a virtual tour of the Keck Observatory and an Interstellar Trip Planner. The free Flash player is required for some sections.<br>

<a href="http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/index.shtml" target="_blank"><b>Amazing Space: Explorations</b></a> - Online explorations are a fun, interactive way to explore galaxies, black holes, comets, and other fascinating objects. Some of the interactive pieces require the free Flash player. <br>

<a href="http://solar-center.stanford.edu/folklore/folklore.html" target="_blank"><b>Solar Folklore</b></a> - Most cultures have recognized the significance of the sun as prime controller of all life on earth. Read myths, legends, and tales about the sun from the Stanford Solar Center.<br>

<a href="http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/" target="_blank"><b>Cool Cosmos</b></a> - Learn about infrared light through fun games, cool movies, images, and more. Classroom activities and a Spanish-language version of the site are also available. You'll need the free Flash plug-in to access the Flash version of  the site. HTML version also available.<br>

<a href="http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/sunearthday/2004/index_vthome.htm" target="_blank"><b>Venus Transit 2004 Sun-Earth Day</b></a> - What's the Sun's connection to the Earth? What is the Transit of Venus? Find out through the many multimedia resources at this NASA site.<br>

<a href="http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/earthasart/index.html" target="_blank"><b>Earth as Art</b></a> - Don&#8217;t let the less-than-fancy front page  fool you: There&#8217;s art in here. NASA&#8217;s Landsat  has taken some remarkable pictures of our earth and given  us views that would be at home on the walls of your local gallery. Browse by continent, or look through the index of all the photos at once.<br>
                  
<a href="http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/" target="_blank"><b>Amazing Space</b></a> - At this site, students can use Web-based activities to learn about the solar system, train to be a scientist, follow a star's life cycle, and more. Click on &quot;For Educators and Developers&quot; to access interactive activities, science-content reading selections, and answers to astronomy basics. There&#8217;s also helpful information on developing and funding education/public-outreach programs. (This site uses Flash.)<br>
                    
<a href="http://www.live-eclipse.org/" target="_blank"><strong><b>Live! Universe</b></strong></a> - This Japanese project presents live webcasts and phenomena and events in astronomy and space science around the globe.<br>
                    
                  <a href="http://www.marsproject.com/index.htm" target="_blank"><strong>The Mars Project</strong></a> - Will Earthlings ever try to inhabit Mars? What would a human colony look like? This site imagines a Mars where humans are landing at a rate of 2,000<br> a week. Take a look at what some people think is the fate of Mars and then imagine one of your own.<br>
 
<a href="http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/cosmic_evolution/" target="_blank"><strong>Cosmic Evolution: From Big Bang to Humankind</strong></a> - This site traces the cosmic origin and evolution of matter and energy from the Big Bang to 12 billion years later. You'll learn from movies, diagrams, animations and educational activities. From Tufts University, Wright Center for Science Education, and the Foundation for the Future. You'll need the free <a href="http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/" target="_blank">QuickTime Player</a> and free <a href="http://www.real.com" target="_blank">RealPlayer</a> for the movies.<br>

<a href="http://www.exploremarsnow.org" target="_blank"><strong>Interactive Mars Habitat</strong></a> - Journey to Mars with this Web-based simulator!<br> 

<a href="http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/sseop/EFS/" target="_blank"><strong>Astronauts'  Views of the Home Planet: Earth from Space</strong></a> - Fascinating images of Earth from the Space Shuttle! Searchable by type of image such as images relating to Earth-human interaction, hurricanes and weather, and more. <br> 

<a href="http://www.fourmilab.to/earthview/" target="_blank"><strong>Earth &amp; Moon Viewer</strong></a> - See real time images of the earth and moon.<br> 

<a href="http://www.seti.org/" target="_blank"><strong>SETI Institute</strong></a> - The mission of the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Institute is to explore, understand, and explain the origin, nature, and prevalence of life in the universe. Find out more about this important field of study. <br> 

<a href="http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/AtHomeAstronomy/" target="_blank"><strong>At Home Astronomy</strong></a> - Hands-on science experiments for the whole family from The Center for Science Education at UC Berkeley<br> 

<a href="http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov/" target="_blank"><strong>NASA Kids</strong></a> - Fun interactive games, educational cartoons, puzzles, and more make learning astronomy fun! <br> <a href="http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/" target="_blank"><strong>SOHO: Exploring the Sun</strong></a> - Learn about the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) that was designed to study the internal structure of the sun. You can view spectacular images of the sun, watch movies of solar events, and see on-line exhibits. <br> 

<a href="http://www.detroitobservatory.umich.edu/VirtualTour.html" target="_blank"><strong>University of Michigan Detroit Observatory</strong></a> - Take a virtual tour of an historic astronomical observatory! You'll find 360 degree panoramic views of the building, a movie that shows how the observatory's dome rotates and its shutter opens, and more.<br> 

<a href="http://sol.stsci.edu/%7Emutchler/HSTmodel.html" target="_blank"><strong>&quot;Do-it-yourself&quot; instructions for making a model of the Hubble Space Telescope</strong></a> - Build your own model of the Hubble Space Telescope! Come to this site for a complete set of instructions.<br> 

<a href="http://www.iolaks.com/softech/astro/astro.htm" target="_blank"><strong>Amateur Astronomy</strong></a> - Nice site to help you start stargazing. Among the site's features is an astronomy tutorial, a section on do-it-yourself astronomy projects (like making your own observatory), and printable observation log sheets.<br> 

<a href="http://www.badastronomy.com/" target="_blank"><strong>Bad Astronomy</strong></a> - The author of this great site uses popular misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and &quot;bad astronomy&quot; from the movies and on television as a starting point for astronomy education. His approach makes learning astronomy relevant and fun! <br> 

<a href="http://merlin.bethune.yorku.ca/trek/csa/sts-97.html" target="_blank"><strong>Canadians in Space</strong></a> -This site offers great lesson plans and assessment tools for teachers on the topic of humans in space. The lessons cover a range of themes from robotics to how the human body adapts to living in space. Specific lessons are geared toward grades 3 through 12. You can also learn about the role the Canadian space program plays in the International Space Station. <br> 

<a href="http://www.sunspot.noao.edu/sunspot/pr/answerbook.html" target="_blank"><strong>Dr. Strous Answer Book (now called Mr. Sunspot's Answer Book)</strong></a> - Does it ever rain on Mars? What happens to space trash? What is the average latitude of a sunspot? Visit this site to find the answers to these and other questions about the universe. <br> 

<a href="http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu" target="_blank"><strong>Exploring Planets in the Classroom</strong></a> - A great resource for teachers, this site features more than 25 hands-on activities for exploring Earth, planets, and space science. <br> 

<a href="http://www.chabotspace.org/"><b>Chabot Space and Science Center</b></a> - At this site, you can visit a virtual planetarium, explore online exhibits, and learn about upcoming celestial events in the sky calendar.<br> 

<a href="http://library.thinkquest.org/28327/" target="_blank"><strong>A Virtual Journey into the Universe</strong></a> - You will feel like a real space explorer when you visit this very cool astronomy site. Explore the planets in our solar system on many different levels. Or watch beautifully crafted Flash animations of the planets' orbits from several different viewpoints.<br> 

<a href="http://space.com/" target="_blank"><strong>Space.com</strong></a> - Read the latest space exploration news at this site. You can also watch videos of space shuttle landings, look at spectacular photos of space, and play entertaining astronomy quiz games. If you're a kid or just feel like one, make sure you visit the fun and educational "spaceKids" part of the site.<br> 

<a href="http://darkstar.swsc.k12.ar.us/%7Eizzy/index.html"></a></span> <a href="http://www.artyastro.com/start.htm" target="_blank"><strong>Arty the Part-time Astronaut</strong></a> - Explore the solar system with Arty the part-time Astronaut! This site features fun, interactive games and movies that help children learn about the solar system.<br> 

<a href="http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/education/jason/index2.html" target="_blank"><strong>Jason Digital Lab: Be a Spacecraft Engineer</strong></a> - Learn how NASA modified a spaceship to use in their STARDUST mission which will rendezvous with comet Wild-2 and bring a sample of comet dust back to earth for scientific analysis. You can also &quot;build&quot; your own spaceship online with images this site provides.<br> 

<a href="http://darkstar.swsc.k12.ar.us/%7Eizzy/index.html" target="_blank"><strong>Izzy's Skylog</strong></a> - A thorough, entertaining astronomy site, which includes such features as the Constellation of the Month and an astronomy quiz.<br> 

<a href="http://www.projectfullmoon.com" target="_blank"><strong>Project Full Moon</strong></a> - Visit &quot;A Voyage&quot; section to view a slideshow of NASA photos from the Apollo missions. The slide show requires &quot;Shockwave.&quot;<br>

 <a href="http://library.advanced.org/27930/" target="_blank"><strong>CosmoNet</strong></a> - Explore the origins of the universe, theoretical physics, and more at this excellent ThinkQuest site.<br>

 <a href="http://library.advanced.org/25763/" target="_blank"><strong>A Mystery of Space: Stars</strong></a> -The students from the ThinkQuest project have produced yet another stellar site, so to speak: a detailed, beautiful resource on stars.<br> 

<a href="http://chandra.harvard.edu" target="_blank"><strong>Chandra X-Ray Observatory</strong></a> - NASA's latest orbital x-ray observatory, Chandra, will be launched later this year. Learn about the history and science of x-ray imaging in astronomy. <br> 

<a href="http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/RealTime/JTrack/" target="_blank"><strong>J-Track Satellite Tracking</strong></a> - Tune in to this site and track the positions of the Hubble Orbital Telescope, the Mir space station, or any other of your favorite satellites.<br>

<a href="http://www.netlabs.net/hp/tremor/index.html"><strong>Cosmology and Astronomy</strong></a> - Complex cosmological terms and theories are explained using simple, everyday language. Learn about anti-matter, quasars, quantum mechanics, and more. <br>

<a href="http://www.supernovae.net/isn.htm" target="_blank"><strong>International Supernovae Network</strong></a> - Amateur astronomers worldwide scan the skies for signs of exploding stars. Their efforts and discoveries are collected on this site. <br> 

<a href="http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/spacepl.htm" target="_blank"><strong>The Space Place</strong></a> - This NASA site offers information and activities about the upcoming deep space probe missions. An excellent resource for students K-6.<br> 

<a href="http://www.mtwilson.edu/Services/StarMap/" target="_blank"><strong>StarMap</strong></a> - Enter a time, date, and location, and this site will generate a detailed star map for you. You will need to download a free program to view the maps, but they are worth the time.<br> 

<a href="http://www.spaceweather.com/" target="_blank"><strong>NASA Space Weather Bureau</strong></a> - Find out what's stirring with the solar wind, or read about the latest research on the aurora borealis. Another informative site from NASA.<br> 

<a href="http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/Outreach/Edu/" target="_blank"><strong>NASA Infrared Astronomy Center</strong></a> - This clear, informative site includes the first images of a possible planet around another star.<br> 

<a href="http://library.advanced.org/tq1997/11348" target="_blank"><strong>Galactic Odyssey</strong></a> - This is a thorough history of human exploration of space, with background on the people, organizations, and inventions that have made such exploration possible. This informative site was created by high-school and junior-high school students.<br> 

<a href="http://www.astronomical.org/" target="_blank"><b>Peoria Astronomical Society</b></a> - This well-designed site offers an interactive astronomical handbook. Click on the names of constellations to see detailed star maps and pictures of the star formations, or explore the life cycle and physics of black holes.<br> 

<a href="http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/" target="_blank"><strong>The Galileo Project</strong></a> - This site uses the visual metaphor of Galileo's family villa to enable visitors to explore the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Find out about the struggles, triumphs, and lifelong curiosity of the man who set the stage for modern science.<br> 

<a href="http://www.astro.uva.nl/michielb/maya/astro.html" target="_blank"><strong>The Maya Astronomy Page</strong></a> - Learn about these accomplished early astronomers. This site is concise, clearly written, and easy to navigate. It's a great starting point for exploration into the fascinating culture of the Maya.<br>

<a href="http://space.jpl.nasa.gov/" target="_blank"><strong>Solar System Simulator</strong></a> - This simulator lets you view planets, moons, and spacecraft from different points in the solar system. No plug-ins or special software are required.<br> 

<a href="http://solar.physics.montana.edu/YPOP/" target="_blank"><strong>The Yohkoh Public Outreach Project</strong></a> - This site contains stunning X-ray images and movies of the sun taken by the Yohkoh orbital telescope. The site also includes background information on the Yohkoh telescope and learning activities for classroom use.<br> 

<a href="http://solar-center.stanford.edu/" target="_blank"><strong>Stanford Solar Center</strong></a> -This thorough and well-organized web site contains activities, images, a glossary, and other resources related to the sun. A great site to learn about the sun's magnetic field, sunspots, solar physics, and more.<br>

<a href="http://www.windows.umich.edu/" target="_blank"><strong>Window to the Universe</strong></a> - Attractively presented and very informative--this site provides an introduction to the Universe. Topics include, &quot;Our Planet,&quot; &quot;Space Missions,&quot; &quot;Our Solar System,&quot; &quot;People,&quot; and much more.<br>

<a href="http://www.astrobiology.com/extreme.html" target="_blank"><strong>The Astrobiology Web: Life in Extreme Environments</strong></a> - Discover how scientists study the possibility of life on other planets by studying life in harsh environments on earth.<br> 

<a href="http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/default.html" target="_blank"><br><strong>Mars Pathfinder Current Rover Status</strong></a> - See the latest images, check out the newest data from the Mars Pathfinder. <br>

<a href="http://www.maximov.com/Mir/mir2.html" target="_blank"><strong>Maximov Online</strong></a> -The latest news on the troubled Mir Space Station. The site has online events, archives, and images.<br> 

<a href="http://www.eclipse.net/%7Ecmmiller/BH/blkmain.html" target="_blank"><strong>Black Holes and Neutron Stars</strong></a> - Learn about black holes and neutron stars in this simple and very focused page. <br>

<a href="http://www.calweb.com/~mcharvey/index.html" target="_blank"><strong>GalacticSky Charts</strong></a> -You choose your latitude and this site provides a sky chart. There's a QuickTime Player VR page with a 360-degree view of the night sky. Also, check out the photo gallery while you're there.<br>

<a href="http://www.astronautica.com/owds.html" target="_blank"><strong>Other Worlds, Distant Suns</strong></a> -Learn all about the planets by taking a 3-D (VRML) tour. Even if your computer can't support VRML, they have some great astronomy links. <br> 

<a href="http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/SegwayEd/lessons/CometsTale/com.html" target="_blank"><strong>The Comet's Tale</strong></a> - A self-guided module designed to acquaint individuals with facts about comets. Check out the build your own comet section. Graphically, this is one of the best-looking sites we' ve come across. <br> 

<a href="http://www.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/countdown/" target="_blank"><strong>Shuttle Launch Countdown Home Page</strong></a> -The countdown has begun. Actually, there is always a countdown for the next shuttle launch. This site contains live video feeds, mission information, and lots more. <br> 

<a href="http://www.eia.brad.ac.uk/btl/" target="_blank"><strong>Earth and Universe</strong></a> - Graphically not the most engaging site, but does provide an excellent audio and visual presentation on the universe. The site focuses on stars, nebulae, and galaxies. Well worth the visit. <br> 

<a href="http://www.webcom.com/safezone/NAS/" target="_blank"><strong>North American Skies</strong></a> -This page contains information on stars, planets, eclipses, meteor showers, and other events visible in the sky. Times and locations of events are provided. <br> 

<a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/cassini/" target="_blank"><strong>Cassini:Voyage to Saturn</strong></a> - The countdown has begun! Well, ok there are still 476 days to launch (as of July 1st), but the Cassini mission to Saturn is still worth checking out. Why wait until 1997 when it's on everyone's hotlist? <br> 

<a href="http://exoplanets.org/" target="_blank"><strong>San Francisco State University Planet Search Project</strong></a> -Updated information on the search for extrasolar planets. This site includes information on two newly discovered planets! <br> 

<a href="http://cmex-www.arc.nasa.gov/" target="_blank"><strong>The Center for Mars Exploration</strong></a> - Plenty of information about the red planet including images, news and even software. The site also includes information on how to receive a free Viking 20th Anniversary Educational CD-ROM! <br> 

<a href="http://www.astro.uva.nl/michielb/od95/" target="_blank"><strong>The Virtual Sun</strong></a> - An informative tour about the sun. This site includes lots of fascinating images and MPEG movies. You can choose to take a tour in English or view it in Dutch.<br> <a href="http://www.Maximov.com/Mir/mir2.html" target="_blank"><strong>MIR Space Station Page</strong></a> - The Mir Space Station Page. Current Mir news and more. <br> 

<a href="http://www.astro.washington.edu/astro422/comets.html" target="_blank"><strong>Comet Hyakutake public &amp; press information page</strong></a> - The latest in comet information. This page includes some stunning images.<br> 

<a href="http://www.fourmilab.ch/solar/solar.html" target="_blank"><strong>Solar System Live</strong></a> - This site provides an interactive view of the solar system. You can set the time, date, viewpoint, and more. There is also a link to the &quot;Earth Viewer&quot; which shows the day and night regions of the earth. <br> 

<a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/livefrom/hst.html" target="_blank"><strong>NASA K-12 Internet: Live from the Hubble Space Telescope</strong></a> - An opportunity for students in grades K-12 to participate in a project involving the Hubble Space Telescope. The site includes a chat area for teachers. <br> 

<a href="http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html" target="_blank"><strong>Astronomy Picture of the Day</strong></a><strong> </strong>- This excellent site gives you something new to look at every day. A must for astronomy enthusiasts.<br> 

<a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/proto/images.html" target="_blank"><strong>JPL Public Image Archive</strong></a> - A great collection of NASA images maintained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Images of comets, planets, quasars and some extremely interesting images of our own planet. Nearly 100 gifs. <br> 

<a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/" target="_blank"><strong>Project Galileo: Bringing Jupiter to Earth</strong></a> - The Galileo probe arrived at Jupiter in December, 1995. This site is updated frequently with new photos. Visit the Galileo home page and learn more about this exciting event! <br> 

<a href="http://vesuvius.jsc.nasa.gov/er/seh/" target="_blank"><strong>The Space Educators' Handbook</strong></a> - An interesting site that uses science fiction to help teach about space technology and scientific laws. You can download the software version (Mac and Windows) of the Space Educators' Handbook. The site also includes a collection of QuickTime Player movies and other surprises. <br> 

<a href="http://www.lerc.nasa.gov/Other_Groups/MMAP/PIMS/index.html" target="_blank"><strong>Principal Investigator Microgravity Services</strong></a> - Get data about the microgravity (&quot;zero-g&quot;) conditions on-board the shuttle Orbiter and the Mir space station. <br> 

<a href="http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/sircxsar/" target="_blank"><strong>Space Radar Images of Earth</strong></a> - Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is a joint U.S.-German-Italian project that uses a highly sophisticated imaging radar to capture images of earth that are useful to scientists across a great range of disciplines. <br> 

<a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/" target="_blank"><strong>NASA K-12 Internet Initiative</strong></a> - Yet another interesting NASA site, this one is geared for K-12. <br> 

<a href="http://www.solarviews.com/eng/homepage.htm" target="_blank"><strong>Views of the Solar System</strong></a> - An educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids found within the solar system. <br> 

<a href="http://www.seds.org/billa/tnp/" target="_blank"><strong>The Nine Planets</strong></a> - An in-depth look at the solar system. Text, pictures, sounds, and an occasional movie help tell the story. <br> 

<a href="http://sunspot.ssl.berkeley.edu/euve/index.html" target="_blank"><strong>CEA Science Education Page</strong></a> - Visit the Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Astrophysics and check out their educational resources. A good site for teachers. <br> 

<a href="http://www.stsci.edu/pubinfo/BestOfHST95.html" target="_blank"><strong>HST Greatest Hits 1990-1995 Gallery</strong></a> - Spectacular images from space taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. <br> 

<a href="http://www.c3.lanl.gov/~cjhamil/Browse/mars.html" target="_blank"><strong>Mars Multi-Scale Map</strong></a> - An interactive look at the Martian surface. <br> 

<a href="http://www.geo.mtu.edu/weather/aurora/" target="_blank"><strong>Aurora Page</strong></a> - Get information about the &quot;Northern Lights.&quot; <br>  
</td></tr></html>

/***
|Name|MoveablePanelPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#MoveablePanelPlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#MoveablePanelPluginInfo|
|Version|2.1.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires|NestedSlidersPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|drag/stretch 'floating sliders' and other page elements|
Adds move and size mouse event handling and fold/unfold, and close/dock toolbar command items to any floating slider panel or tiddler element
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[MoveablePanelPluginInfo]]
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2008.01.08 [*.*.*] plugin size reduction: documentation moved to ...Info tiddler
2007.12.30 [2.1.0] added 'noedges' option for alternative 'grab handles' (top=move, bottom-right=resize)
|please see [[MoveablePanelPluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
''2006.03.04 [1.0.0]'' Initial public release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.moveablePanel= {major: 2, minor: 1, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,12,30)};
//}}}
//{{{
config.macros.moveablePanel= { 
	handler: function(place,macroName,params) {
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return;
		var showfold=true; var showclose=true; var showhover=true;
		var noedges=false; var param=null;
		while (param=params.shift()) { param=param.toLowerCase();
			if (param=="noclose") showclose=false;
			if (param=="nofold") showfold=false;
			if (param=="nohover") showhover=false;
			if (param=="noedges") noedges=true;
		}
		if (!p.saved) p.saved= { // remember original panel event handlers, size, location, border
			mouseover: p.onmouseover, mouseout: p.onmouseout, dblclick: p.ondblclick,
			top: p.style.top, left: p.style.left, width: p.style.width, height: p.style.height,
			position: p.style.position, border: p.style.border, title: p.title,
			transient: p.getAttribute("transient")
		};
		// create control menu items
		var html='<div class="toolbar" style="display:none;position:absolute;';
		html+=(hasClass(p,"floatingPanel")?'right:1em;top:1em;':'right:.5em;top:-1em;')+'">';
		var s='border:1px solid #666;background:#ccc;color:#666 !important;padding:0px .25em;-moz-border-radius:0px';
		if (showfold)
			html+='<a href="javascript:;" title="FOLD: reduce panel size" style="'+s+'"'
				+' onclick="return config.macros.moveablePanel.foldPanel(this,event)">&minus;</a>';
		if (showhover)
			html+='<a href="javascript:;" title="SCROLLING: panel moves with page" style="'+s+'"'
				+' onclick="return config.macros.moveablePanel.hoverPanel(this,event)">=</a>';
		if (showclose) {
			if (hasClass(p,"floatingPanel"))
				html+='<a href="javascript:;" title="CLOSE: hide panel and reset size/position" style="'+s+'"'
					+' onclick="return config.macros.moveablePanel.closePanel(this,event)">X</a>';
			else
				html+='<a href="javascript:;" title="DOCK: reset panel size/position" style="'+s+'"'
					+' onclick="return config.macros.moveablePanel.dockPanel(this,event)">&radic;</a>';
		}
		html+='</div>';
		p.menudiv=createTiddlyElement(place,"span");
		p.menudiv.innerHTML=html;

		// init mouse handling and tooltip
		p.setAttribute("noedges",noedges?"true":"false"); // for alternative mouseover/drag handling
		p.onmousemove=function(event) { return config.macros.moveablePanel.setCursorPanel(this,event); };
		p.onmousedown=function(event) { return config.macros.moveablePanel.moveOrSizePanel(this,event); };
		p.ondblclick=function(event) { // DOUBLE-CLICK = DOCK
			if (p.getAttribute("noedges")=="true" && !((isTop&&!isLeft&&!isRight)||(isBottom&&isRight))) // not over grab handles
				return p.saved.dblclick?p.saved.dblclick.apply(this,arguments):true;
			if (!config.macros.moveablePanel.isEdge(this,event)) // not over edge
				return p.saved.dblclick?p.saved.dblclick.apply(this,arguments):true;
			if (config.macros.moveablePanel.dockPanel(this,event)) // not docking
				return p.saved.dblclick?p.saved.dblclick.apply(this,arguments):true;
			else return false; // docked... done.
		};
		p.onmouseover=function(event) { // MOUSEOVER = SHOW MENU ITEMS
			if(addClass instanceof Function)
				addClass(this,"selected"); // so toolbar-classed items will display
			if (this.getAttribute("undocked")=="true"||hasClass(this,"floatingPanel"))
				this.menudiv.firstChild.style.display="inline";
			if (this.saved.mouseover) return this.saved.mouseover.apply(this,arguments);
		};
		p.onmouseout=function(event) { // MOUSEOUT = HIDE MENU ITEMS
			if(removeClass instanceof Function)
				removeClass(this,"selected"); // so toolbar-classed items are hidden again
			if (this.menudiv) this.menudiv.firstChild.style.display="none";
			if (this.saved.mouseout) return this.saved.mouseout.apply(this,arguments);
		};

		// FIXUP for "floating sliders" (see NestedSlidersPlugin)
		// prevent automatic trigger of adjustSliderPos() for mouse events on floating slider panel/button
		// and make sure that slider button causes moveable panel to be close AND docked (if needed)
		if (hasClass(p,"floatingPanel") && p.button) {
			p.saved.mouseover=null; // discard previous mouse event handlers to prevent
			p.saved.mouseout=null; // automatic triggering of adjustSliderPos() for mouseovers
			p.button.onmouseover=null; // on slider panel and slider button
			if(!p.button.saved_onclick) p.button.saved_onclick=p.button.onclick; // HIJACK SLIDER BUTTON
			p.button.onclick=function(ev){
				config.macros.moveablePanel.dockPanel(this.sliderPanel,ev); // DOCK PANEL FIRST...
				return this.saved_onclick.apply(this,arguments); // ...THEN CLOSE IT
			}
		}
	},
	processed: function(event) {
		event.cancelBubble=true; if (event.stopPropagation) event.stopPropagation(); return false;
	},
	getPanel: function(place) {
		// find a floating panel or use containing element
		var p=place; while (p && !(hasClass(p,"floatingPanel")||p.saved)) p=p.parentNode;
		return p||place;
	},
	isEdge: function(place,event) {
		if (!event) var event=window.event;
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return false;
		var left=findPosX(p); var top=findPosY(p);
		var width=p.offsetWidth; var height=p.offsetHeight;
		var x=!config.browser.isIE?event.pageX:event.clientX;
		var y=!config.browser.isIE?event.pageY:event.clientY;
		if (x<left||x>=left+width||y<top||y>=top+height) return false;
		var edgeWidth=10; var edgeHeight=10;
		var isTop=(y-top<edgeHeight); var isLeft=(x-left<edgeWidth);
		var isBottom=(top+height-y<edgeHeight); var isRight=(left+width-x<edgeWidth);
		return isTop||isLeft||isBottom||isRight;
	},
	dockPanel: function(place,event) {
		if (!event) var event=window.event;
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return true;
		if (p.folded) this.foldPanel(p.foldButton,event); 
		if (p.hover) this.hoverPanel(p.hoverButton,event); 
		if (p.saved) {
			p.style.top=p.saved.top; p.style.left=p.saved.left;
			p.style.width=p.saved.width; p.style.height=p.saved.height;
			p.style.position=p.saved.position;
			if (p.saved.transient) p.setAttribute("transient","true");
			p.setAttribute("undocked","");
		}
		if (hasClass(p,"floatingPanel") && window.adjustSliderPos) // see NestedSlidersPlugin
			window.adjustSliderPos(p.parentNode,p.button,p);
		return this.processed(event);
	},
	closePanel: function(place,event) {
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return true;
		// if a slider button exists close the panel by calling slider button handler
		if (p.button) { p.button.focus(); onClickNestedSlider({target:p.button}); }
		return this.dockPanel(place,event); // and then reset panel state
	},
	foldPanel: function(place,event) {
		if (!event) var event=window.event;
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return true;
		if (!p.foldButton) p.foldButton=place;
		if (p.folded) {
			p.style.height=p.folded_savedheight;
			p.style.overflow=p.folded_savedoverflow;
			if (!hasClass(p,"floatingPanel")) p.menudiv.firstChild.style.top="-1em";
		} else {
			p.folded_savedheight=p.style.height; p.style.height="1em"; 
			p.folded_savedoverflow=p.style.overflow; p.style.overflow="hidden";
			if (!hasClass(p,"floatingPanel")) p.menudiv.firstChild.style.top="1em";
		}
		p.folded=!p.folded;
		place.innerHTML=p.folded?"+":"&minus;";
		place.title=p.folded?"UNFOLD: restore panel size":"FOLD: reduce panel size";
		return this.processed(event);
	},
	hoverPanel: function(place,event) {
		if (!event) var event=window.event;
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return true;
		if (!p.hoverButton) p.hoverButton=place;
		if (p.hover) {
			p.style.position=p.hover_savedposition;
			if (p.getAttribute("undocked")!="true" && p.saved && p.saved.transient)
				p.setAttribute("transient","true"); // see NestedSlidersPlugin
		} else {
			p.hover_savedposition=p.style.position; p.style.position="fixed";
			if (p.saved.transient) p.setAttribute("transient","false");
		}
		p.hover=!p.hover;
		place.innerHTML=p.hover?"^":"=";
		place.title=p.hover?"HOVERING: panel stays in view when scrolling page":"SCROLLING: panel moves with page";
		return this.processed(event);
	},
	setCursorPanel: function(place,event) {
		if (!event) var event=window.event;
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return true;
		var left=findPosX(p); var top=findPosY(p);
		var width=p.offsetWidth; var height=p.offsetHeight;
		var x=!config.browser.isIE?event.pageX:event.clientX;
		var y=!config.browser.isIE?event.pageY:event.clientY;
		if (x<left||x>=left+width||y<top||y>=top+height) return true; // not inside panel, let mousedown bubble through
		var edgeWidth=10; var edgeHeight=10;
		var isTop=(y-top<edgeHeight); var isLeft=(x-left<edgeWidth);
		var isBottom=(top+height-y<edgeHeight); var isRight=(left+width-x<edgeWidth);
		p.style.cursor="auto";
		p.title=p.saved?p.saved.title:"";
		if (!(isTop||isLeft||isBottom||isRight)) return true;
		if (p.getAttribute("noedges")=="true") {
			if (isTop&&!isLeft&&!isRight) {
				p.style.cursor="move";
				p.title="MOVE: drag top panel edge"
					+(p.getAttribute("undocked")=="true"?", DOCK: double-click":"");
			} else if (isBottom && isRight) {
				p.style.cursor="se-resize";
				p.title="RESIZE: drag lower right corner"
					+(p.getAttribute("undocked")=="true"?", DOCK: double-click":"");
			}
		} else {
			p.style.cursor=!event.shiftKey?"move":((isTop?'n':(isBottom?'s':''))+(isLeft?'w':(isRight?'e':''))+'-resize');
			p.title="MOVE: drag panel edge, RESIZE: hold shift key"
				+(p.getAttribute("undocked")=="true"?", DOCK: double-click":"");
		}
		return true; // let mouseover event bubble through
	},
	moveOrSizePanel: function(place,event) {
		if (!event) var event=window.event;
		var p=this.getPanel(place); if (!p) return true;
		if (!this.isEdge(place,event)) return true;
		if (!p.saved) p.saved= { // remember original panel event handlers, size, location, border
			mouseover: p.onmouseover, mouseout: p.onmouseout, dblclick: p.ondblclick,
			top: p.style.top, left: p.style.left, width: p.style.width, height: p.style.height,
			position: p.style.position, border: p.style.border, transient: p.getAttribute("transient")
		};
		var left=findPosX(p); var top=findPosY(p);
		var width=p.offsetWidth; var height=p.offsetHeight;
		var x=!config.browser.isIE?event.pageX:event.clientX;
		var y=!config.browser.isIE?event.pageY:event.clientY;
		var edgeWidth=10; var edgeHeight=10;
		var isTop=(y-top<edgeHeight); var isLeft=(x-left<edgeWidth);
		var isBottom=(top+height-y<edgeHeight); var isRight=(left+width-x<edgeWidth);
		var sizing=event.shiftKey; // remember this for use during mousemove tracking
		if (p.getAttribute("noedges")=="true") {
			if (!((isTop&&!isLeft&&!isRight)||(isBottom&&isRight))) return true; // not over grab handle
			var sizing=isBottom&&isRight;
		}
		var adjustLeft=0; var adjustTop=0;
		// adjustment for relative container
		var pp=p.parentNode; while (pp && !(pp.style&&pp.style.position=='relative')) pp=pp.parentNode;
		if (pp) { adjustLeft+=findPosX(pp); adjustTop+=findPosY(pp); }
		// adjustment for floating slider container
		var pp=p.parentNode; while (pp && !hasClass(pp,"floatingPanel")) pp=pp.parentNode;
		if (pp) { adjustLeft+=findPosX(pp); adjustTop+=findPosY(pp); }
	
		// start tracking mousemove events
		this.activepanel=p;
		var target=p; // if 'capture' handling not supported, track within panel only
		if (document.body.setCapture) { document.body.setCapture(); var target=document.body; } // IE
		if (window.captureEvents) { window.captureEvents(Event.MouseMove|Event.MouseUp,true); var target=window; } // moz
		if (target.onmousemove!=undefined) target.saved_mousemove=target.onmousemove;
		target.onmousemove=function(e){
			if (!e) var e=window.event;
			var p=config.macros.moveablePanel.activepanel;
			if (!p) { this.onmousemove=this.saved_mousemove?this.saved_mousemove:null; return; }
	
			// PROBLEM: p.offsetWidth and p.offsetHeight do not seem to account for padding or borders
			// WORKAROUND: subtract padding and border (in px) when calculating new panel width and height
			// TBD: get these values from p.style... convert to px as needed.
			var paddingWidth=10.6667; var paddingHeight=10.6667;
			var borderWidth=1; var borderHeight=1;
			var adjustWidth=-(paddingWidth*2+borderWidth*2);
			var adjustHeight=-(paddingHeight*2+borderHeight*2);
	
			if (p.style.position!="absolute"&&p.style.position!="fixed") {
				// convert static/relative panel to movable absolute panel
				p.style.position="absolute";
				p.style.left=left+"px"; p.style.top=top+"px";
				p.style.width=(width+adjustWidth)+"px"; p.style.top=(height+adjustHeight)+"px";
			}
			var newX=!config.browser.isIE?e.pageX:e.clientX;
			var newY=!config.browser.isIE?e.pageY:e.clientY;
			if (sizing) { // resize panel
				// don't let panel get smaller than edge "grab" zones
				var minWidth=edgeWidth*2-adjustWidth;
				var minHeight=edgeHeight*2-adjustHeight;
				if (p.folded) this.foldPanel(p.foldButton,e); // make sure panel is unfolded
				if (isBottom) var newHeight=height+newY-y+1;
				if (isTop) var newHeight=height-newY+y+1;
				if (isLeft) var newWidth=width-newX+x+1;
				if (isRight) var newWidth=width+newX-x+1;
				if (isLeft||isRight) p.style.width=(newWidth>minWidth?newWidth:minWidth)+adjustWidth+"px";
				if (isLeft) p.style.left=left-adjustLeft+newX-x+1+"px";
				if (isTop||isBottom) p.style.height=(newHeight>minHeight?newHeight:minHeight)+adjustHeight+"px";
				if (isTop) p.style.top=top-adjustTop+newY-y+1+"px";
				p.setAttribute("undocked","true");
			} else { // move panel
				p.style.top=top-adjustTop+newY-y+1+"px";
				p.style.left=left-adjustLeft+newX-x+1+"px";
				if (p.saved && p.saved.transient) p.setAttribute("transient","false");
				p.setAttribute("undocked","true");
			}
			var status=sizing?("size: "+p.style.width+","+p.style.height):("pos: "+p.style.left+","+p.style.top);
			window.status=status.replace(/(\.[0-9]+)|px/g,""); // remove decimals and "px"
			return config.macros.moveablePanel.processed(e);
		};
		// stop tracking mousemove events
		if (target.onmouseup!=undefined) target.saved_mouseup=target.onmouseup;
		target.onmouseup=function(e){
			if (!e) var e=window.event;
			if (this.releaseCapture) this.releaseCapture(); // IE
			if (this.releaseEvents) this.releaseEvents(Event.MouseMove|Event.MouseUp); // moz
			this.onmousemove=this.saved_mousemove?this.saved_mousemove:null;
			this.onmouseup=this.saved_mouseup?this.saved_mouseup:null;
			config.macros.moveablePanel.activepanel=null;
			window.status="";
			return config.macros.moveablePanel.processed(e);
		};
		return this.processed(event); // mousedown handled
	}
};
//}}}
//{{{
config.macros.saveRss = {};
config.macros.saveRss.handler = function(place)
{
	if(!readOnly)
		createTiddlyButton(place,'save rss','save rss',function(e){saveMultiRss();return false;});
}

window.getRssMarkers = function()
{
    var s = [];
    myregexp=/\|(?:.*?)\|(?:.*?)\|(.*?)\|(?:.*?)\|(.*?)\|/g;
    while((m = myregexp.exec(store.getTiddlerText("MultiRssConfig"))) != null)
         s.push("<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='%0' href='%1'>".format([m[1].trim(),m[2].trim()]));
    return s.splice(1,s.length).join("\n");
}

updateMarkupBlock_old_multirss = window.updateMarkupBlock;
window.updateMarkupBlock = function (s,blockName,tiddlerName)
{
    s = updateMarkupBlock_old_multirss.apply(this,arguments);
    if (blockName == "PRE-HEAD")
        s = lewcidRSSAddToMarkupBlock(s);
    return s;
}

window.lewcidRSSAddToMarkupBlock = function (s)
{
    var pos = s.indexOf("<!--PRE-HEAD-END-->");
    return ( s.substring(0,pos).replace("<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml'>","") + "\n" + getRssMarkers() + "\n" + s.substring(pos) );
}

TiddlyWiki.prototype.rssgetTiddlers = function(field,includeTag,excludeTag)
{
          var results = [];
          this.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler)
          {
          if(excludeTag == undefined || excludeTag == '' || tiddler.tags.find(excludeTag) == null)
                        if(includeTag == undefined || includeTag == '' || tiddler.tags.find(includeTag)!=null)
                                      results.push(tiddler);
          });
          if(field)
                   results.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[field] == b[field]) return(0); else return (a[field] < b[field]) ? -1 : +1; });
          return results;
}

window.generateRss = function (tiddlers,title,subtitle)
{
	var s = [];
	var d = new Date();
	var u = store.getTiddlerText("SiteUrl");
	s.push("<" + "?xml version=\"1.0\"?" + ">");
	s.push("<rss version=\"2.0\">");
	s.push("<channel>");
	s.push("<title" + ">" + ((title && title != '') ? wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode()+ " | "+ title: wikifyPlain("SiteTitle").htmlEncode()) + "</title" + ">");
	if(u)
		s.push("<link>" + u.htmlEncode() + "</link>");
	s.push("<description>" + ((subtitle && subtitle != '')? subtitle : wikifyPlain("SiteSubtitle").htmlEncode()) + "</description>");
	s.push("<language>en-us</language>");
	s.push("<copyright>Copyright " + d.getFullYear() + " " + config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode() + "</copyright>");
	s.push("<pubDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</pubDate>");
	s.push("<lastBuildDate>" + d.toGMTString() + "</lastBuildDate>");
	s.push("<docs>http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss</docs>");
	s.push("<generator>TiddlyWiki " + version.major + "." + version.minor + "." + version.revision + "</generator>");
	if (!tiddlers)
        var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers("modified","excludeLists");
	var n = config.numRssItems > tiddlers.length ? 0 : tiddlers.length-config.numRssItems;
	for (var t=tiddlers.length-1; t>=n; t--)
		s.push(tiddlers[t].saveToRss(u));
	s.push("</channel>");
	s.push("</rss>");
	return s.join("\n");
}


old_multiRss_saveChanges = window.saveChanges;
window.saveChanges = function(onlyIfDirty)
{
    var rssStatus = config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed;
    config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed = false;
    old_multiRss_saveChanges.apply(this,arguments);
    config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed = rssStatus;
    if(config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed)
        saveMultiRss();
}

window.saveMultiRss = function()
{
      var rssIndex = store.getTiddlerText("MultiRssConfig").split("\n");
      rssIndex = rssIndex.splice(1,rssIndex.length);
      for (var i=0; i<rssIndex.length; i++)
          {
          var rss = rssIndex[i].split("|");
          var localPath = getLocalPath(document.location.toString());
          var rssPath = getRssPath(localPath)+ (rss[5].trim());
          var rssSave = saveFile(rssPath,convertUnicodeToUTF8(generateRss(store.rssgetTiddlers("modified",rss[1].trim(),rss[2].trim()),rss[3].trim(),rss[4].trim())));
          if(rssSave)
              displayMessage(config.messages.rssSaved,"file://" + rssPath);
          else
              alert(config.messages.rssFailed);
          }
}

window.getRssPath = function(str) {
    var slash = (str.indexOf('/')!=-1)? '/':'\\';
    return str.substring(0,str.lastIndexOf(slash) + 1);
}

config.shadowTiddlers.MultiRssConfig = "| !includeTag | !excludeTag | !title | !description | !filename |\n| rss | |rss only| this feed has rss tiddlers only | rss.xml |\n| lewcidExtension| |plugins| plugins only |plugins.xml|\n| | systemConfig| excludetest | everything but plugins | exclude.xml|";
//}}}
[[AllScienceSubjects]]
[[Science]]
!!!!<<gradient horiz #fcc #fff>>&nbsp;[[General Links |General Links]]>>
{{borderless{
|>|>|bgcolor:#abf; [[La Tour de France 2007|http://www.letour.fr/indexus.html]] |
}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://tinyurl.com/26vtzu]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://maps.google.com/maps?" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>



!!!''MyPhysics'' ^^&bull;[[Detach this|MyPhysics]]^^
<<<
[[Chernobyl Journal|http://www.angelfire.com/extreme4/kiddofspeed/index.html]] &bull; Elena (Lena) Filatova (Russian: Елена Филатова, born 1974) is a Ukrainian motorcyclist who visited Chernobyl after the disaster.
[[The atom - fusion and fission|http://library.thinkquest.org/17940/index.html]]
[[PhysOrg.com -|http://www.physorg.com/]] &bull;  latest science and technology news
[[Three Body Motion applets|http://faculty.ifmo.ru/butikov/Projects/Collection.html]]
[[HyperPhysics|http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/hph.html#hph]]
[[nano-nano|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v1/n1/index.html]]
<<<
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://timeanddate.com/worldclock/custom.html?cities=240,248,37,195,136,179,105,217%20target=%22_blank%22]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://timeanddate.com/worldclock/custom.html?cities=240,248,37,195,136,179,105,217%20target=%22_blank%22" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>


<html><div align="center"><iframe src="http://www.symbex.net.au/Wiki/net.html" frameborder="0" width="125" height="55" scrolling="no"></iframe></div></html>
<html><div align="center"><iframe src="http://www.symbex.net.au/Wiki/TW-NET_blk.htm" frameborder="0" width="147" height="50" scrolling="no" frameborder="1"></iframe></div></html>
<html><div id="modernbricksmenu"><ul><li style="margin-left: 1px">[[Geological Ages|GeologicalAges]]</li><li>[[Periodic Table|PeriodicTable]]</li><li>[[Elements|Elements]]</li><li>[[BoilingPoint|ElementsMeltingBoilingPoint]]</li><li id="current">[[Naming|Naming]]</li></ul></div><div id="modernbricksmenuline">&nbsp;</div></html>
<<<
''Elements named after people:''
* ''bohrium'' (Bh, 107) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@ @@color:#00F;Niels Bohr@@
* ''curium'' (Cm, 96) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@ @@color:#00F;Pierre and Marie Curie@@
* ''einsteinium'' (Es, 99) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@ @@color:#00F;Albert Einstein@@
* ''fermium'' (Fm, 100) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@ @@color:#00F;Enrico Fermi@@
* ''gallium'' (Ga, 31) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@ +++[Gallia (Latin for France)]
<<<
 @@color:#C06;Although named after@@@@color:#00F; Gallia (Latin for France)@@ @@color:#C06;the discoverer of the metal Lecoq de Boisbaudran subtly attached an association with his name. Lecoq (rooster) in Latin is gallus.@@
<<<
===

* ''gadolinium'' (Gd, 64) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Johan Gadolin@@
* ''hahnium'' (105) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Otto Hahn@@. This element name is not accepted by IUPAC.
* ''lawrencium'' (Lr, 103) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ernest Lawrence@@
* ''meitnerium'' (Mt, 109) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Lise Meitner@@
* ''mendelevium'' (Md, 101) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Dmitri Mendeleev@@
* ''nobelium'' (No, 102) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Alfred Nobel@@
* ''roentgenium'' (Rg, 111) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Wilhelm Roentgen@@
* ''rutherfordium'' (Rf, 104) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ernest Rutherford@@
* ''seaborgium'' (Sg, 106) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Glenn T. Seaborg@@
''Elements named after mythical characters:''
* ''niobium'' (Nb, 41) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Niobe, a mortal woman in Greek mythology@@
* ''promethium'' (Pm, 61) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Prometheus, a Titan from Greek mythology@@
* ''tantalum'' (Ta, 73) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Tantalus, from Greek mythology@@
* ''thorium'' (Th, 90) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Thor, the Norse god of thunder@@
* ''titanium'' (Ti, 22) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; the Titans, from Greek mythology@@
* ''vanadium'' (V, 23) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Scandinavian goddess Vanadis (Freyja)@@
''Chemical elements named after places:''
* ''americium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; The Americas@@
* ''berkelium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Berkeley, California@@, home of the University of California
* ''californium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; California@@ and University of California, Berkeley
* ''copper'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; is probably named after Cyprus@@
* ''darmstadtium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Darmstadt, Germany@@
* ''dubnium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Dubna, Russia@@
* ''erbium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ytterby, Sweden@@
* ''europium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Europe@@
* ''francium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; France@@
* ''gallium'' (Ga, 31) @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@ @@color:#00F;Gallia (Latin for France)@@, 
* ''germanium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Germany@@
* ''hafnium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Hafnia, Latin for Copenhagen@@
* ''hassium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Hesse, Germany@@
* ''holmium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Holmia, Latin for Stockholm@@
* ''lutetium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Lutetia, Latin for Paris@@
* ''magnesium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Magnesia prefecture in Thessaly, Greece@@
* ''polonium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Poland@@
* ''rhenium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Rhenus, Latin for Rhine@@
* ''ruthenium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ruthenia, Latinized form of the word Russia@@
* ''scandium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Scandia, Latin for Scandinavia@@
* ''strontium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Strontian, Scotland@@
* ''terbium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ytterby, Sweden@@
* ''thulium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Thule, a mythical island in the far north, perhaps Scandinavia@@
* ''ytterbium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ytterby, Sweden@@
* ''yttrium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ytterby, Sweden@@
''Elements named after astronomical objects:''
* ''cerium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Ceres@@
* ''helium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Helios, the Greek name for the Sun@@
* ''neptunium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Neptune@@
* ''palladium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Pallas@@
* ''plutonium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Pluto@@
* ''selenium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Selene, the Greek name for the Moon@@
* ''tellurium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Tellus, the Latin name for the Earth@@
* ''uranium'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Uranus@@
''Elements linked to astronomical (solar system) objects:''
* ''copper'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Venus@@
* ''gold'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Sun@@
* ''iron'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Mars@@
* ''lead'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Saturn@@
* ''mercury'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Mercury@@
* ''silver'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Moon@@
* ''tin'' @@color:#C06;&nbsp;&raquo;&nbsp;@@@@color:#00F; Jupiter@@
<<<
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.napkinfoldingguide.com/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.napkinfoldingguide.com/" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.napkinfolding.net/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://www.napkinfolding.net/" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;></iframe></div></html>}}}
<html><a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=492" target="_blank">Classic Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=596" target="_blank">Pocket Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=597" target="_blank">Ring Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=660" target="_blank">Accordion Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=659" target="_blank">Tulip Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=662" target="_blank">Cocks Comb or Bird of Paradise Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=661" target="_blank">Peacock Napkin Fold</a> <br> <a href="http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowledge.asp?catitemid=7&amp;id=680" target="_blank">Snowflake Napkin Fold</a></html>
<html><div align="center"><font size="-1"><input type="button" value="&laquo; Back" onClick="history.go(-1)" name="button" class="btn" onmouseover="this.className='btn btnhov'" onmouseout="this.className='btn'"/>&nbsp;<a href="javascript:;" onclick="var tid=story.findContainingTiddler(this); if (tid) story.refreshTiddler(tid.getAttribute('tiddler'),null,true); return false;"><input class="btn" type="button"  onmouseover="this.className='btn btnhov'" onmouseout="this.className='btn'" value="Reload"></a>&nbsp;<input class="btn" type="button"  onmouseover="this.className='btn btnhov'" onmouseout="this.className='btn'" value="Forward &raquo;"onClick="history.forward()"></font></html>
To create+++[Bold]
{{{''Bold''  (double single quotes)}}}
===

/***
|Name|NestedSlidersPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#NestedSlidersPlugin|
|Version|2.3.2|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|Slider.prototype.stop|
|Description|show content in nest-able 'slider' or 'floating' panels, without needing to create separate tiddlers for each panel|

!!!!!Configuration
<<<
Enable animation for slider panels
<<option chkFloatingSlidersAnimate>> allow sliders to animate when opening/closing
>(note: This setting is in //addition// to the general option for enabling/disabling animation effects:
><<option chkAnimate>> enable animations (entire document)
>For slider animation to occur, you must also allow animation in general.

Debugging messages for 'lazy sliders' deferred rendering:
<<option chkDebugLazySliderDefer>> show debugging alert when deferring slider rendering
<<option chkDebugLazySliderRender>> show debugging alert when deferred slider is actually rendered
<<<
!!!!!Usage
<<<
When installed, this plugin adds new wiki syntax for embedding 'slider' panels directly into tiddler content.  Use {{{+++}}} and {{{===}}} to delimit the slider content.  You can also 'nest' these sliders as deep as you like (see complex nesting example below), so that expandable 'tree-like' hierarchical displays can be created.  This is most useful when converting existing in-line text content to create in-line annotations, footnotes, context-sensitive help, or other subordinate information displays.

Additional optional syntax elements let you specify
*default to open
*cookiename
*heading level
*floater (with optional CSS width value)
*transient display (clicking elsewhere closes panel)
*custom class/label/tooltip/accesskey
*alternate label/tooltip (displayed when panel is open)
*panelID (for later use with {{{<<DOM>>}}} macro.  See [[DOMTweaksPlugin]])
*automatic blockquote style on panel
*deferred rendering of panel content
The complete syntax, using all options, is:
//{{{
++++(cookiename)!!!!!^width^*{{class{[label=key|tooltip][altlabel|alttooltip]}}}#panelID:>...
content goes here
===
//}}}
where:
* {{{+++}}} (or {{{++++}}}) and {{{===}}}<br>marks the start and end of the slider definition, respectively.  When the extra {{{+}}} is used, the slider will be open when initially displayed.
* {{{(cookiename)}}}<br>saves the slider opened/closed state, and restores this state whenever the slider is re-rendered.
* {{{!}}} through {{{!!!!!}}}<br>displays the slider label using a formatted headline (Hn) style instead of a button/link style
* {{{^width^}}} (or just {{{^}}})<br>makes the slider 'float' on top of other content rather than shifting that content downward.  'width' must be a valid CSS value (e.g., "30em", "180px", "50%", etc.).  If omitted, the default width is "auto" (i.e., fit to content)
* {{{"*"}}} //(without the quotes)//<br>denotes "transient display": when a click occurs elsewhere in the document, the slider/floating panel will be automatically closed.  This is useful for creating 'pulldown menus' that automatically go away after they are used.  //Note: using SHIFT-click on a slider label will open/close that slider without triggering the automatic closing of any transient slider panels that are currently displayed, permitting ''temporary'' display of several transient panels at once.//
* """{{class{[label=key|tooltip][altlabel|alttooltip]}}}"""<br>uses label/tooltip/accesskey.  """{{class{...}}}""", """=key""", """|tooltip""" and """[altlabel|alttooltip]""" are optional.  'class' is any valid CSS class name, used to style the slider label text.  'key' must be a ''single letter only''.  altlabel/alttooltip specifiy alternative label/tooltip for use when slider/floating panel is displayed.
* {{{#panelID:}}}<br>defines a unique DOM element ID that is assigned to the panel element used to display the slider content.  This ID can then be used later to reposition the panel using the {{{<<DOM move id>>}}} macro (see [[DOMTweaksPlugin]]), or to access/modify the panel element through use of {{{document.getElementById(...)}}}) javascript code in a plugin or inline script.
* {{{">"}}} //(without the quotes)//<br>automatically adds blockquote formatting to slider content
* {{{"..."}}} //(without the quotes)//<br>defers rendering of closed sliders until the first time they are opened.  //Note: deferred rendering may produce unexpected results in some cases.  Use with care.//

//Note: to make slider definitions easier to read and recognize when editing a tiddler, newlines immediately following the {{{+++}}} 'start slider' or preceding the {{{===}}} 'end slider' sequence are automatically supressed so that excess whitespace is eliminated from the output.//
<<<
!!!!!Examples
<<<
simple in-line slider: 
{{{
+++
   content
===
}}}
+++
   content
===
----
use a custom label and tooltip: 
{{{
+++[label|tooltip]
   content
===
}}}
+++[label|tooltip]
   content
===
----
content automatically blockquoted: 
{{{
+++>
   content
===
}}}
+++>
   content
===
----
all options combined //(default open, cookie, heading, sized floater, transient, class, label/tooltip/key, blockquoted, deferred)//
{{{
++++(testcookie)!!!^30em^*{{big{[label=Z|click or press Alt-Z to open]}}}>...
   content
===
}}}
++++(testcookie)!!!^30em^*{{big{[label=Z|click or press Alt-Z to open]}}}>...
   content
===
----
complex nesting example:
{{{
+++[get info...=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
	put some general information here,
	plus a floating panel with more specific info:
	+++^10em^[view details...|click for details]
		put some detail here, which could in turn contain a transient panel,
		perhaps with a +++^25em^*[glossary definition]explaining technical terms===
	===
===
}}}
+++[get info...=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
	put some general information here,
	plus a floating panel with more specific info:
	+++^10em^[view details...|click for details]
		put some detail here, which could in turn contain a transient panel,
		perhaps with a +++^25em^*[glossary definition]explaining technical terms===
	===
===
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''NestedSlidersPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2007.11.14 - 2.3.2'' in onClickNestedSlider(), prevent SHIFT-click events from opening a new, empty browser window by setting "cancelBubble=true" and calling "stopPropagation()".  Note: SHIFT-click is still processed as a normal click (i.e., it toggles the slider panel display).  Also, using SHIFT-click will prevent 'transient' sliders from being automatically closed when another slider is opened, allowing you to *temporarily* display several transient sliders at once.
''2007.07.26 - 2.3.1'' in document.onclick(), propagate return value from hijacked core click handler to consume OR bubble up click as needed.  Fixes "IE click disease", whereby nearly every mouse click causes a page transition.
|please see [[NestedSlidersPluginHistory]] for additional revision details|
''2005.11.03 - 1.0.0'' initial public release
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was implemented by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]] with initial research and suggestions from RodneyGomes, GeoffSlocock, and PaulPetterson.
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.nestedSliders = {major: 2, minor: 3, revision: 2, date: new Date(2007,11,14)};
//}}}

//{{{
// options for deferred rendering of sliders that are not initially displayed
if (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderDefer==undefined) config.options.chkDebugLazySliderDefer=false;
if (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderRender==undefined) config.options.chkDebugLazySliderRender=false;
if (config.options.chkFloatingSlidersAnimate==undefined) config.options.chkFloatingSlidersAnimate=false;

// default styles for 'floating' class
setStylesheet(".floatingPanel { position:absolute; z-index:10; padding:0.5em; margin:0em; \
	background-color:#eee; color:#000; border:1px solid #000; text-align:left; }","floatingPanelStylesheet");
//}}}

//{{{
config.formatters.push( {
	name: "nestedSliders",
	match: "\\n?\\+{3}",
	terminator: "\\s*\\={3}\\n?",
	lookahead: "\\n?\\+{3}(\\+)?(\\([^\\)]*\\))?(\\!*)?(\\^(?:[^\\^\\*\\[\\>]*\\^)?)?(\\*)?(?:\\{\\{([\\w]+[\\s\\w]*)\\{)?(\\[[^\\]]*\\])?(\\[[^\\]]*\\])?(?:\\}{3})?(\\#[^:]*\\:)?(\\>)?(\\.\\.\\.)?\\s*",
	handler: function(w)
		{
			lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
			lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
			var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
			if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart)
			{
				// var defopen=lookaheadMatch[1]
				// var cookiename=lookaheadMatch[2]
				// var header=lookaheadMatch[3]
				// var panelwidth=lookaheadMatch[4]
				// var transient=lookaheadMatch[5]
				// var class=lookaheadMatch[6]
				// var label=lookaheadMatch[7]
				// var openlabel=lookaheadMatch[8]
				// var panelID=lookaheadMatch[9]
				// var blockquote=lookaheadMatch[10]
				// var deferred=lookaheadMatch[11]

				// location for rendering button and panel
				var place=w.output;

				// default to closed, no cookie, no accesskey, no alternate text/tip
				var show="none"; var cookie=""; var key="";
				var closedtext=">"; var closedtip="";
				var openedtext="<"; var openedtip="";

				// extra "+", default to open
				if (lookaheadMatch[1]) show="block";

				// cookie, use saved open/closed state
				if (lookaheadMatch[2]) {
					cookie=lookaheadMatch[2].trim().slice(1,-1);
					cookie="chkSlider"+cookie;
					if (config.options[cookie]==undefined)
						{ config.options[cookie] = (show=="block") }
					show=config.options[cookie]?"block":"none";
				}

				// parse label/tooltip/accesskey: [label=X|tooltip]
				if (lookaheadMatch[7]) {
					var parts=lookaheadMatch[7].trim().slice(1,-1).split("|");
					closedtext=parts.shift();
					if (closedtext.substr(closedtext.length-2,1)=="=")	
						{ key=closedtext.substr(closedtext.length-1,1); closedtext=closedtext.slice(0,-2); }
					openedtext=closedtext;
					if (parts.length) closedtip=openedtip=parts.join("|");
					else { closedtip="show "+closedtext; openedtip="hide "+closedtext; }
				}

				// parse alternate label/tooltip: [label|tooltip]
				if (lookaheadMatch[8]) {
					var parts=lookaheadMatch[8].trim().slice(1,-1).split("|");
					openedtext=parts.shift();
					if (parts.length) openedtip=parts.join("|");
					else openedtip="hide "+openedtext;
				}

				var title=show=='block'?openedtext:closedtext;
				var tooltip=show=='block'?openedtip:closedtip;

				// create the button
				if (lookaheadMatch[3]) { // use "Hn" header format instead of button/link
					var lvl=(lookaheadMatch[3].length>6)?6:lookaheadMatch[3].length;
					var btn = createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(place,"h"+lvl,null,null,null),"a",null,lookaheadMatch[6],title);
					btn.onclick=onClickNestedSlider;
					btn.setAttribute("href","javascript:;");
					btn.setAttribute("title",tooltip);
				}
				else
					var btn = createTiddlyButton(place,title,tooltip,onClickNestedSlider,lookaheadMatch[6]);
				btn.innerHTML=title; // enables use of HTML entities in label

				// set extra button attributes
				btn.setAttribute("closedtext",closedtext);
				btn.setAttribute("closedtip",closedtip);
				btn.setAttribute("openedtext",openedtext);
				btn.setAttribute("openedtip",openedtip);
				btn.sliderCookie = cookie; // save the cookiename (if any) in the button object
				btn.defOpen=lookaheadMatch[1]!=null; // save default open/closed state (boolean)
				btn.keyparam=key; // save the access key letter ("" if none)
				if (key.length) {
					btn.setAttribute("accessKey",key); // init access key
					btn.onfocus=function(){this.setAttribute("accessKey",this.keyparam);}; // **reclaim** access key on focus
				}
				btn.onmouseover=function(event) // mouseover on button aligns floater position with button
					{ if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(this.parentNode,this,this.sliderPanel,this.sliderPanel.className); }

				// create slider panel
				var panelClass=lookaheadMatch[4]?"floatingPanel":"sliderPanel";
				var panelID=lookaheadMatch[9]; if (panelID) panelID=panelID.slice(1,-1); // trim off delimiters
				var panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"div",panelID,panelClass,null);
				panel.button = btn; // so the slider panel know which button it belongs to
				btn.sliderPanel=panel; // so the button knows which slider panel it belongs to
				panel.defaultPanelWidth=(lookaheadMatch[4] && lookaheadMatch[4].length>2)?lookaheadMatch[4].slice(1,-1):"";
				panel.setAttribute("transient",lookaheadMatch[5]=="*"?"true":"false");
				panel.style.display = show;
				panel.style.width=panel.defaultPanelWidth;
				panel.onmouseover=function(event) // mouseover on panel aligns floater position with button
					{ if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(this.parentNode,this.button,this,this.className); }

				// render slider (or defer until shown) 
				w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;
				if ((show=="block")||!lookaheadMatch[11]) {
					// render now if panel is supposed to be shown or NOT deferred rendering
					w.subWikify(lookaheadMatch[10]?createTiddlyElement(panel,"blockquote"):panel,this.terminator);
					// align floater position with button
					if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(place,btn,panel,panelClass);
				}
				else {
					var src = w.source.substr(w.nextMatch);
					var endpos=findMatchingDelimiter(src,"+++","===");
					panel.setAttribute("raw",src.substr(0,endpos));
					panel.setAttribute("blockquote",lookaheadMatch[10]?"true":"false");
					panel.setAttribute("rendered","false");
					w.nextMatch += endpos+3;
					if (w.source.substr(w.nextMatch,1)=="\n") w.nextMatch++;
					if (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderDefer) alert("deferred '"+title+"':\n\n"+panel.getAttribute("raw"));
				}
			}
		}
	}
)

// TBD: ignore 'quoted' delimiters (e.g., "{{{+++foo===}}}" isn't really a slider)
function findMatchingDelimiter(src,starttext,endtext) {
	var startpos = 0;
	var endpos = src.indexOf(endtext);
	// check for nested delimiters
	while (src.substring(startpos,endpos-1).indexOf(starttext)!=-1) {
		// count number of nested 'starts'
		var startcount=0;
		var temp = src.substring(startpos,endpos-1);
		var pos=temp.indexOf(starttext);
		while (pos!=-1)  { startcount++; pos=temp.indexOf(starttext,pos+starttext.length); }
		// set up to check for additional 'starts' after adjusting endpos
		startpos=endpos+endtext.length;
		// find endpos for corresponding number of matching 'ends'
		while (startcount && endpos!=-1) {
			endpos = src.indexOf(endtext,endpos+endtext.length);
			startcount--;
		}
	}
	return (endpos==-1)?src.length:endpos;
}
//}}}

//{{{
window.onClickNestedSlider=function(e)
{
	if (!e) var e = window.event;
	var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);
	var theLabel = theTarget.firstChild.data;
	var theSlider = theTarget.sliderPanel
	var isOpen = theSlider.style.display!="none";

	// toggle label
	theTarget.innerHTML=isOpen?theTarget.getAttribute("closedText"):theTarget.getAttribute("openedText");
	// toggle tooltip
	theTarget.setAttribute("title",isOpen?theTarget.getAttribute("closedTip"):theTarget.getAttribute("openedTip"));

	// deferred rendering (if needed)
	if (theSlider.getAttribute("rendered")=="false") {
		if (config.options.chkDebugLazySliderRender)
			alert("rendering '"+theLabel+"':\n\n"+theSlider.getAttribute("raw"));
		var place=theSlider;
		if (theSlider.getAttribute("blockquote")=="true")
			place=createTiddlyElement(place,"blockquote");
		wikify(theSlider.getAttribute("raw"),place);
		theSlider.setAttribute("rendered","true");
	}
	// show/hide the slider
	if(config.options.chkAnimate && (theSlider.className!='floatingPanel' || config.options.chkFloatingSlidersAnimate))
		anim.startAnimating(new Slider(theSlider,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));
	else
		theSlider.style.display = isOpen ? "none" : "block";
	// reset to default width (might have been changed via plugin code)
	theSlider.style.width=theSlider.defaultPanelWidth;
	// align floater panel position with target button
	if (!isOpen && window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(theSlider.parentNode,theTarget,theSlider,theSlider.className);
	// if showing panel, set focus to first 'focus-able' element in panel
	if (theSlider.style.display!="none") {
		var ctrls=theSlider.getElementsByTagName("*");
		for (var c=0; c<ctrls.length; c++) {
			var t=ctrls[c].tagName.toLowerCase();
			if ((t=="input" && ctrls[c].type!="hidden") || t=="textarea" || t=="select")
				{ ctrls[c].focus(); break; }
		}
	}
	var cookie=theTarget.sliderCookie;
	if (cookie && cookie.length) {
		config.options[cookie]=!isOpen;
		if (config.options[cookie]!=theTarget.defOpen)
			saveOptionCookie(cookie);
		else { // remove cookie if slider is in default display state
			var ex=new Date(); ex.setTime(ex.getTime()-1000);
			document.cookie = cookie+"=novalue; path=/; expires="+ex.toGMTString();
		}
	}
	// prevent SHIFT-CLICK from being processed by browser (opens blank window... yuck!)
	// but allow plain click to bubble up to page background (to dismiss open popup, if any)
	if (e.shiftKey) { e.cancelBubble=true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation(); }
	return false;
}
//}}}

//{{{
// click in document background closes transient panels 
document.nestedSliders_savedOnClick=document.onclick;
document.onclick=function(ev) { if (!ev) var ev=window.event; var target=resolveTarget(ev);
	// call original click handler
	if (document.nestedSliders_savedOnClick)
		var retval=document.nestedSliders_savedOnClick.apply(this,arguments);
	// if click was inside transient panel (or something contained by a transient panel)... leave it alone
	var p=target;
	while (p)
		if ((p.className=="floatingPanel"||p.className=="sliderPanel")&&p.getAttribute("transient")=="true") break;
		else p=p.parentNode;
	if (p) return retval;
	// otherwise, find and close all transient panels...
	var all=document.all?document.all:document.getElementsByTagName("DIV");
	for (var i=0; i<all.length; i++) {
		 // if it is not a transient panel, or the click was on the button that opened this panel, don't close it.
		if (all[i].getAttribute("transient")!="true" || all[i].button==target) continue;
		// otherwise, if the panel is currently visible, close it by clicking it's button
		if (all[i].style.display!="none") window.onClickNestedSlider({target:all[i].button}) 
	}
	return retval;
};
//}}}

//{{{
// adjust floating panel position based on button position
if (window.adjustSliderPos==undefined) window.adjustSliderPos=function(place,btn,panel,panelClass) {
	if (panelClass=="floatingPanel") {
		var left=0;
		var top=btn.offsetHeight; 
		if (place.style.position!="relative") {
			var left=findPosX(btn);
			var top=findPosY(btn)+btn.offsetHeight;
			var p=place; while (p && p.className!='floatingPanel') p=p.parentNode;
			if (p) { left-=findPosX(p); top-=findPosY(p); }
		}
		if (findPosX(btn)+panel.offsetWidth > getWindowWidth())  // adjust position to stay inside right window edge
			left-=findPosX(btn)+panel.offsetWidth-getWindowWidth()+15; // add extra 15px 'fudge factor'
		panel.style.left=left+"px"; panel.style.top=top+"px";
	}
}

function getWindowWidth() {
	if(document.width!=undefined)
		return document.width; // moz (FF)
	if(document.documentElement && ( document.documentElement.clientWidth || document.documentElement.clientHeight ) )
		return document.documentElement.clientWidth; // IE6
	if(document.body && ( document.body.clientWidth || document.body.clientHeight ) )
		return document.body.clientWidth; // IE4
	if(window.innerWidth!=undefined)
		return window.innerWidth; // IE - general
	return 0; // unknown
}
//}}}

//{{{
// TW2.1 and earlier:
// hijack Slider animation handler 'stop' handler so overflow is visible after animation has completed
Slider.prototype.coreStop = Slider.prototype.stop;
Slider.prototype.stop = function()
	{ this.coreStop.apply(this,arguments); this.element.style.overflow = "visible"; }

// TW2.2+
// hijack Morpher animation handler 'stop' handler so overflow is visible after animation has completed
if (version.major+.1*version.minor+.01*version.revision>=2.2) {
	Morpher.prototype.coreStop = Morpher.prototype.stop;
	Morpher.prototype.stop = function()
		{ this.coreStop.apply(this,arguments); this.element.style.overflow = "visible"; }
}
//}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>><<toggleSideBar "" "" hide>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://newearthtime.net/net.htm]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
----
<html><div align="center"><iframe  src ="http://newearthtime.net/net.htm" width="100%" align="center" height="600" scrolling="auto" frameborder="0" allowtransparency style="border:none;"></iframe></div></html>}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;[[Open in a new window|http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/news/]]&nbsp;&raquo;|
}}}<html><div align="center"><iframe src ="http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/news/" width="100%" align="center" height="600"></iframe></div></html>
<<newTiddler label:"newUpdate" title:'ABCScienceUpdates' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankABCUpdate')}} tag:abcupdate>>
<html><div id="myComet" style="background:black;color:yellow;border:2px solid white;display:none">
  <img class="lightBoxClose" src="http://img187.imageshack.us/img187/76/closezn1.gif" onclick="DC3.LightBox.hideBox()" alt="Close" title="Close this window" />
<div align="center">http://spaceweather.com/comets/gallery_mcnaught.php<img src="http://img263.imageshack.us/img263/3124/mcnaught3kemppainenpx1.jpg"><br><div align="center">Mcnaught Comet<br>http://spaceweather.com/comets/gallery_mcnaught.php</div></div>
</div><a href="javascript:;" onclick="DC3.LightBox.showBox('myComet')">Mcnaught Comet</a></html>
config.views.editor.defaultText = "";
<<newTiddler label:"newExample" title:'New Example' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankExample')}} tag:example>>
<<newTiddler label:"newHTML" title:'New HTML' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankHTML')}} tag:html>>
<<newTiddler label:"newIframe" title:'New iframe' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankIframe')}} tag:'iframe'>>
<<newJournal  title:"YYYY.0MM.0DD at 0hh:0mm:0ss" text:{{store.getTiddlerText('JournalTemplate')}} tag:'journal'>>@@color:#00F;(from template)@@
<<newTiddler
	label:"newObject"
        title:"NewObjectTiddler"
	text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankObject')}} 
	tag:"object"
	focus:"title"
>>
merge(config.macros.search,{
	label: "search",
	prompt: "Search Science",
	accessKey: "F",
	successMsg: "%0 tiddlers found matching %1",
	failureMsg: "%0 Not Found - Tick titles, text, or tags "});
<<newTiddler label:"newSlider" title:'New Slider' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankSlider')}} tag:'slider'>>
<<newTiddler label:"newSystemConfig" title:"New SystemConfig Tiddler" tag:"systemConfig" focus:"text">>
<<newTiddler label:"newTable" title:'New Table' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankTable')}} tag:'table'>>
<<newTiddler label:"newTabs" title:'New Tabs' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('BlankTabs')}} tag:'tab'>>
<<newTiddler label:"newTweak" title:'New Tweak' text:{{store.getTiddlerText('NewTweakTemplate')}} tag:'tweak'>>
----
&darr;+++[Create a tiddler like this:]
----
@@color(#C06):&nbsp;''Title:''@@<html><input type="text" size="40" value="" /></html>
@@color(#00f):''Body:''@@<html><textarea rows="10" cols="30"></textarea>  </html>
@@color(#0a0):''Tags:''@@<html><input type="text" size="40" value="systemConfig " /></html>
===

----
[[NationalGeographic|http://www.nationalgeographic.com/]]
[[eScienceNews(AI)|http://esciencenews.com/]]
[[Deep Space Internet|InterplanetaryInternet]]
[[Crypto-gram]]
<<popup [[TiddlySnips]] [[<<forEachTiddler where 'tiddler.tags.containsAny(["TiddlySnip"])'$))]]>>
[[Weather|WeatherSydney]]
<<tiddler DropDown>>
[[Other News Sites|NewsSites]]
[[ENN|http://www.enn.com/topics/top_stories]]
[[SBS News|http://www.sbs.com.au/]]
[[SMH BizTech|SMHBizTech]]
[[Natures Podcasts|http://www.nature.com/podcast/index.html]]
[[New Scientist|New Scientist News]]
[[ABC News|http://www.abc.net.au/news/default.htm]]
[[Aljazeera|http://english.aljazeera.net/HomePage]]
[[BBC News|http://news.bbc.co.uk/]]
[[BBC TV News|BBCTVNews]]
[[Deutsche Welle|http://www.dw-world.de/dw/0,1595,266,00.html]]
[[Guardian|http://www.guardian.co.uk/]]
[[SMH News|http://www.smh.com.au/]]
[[TimesSq.WebCam|TimesSquareTV]]
----
[[Star Dust|StarDust]]
[[Natters BBQ|BBQGroup1]]
----
:{{locLink{~~[[Detach this|News]]@@color(#C06): ''&raquo; &raquo;'' @@~~}}}
{{borderless{
|vertical-align:bottom;<<toolbar fullscreen>>|<<tiddler NavButtons>>|vertical-align:bottom;<<toggleSideBar>>|
<html><div align="center"><table bgcolor="#ffffff"><font size="-2" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" color="#ff0000">&nbsp; <A HREF="http://newscientist.com/" target="newsite" title="">New Scientist</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientisttech.com/" target="newsite" title="">Tech</A>|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientistspace.com/" target="newsite" title="">Space</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health" target="newsite" title="Australian Age">Health</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/fundamentals" target="newsite" title="">Fundamentals</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human" target="newsite">Being Human</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life" target="newsite">Life</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion" target="newsite">Opinion</A>&nbsp;|<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex" target="newsite">Sex</A>&nbsp;|&nbsp;<A HREF="http://www.newscientist.com/specials.ns" target="_blank">Specials</A></font></div></table></html>
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<div><img src="http://img149.imageshack.us/img149/322/169270mainwfpc20070213bxf1.jpg"><br><div align="left">Nova NGC 244<br> <br>
{{textleftpad7{
''The Colorful Demise of a ~Sun-Like Star''	02.13.07
A new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope shows the colorful "last hurrah" of a star like our sun. The picture was taken on Feb. 6, 2007, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, which was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
The star is ending its life by casting off its outer layers of gas, which formed a cocoon around the star's remaining core. Ultraviolet light from the dying star makes the material glow. The burned-out star, called a white dwarf, is the white dot in the center. Our sun will eventually burn out and shroud itself with stellar debris, but not for another 5 billion years.
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''Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora.''
(It is vain to do with more what can be done with less.)
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William of Ockham
(1285-1349)
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100 words to Impress an Examiner!

Here are 100 advanced English words which should you be able to use them in a sentence will impress even educated native speakers! Perfect if you want to impress the examiner in examinations like: IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CAE and CPE. If you are really serious about having an extensive and impressive vocabulary, try learning these and then try these advanced vocabulary tests.

Part ONE / [[PART TWO|OneHundredWords2]]

aberration

    (n.) something that differs from the norm (In 1974, Poland won the World Cup, but the success turned out to be an aberration, and Poland have not won a World Cup since). 

abhor

    (v.) to hate, detest (Because he always wound up getting hit in the head when he tried to play cricket, Marcin began to abhor the sport). 

acquiesce

    (v.) to agree without protesting (Though Mr. Pospieszny wanted to stay outside and work in his garage, when his wife told him that he had better come in to dinner, he acquiesced to her demands.) 

alacrity

    (n.) eagerness, speed (For some reason, Simon loved to help his girlfriend whenever he could, so when his girlfriend asked him to set the table he did so with alacrity.) 

amiable

    (adj.) friendly (An amiable fellow, Neil got along with just about everyone.) 

appease

    (v.) to calm, satisfy (When Jerry cries, his mother gives him chocolate to appease him.) 

arcane

    (adj.) obscure, secret, known only by a few (The professor is an expert in arcane Kashubian literature.) 

avarice

    (n.) excessive greed (The banker’s avarice led him to amass an enormous personal fortune.) 

brazen

    (adj.) excessively bold, brash, clear and obvious (Critics condemned the writer’s brazen attempt to plagiarise Frankow-Czerwonko’s work.) 

brusque

    (adj.) short, abrupt, dismissive (Simon’s brusque manner sometimes offends his colleagues.) 

cajole

    (v.) to urge, coax (Magda's friends cajoled her into drinking too much.) 

callous

    (adj.) harsh, cold, unfeeling (The murderer’s callous lack of remorse shocked the jury.) 

candor

    (n.) honesty, frankness (We were surprised by the candor of the politician’s speech because she is usually rather evasive.) 

chide

    (v.) to voice disapproval (Hania chided Gregory for his vulgar habits and sloppy appearance.) 

circumspect

    (adj.) cautious (Though I promised Marta’s father I would bring her home promptly by midnight, it would have been more circumspect not to have specified a time.) 

clandestine

    (adj.) secret (Announcing to her boyfriend that she was going to the library, Maria actually went to meet George for a clandestine liaison.) 

coerce

    (v.) to make somebody do something by force or threat (The court decided that David Beckham did not have to honor the contract because he had been coerced into signing it.) 

coherent

    (adj.) logically consistent, intelligible (William could not figure out what Harold had seen because he was too distraught to deliver a coherent statement.) 

complacency

    (n.) self-satisfied ignorance of danger (Simon tried to shock his friends out of their complacency by painting a frightening picture of what might happen to them.) 

confidant

    (n.) a person entrusted with secrets (Shortly after we met, he became my chief confidant.) 

connive

    (v.) to plot, scheme (She connived to get me to give up my plans to start up a new business.) 

cumulative

    (adj.) increasing, building upon itself (The cumulative effect of hours spent using the World English website was a vast improvement in his vocabulary and general level of English.) 

debase

    (v.) to lower the quality or esteem of something (The large raise that he gave himself debased his motives for running the charity.) 

decry

    (v.) to criticize openly (Andrzej Lepper, the leader of the Polish Self Defence party decried the appaling state of Polish roads.) 

deferential

    (adj.) showing respect for another’s authority (Donata is always excessively deferential to any kind of authority figure.) 

demure

    (adj.) quiet, modest, reserved (Though everyone else at the party was dancing and going crazy, she remained demure.) 

deride

    (v.) to laugh at mockingly, scorn (The native speaker often derided the other teacher’s accent.) 

despot

    (n.) one who has total power and rules brutally (The despot issued a death sentence for anyone who disobeyed his laws.) 

diligent

    (adj.) showing care in doing one’s work (The diligent researcher made sure to double check her measurements.) 

elated

    (adj.) overjoyed, thrilled (When he found out he had won the lottery, the postman was elated.) 

eloquent

    (adj.) expressive, articulate, moving (The best man gave such an eloquent speech that most guests were crying.) 

embezzle

    (v.) to steal money b